122 REVUE ET GAZETTE MUSICALS.
of the various editors through whose hands it passed ; among those deserving special mention are Fetis, Edouard Monnais, and M. Charles Bannelier, who conducted it from 1872 with equal learning and taste. The indexes given with each volume are a great boon, and constitute one of its advantages over other French periodicals of the same kind.
The cessation of this excellent periodical is an event which all lovers and students of music will deeply regret. We trust that the hope of a pos Bible revival, held out by the publishers in their farewell address, may be speedily fulfilled. [G.C.]
KEYER, ERNEST, whose real name is Rey, was born at Marseilles, Dec. I, 1823. As a child he learned solfeggio at the free school of music founded by Barsotti (born in Florence 1786, died at Marseilles 1868), and became a good reader, though he did not carry his musical education far. At 1 6 he went to Algiers as a government official, but continued his pianoforte practice, and began to compose without having properly learned harmony and counterpoint. He was soon able to write romances which became popular, and composed a mass which was solemnly performed before the Duke and Duchess d'Aumale. Had he remained in Algiers he would probably never have been anything beyond a mere amateur, but the Revolution of 1848 depriving him of the support of the Governor-General, he returned to Paris, and placed himself in the hands of his aunt Mme. Louise Farrenc, who completed his musical education, and before long he found an opportunity of coming before the public. From his friend Theophile Gautier he procured the libretto of 'Le Selam,' an oriental 'Symphony' in 4 parts, on the model of David's ' Le De'sert.' It was produced with success April 5, 1850, and then Mdry furnished him with 'Maitre Wolfram,' a i -act opera, which was also successful, at the Theatre Lyrique, May 20, 1854. His next work was 'Sacountala' (July 20, 1858), one of the charming ballets of Th^ophile Gautier ; but his full strength was first put forth in La Statue/ a 3-act opera produced at the Theatre Lyrique, April n, 1 86 1, and containing music which is both melodious and full of colour. ' Erostrate ' (2 acts) was performed at Baden in 1862, and reproduced at the Acade'mie, Oct. 16, 1871, for two nights only. The revival of ' La Statue ' at the Opera in 1878 was also a failure, and M. Reyer may find it difficult to secure the per- formance of ' Sigurd/ of which the overture and some of the more important numbers have been heard. To complete the list of his compositions we may mention * Victoire,' a cantata (the Opera, June 27, 1859) ; a 'Recueil de 10 Melodies' for voice and PF.; songs for a single voice; and some pieces of sacred music.
Besides being reckoned among the most poetical of French musicians, M. Reyer is an accom- plished feuilletoniste. After writing successively for the 'Presse/the 'Revue de Paris,' and the ' Courrier de Paris,' he became musical critic to the 'Journal des D^bats' after the death of Berlioz. His articles are not only pleasant reading,
but evince both intellect and culture. He is librarian to the Ope'ra, and succeeded his first model, David, at the Institut in 1876. [G.C.] REYNOLDS, JOHN, gentleman of the Chapel Royal from 1765 to 1770, was composer of the pleasing anthem, ' My God, my God, look upon me,' printed in Page's Harmonia Sacra/ Hul- lah's Part Music, vol. ii. and elsewhere. Nothing more of his is known. [W.H.H.]
RHEINBERGER, JOSEPH, born March 17, 1859, at Vaduz, the capital of the principality of Liechtenstein. He was so precocious that he began to learn the pianoforte at the age of five; at seven years old he was organist at the church of his native place, where, as his legs were too short to reach down to the pedals, a second set of pedals was fixed above the ordinary ones ; and very shortly afterwards he composed a mass in three parts with organ accompaniment. His first teacher was Herr Pohly, who still resides and teaches in the Tyrol. At the age of twelve Rheinberger was sent to the Munich Conserva- torium, where he studied until he was nineteen, under Herzog, Leonhard, and J. J. Maier ; he was then appointed pianoforte teacher in the same institution, and, about the same time, became organist in the Hofkirche of St. Michael, and subsequently Director of the Munich Oratorien- verein. He is at present professor of counterpoint and of the higher school of organ-playing in the Royal School of Music, and conductor of the court band (not of the opera) at Munich. Up to the present time he has published 116 com- positions, among which are 2 symphonies, ' Wal- lenstein ' and ' Florentine sche Sinfonie '; 2 operas, 'Die sieben Raben' and ' Thiirmer's Tochter- lein ' ; incidental music to a drama of Calderon's, and to one of Raimond's ; several overtures, The Taming of the Shrew/ 'Demetrius/ etc. ; many pianoforte works ; a concerto for piano and orchestra ; much chamber music and church music (among the latter a Grand Requiem for those who fell in the war of 1870-71), a Stabat Mater and a Mass in 8 parts (dedicated to Pope Leo XIII.) ; 5 organ sonatas, and various works for chorus and for male voices. Many of his pupils have attained eminence in their profession. His Quartet in Eb (op. 38) for PF. and strings is a favourite work at the Monday Popular Concerts, and has been performed there almost annually since 1874. A Sonata for PF. and violin in the same key (op. 77) has also been played there. [J.A.F.M.]
RHEINGOLD, DAS. The Vorspiel, or Pre- lude, of the Tetralogie of Wagner's 'Niebelungen Ring' Rheingold, Walkiire, Siegfried, and Gotterdammerung. It was first performed at Munich, Sept. 22, 1869, under the baton of Herr Franz Wiillner. [G.J
RHINE FESTIVALS. See NIEDERRHEIN-
ISCHE MUSIKFESTE, Vol. ii. p. 455.
RHYTHM. This much-used and many- sided term may be defined as ' the systematic grouping of notes with regard to duration.' It is often inaccurately employed as a synonym for