Page:A Dictionary of Music and Musicians vol 2.djvu/622

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610
ORIANA.
ORGANUM.

of Music were in a very unsatisfactory condition. He himself had a very decided preference for the Greek Scales; and even Guido d'Arezzo, who lived a century later, based his theory on the now utterly obsolete Pythagorean Section of the Canon, which divided the Perfect Fourth (Diatessaron) into two Greater Tones and a Limma, making no mention whatever of the more natural system of Ptolemy, which resolved it into a Greater Tone, a Lesser Tone, and a Diatonic Semitone. The result of this mistaken theory was, that every Major Third in the Natural Scale was tuned exactly a Comma too sharp, and every Minor Third a Comma too flat. Were this method of Intonation still practised, some of us might, perhaps, desire to hear as few Thirds as possible.

Neither S. Odo of Cluni, nor any other writer of the age immediately succeeding that of Hucbald, throws any light upon the subject sufficiently important to render it necessary that we should discuss it in detail; but Guido d'Arezzo's opinions are too interesting to be passed over in silence. He objects to the use of united Fourths, and Fifths, in an Organum of three parts, on account of its disaafreeable harshness.

{ \override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f \time 10/1 \clef bass { <c f c'>1 <d g d'> <e a e'>_( <d g d'>) <c f c'>_( <d g d'>) <e a e'> <d g d'> <c f c'> q \bar "||" } \addlyrics { Mi -- se -- re -- re me -- i De -- us. } }


In place of this he proposes to leave out the upper part, which in this example is nothing more than a reduplication of the Organum—the Canto fermo being assigned to the middle Voice, and to sing the two lower parts only: or, better still, to substitute an improved method, which, from the closeness of the parts to each other as they approach the conclusion of the Melody, he calls Occursus.

{ \override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f \time 15/1 \clef bass << \new Voice = "CF" { c1 f f d f c d d c d f e c e d \bar "||" } \new Voice { \shiftOn c1 \shiftOff c c c c \shiftOn c \shiftOff c a, \shiftOn c \shiftOff c c c \shiftOn c \shiftOff c \shiftOn d } \new Lyrics \lyricsto "CF" { Ve -- ni ad do -- cen -- dum _ non vi -- am _ pru -- den -- ti -- æ. } >> }


After the death of Guido the subject was treated, more or less fully, by Franco of Cologne, Walter Odington, Marchetto de Padova, Philippus de Vitriaco, Joannes de Muris, Prodoscimus de Beldomandis, and many other writers, each of whom contributed something towards the general stock of knowledge, and suggested some improvement upon the usual praxis: but the next critical stage was only reached when the Sixth became recognised as an Interval of greater practical importance than either the fourth or the Fifth. Joannes Tinctoris (1434–1520) saw this very clearly; and gives the following example of a Melody accompanied in Sixths and Octaves.

<< \new Staff { \override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f \time 11/1 \relative d' { d1 e f g a g f g s s_"etc." } }
\addlyrics { Lau -- da Si -- on Sal -- va -- to -- rem, }
\new Staff { \clef bass d1 g a g c' b a g s s } >>


But, before the death of Joannes Tinctoris, these successions of Sixths had already merged into the well-known Faux-bourdon, and Organum into Counterpoint; though the fact that Organizers still held their ground is sufficiently proved by the allusions made to them in the Minstrel-Laws of Eberhard von Minden, in 1404, and even in a document preserved at Toledo, of as late date as 1566, in which distinct mention is made of the 'musica quæ organica dicitur.'

For an account of the gradual process through which Organum, Diaphonia, and Discant successively passed before they became developed into pure Counterpoint, see Part-Writing. [See also Counterpoint.]

[ W. S. R. ]

ORGENYI, Aglaia, [App. p.736 "For name read Orgéni, Anna Maria Aglaia, and add that her real name is von Görgér St. Jörgen, and that she was born in 1841 at Rima-Szombath, Galicia"] a native of Vienna, and the daughter of an officer in the Austrian army, received instruction in singing from Mme. Viardot Garcia. Miss Orgényi made her first appearance on the stage Sept. 28, 1865, as Amina, at the Royal Opera House, Berlin, and was highly successful, both on account of her excellent singing and acting, and of the natural charm of her person and manner. She confirmed this success in the parts she next played, viz. Lucia, Agatha, Violetta, Rosina, Margaret, Martha, and Norma. She first appeared in England April 7, 1866, at the Royal Italian Opera, Covent Garden, as Violetta, and was very well received, subsequently playing Lucia and Marta. She also sang in concerts, and gained great praise for her singing of Agatha's scena from 'Der Freischütz' (of which a contemporary remarked, 'we have not heard anything better than the opening of the great scene … her measure and expression in delivery of the Largo bespoke a real [1]artist'); and also of Bach's now favourite air 'Mein gläubiges Herz,' to the cello obbligato of Piatti, of which the same writer remarks that 'the elegance and distinction of her manner and her real musical acquirements have secured her a [2]public.' In spite of the large measure of favour given her, she never played on the stage again in England, but in 1870 sang in concerts for a short period, being well received at the Philharmonic in the above scena of Weber, and that from Lucia. Miss Orgényi, after her first season in London (having refused as an Austrian to sing at that time in Berlin on account of the war of 66) went to Vienna in September of that year, and played there with success, and afterwards was heard in opera, festivals, and concerts, at Leipzig and other cities, chiefly at Dresden; also at Bremen, Stettin, Copenhagen, etc., returning to Berlin (concert, 71) and Vienna (72); also in Italian opera at Berlin (72), with Artot-Padilla and her husband, and at Florence. She has recently been appointed Grand-Ducal chamber singer at the court of Schwerin. [App. p.736 "She sang for a few nights at the Lyrique, Paris, in 1879, as Violetta. In 1881 she re-appeared in England, and sang with success at the Crystal Palace, Philharmonic, and other concerts. She is now a teacher of singing at the Dresden Conservatorium."]

[ A. C. ]

ORGUE EXPRESSIF. A French name for the reed organ or Harmonium.

[ A. J. H. ]

ORIANA, The Triumphs of. A collection of 25 madrigals in praise of Queen Elizabeth,

  1. Athenæum, May 19, 1866.
  2. Ibid, June 1, 1866.