Page:A Dictionary of Music and Musicians vol 3.djvu/251

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SCARLATTI.

Oratorios. Polorldl Maria ; 8a- 8, and 4 voices (TJotror. Amster- crifizio d'Abramo (Burney gives a dam), now in the 1 1 us t <,l!i-i timi; Cavatina therefrom, History, iv. Psalms-' Ave Regina,' and ' Lau- 121 ;: Martlrlo dl Bant* Teodosla date,' once lu Abbate Santlnl'g pus-

��SCARLATTI.

��239

��(I'aris, Bibliotheque Natlonale) ; Concezzioni della beaU Verglne ; Bposa del sagri cantlcl ; S;m Kl-

��lippo dl Nerl (Borne 171s gtne addolorata (Naples

��1722) ;

��Stabat Mater, a 4 (Rome 1723); ditto a 2 ; Passlo sec. Johaunem.

Church Music. Several Masses In the archives of the Beat Col-

��session ; and a Miserere, composed for the Pope's Choir In 16*0.

Secular Music. - Madrigals for various voices (Padre Martini gives one for 2 soprani and 2 con- trail! In his 'Ksemplare dl C'on- trapunto fugato ') ; Serenate a 4 'or the baptism of the Prince of Sicily (1723, Monte Casslno) ; Du-

��legio. Naples, Including one a 10 ette (14 Nos.). and Cantatas (8 volv) vocl, for 2 choirs, violin, and or- are In the Bibliotheque Nationale gan. Also Concert! Sacri. for 1. 2, Paris.

Scarlatti became in process of time teacher at three of the Naples Conservatories San Ono- frio, I Poveri, and Loreto. Among his numer- ous pupils were Logroscino, Hasse, Leo, Durante, Carapello, Greco, Gizzi, Abos, Feo, Porpora, Sarri, and Contumacci. 1 An idea of his skill in teaching may be gathered from a pamphlet, unfortunately circulated in MS. only, 'Discorso di musica sopra un caso parti- colare in arte del Sig. Cav. Alessandro Scarlatti, maestro della real capella di Napoli ' ( 1 7 1 7, 28 pp. folio with 17 of music), in which he gave judgment on a dispute referred to his arbitra- tion, between two Spanish musicians about a striking dissonance employed by one of them.

Maier published (Schlesinger, Berlin) a comic duet from 'Laodicea e Berenice,' and, besides those already given there are at Monte Cassino 'Serenata a 3, Venere, Adoni, Amore'; Sere- nata a 3, with instruments, for the opening of a theatre at Posilippo (1696); 'Genio di Parte- none ' (Matteo Sassoni) ; ' Gloria di Sebeto ' (Vittoria Bombare) ; ' Piacere di Mergellina ' (Domenico 1'Aquilano) ; ' Massimo Puppieno,' opera, 3 acts ; ' Scipione nelle Spagne,' i st act ; and 'Porsenna' 2nd act, recitatives by Antonio Lotti. ' 36 Ariettas for a single voice, with a Thorough Bass for the Harpsichord,' were pub- lished in London about 1 750.

Large portions of a mass by Scarlatti are given by Rochlitz in his 2nd vol. Another was printed entire by Proske (Ratisbon, 1841) ; a 'Laetatus' anl an ' Exultate' are given in Proske's 'Musica Divina'; and a ' Tu es Petrus' for 8 voices (characterised by Hauptmann as ' very grand, as if hewn in stone') in Commer's 'Musica Sacra,' iii. 96. His instrumental music remains almost entirely unpublished. A Fugue in F minor is given by Pauer in his 'Alte Klaviermusik.'

His portrait, after Solimena, may be found in the ' Biographia degli Uomini illustri del Regno di Napoli' (1810). [F.G.]

SCARLATTI, DOMENICO, or, according to 'Quadrio, GIEOLAMO, son of Alessandro, born apparently in Naples, 1683, first learned from his father, and later from Gasparini. He has been called a pupil of Bernardo Pasquini, but that seems most improbable, seeing that Pasquini was of the school of Palestrina, and wrote entirely in the contrapuntal style, whereas Domenico Scarlatti's chief interest is that he was the first composer who studied the peculiar cha-

Feils calls Leo a pupil of Pitoni, an error corrected by Florimo. storia . . . d'ogni poesia, vii. 249.

��racteristics of the free style of the harpsichord. His bold style was by no means appreciated in Italy, for Burney remarks ('State of Music in France and Italy ') that the harpsichord was so little played that it had not affected the organ, which was still played in the grand old tradi- tional style. The first work on which Domenico is known to have been engaged was that of re- modelling for Naples, in 1704, Polaroli's opera 'Irene' (Venice 1695). In 1710 he composed for the private theatre of Maria Casimira, Queen Dowager of Poland, a drainma pastorale 'Sylvia' (libretto in the Paris Bibliotheque Nationale), which was followed by 'Orlando' (1711), ' Fatide in Sciro' (1712), 'Ifigenia in Aulide' and 'in Tauride' (1713), 'Amor d'un ombra,' and 'Narciso' (1714), and 'Am- leto* (1715, Teatro Capranico), interesting as the first musical setting of that subject. In 1708 he was in Venice with Handel, then on his way from Florence, which he left in January, to Rome, where he arrived in March, his 'Agrip- pina' being performed 27 times in Venice. Domenico seems to have accompanied him to Rome, for Cardinal Ottoboni held a kind of competition between the two, at which the victory was undecided on the harpsichord, but when it came to the organ, Scarlatti was the first to acknowledge his rival's superiority, declaring that he had no idea such playing as Handel's existed. The two became fast friends from that day, they remained together till Handel left Italy, and met again in London in 1720. Even in extreme old age Handel spoke with pleasure of D. Scarlatti, and Mainwaring ('Memoirs,' 61) relates that when Scarlatti was in Spain, if his own playing was admired, he would turn the conversation on Handel's, crossing himself at the same time as a sign of his extreme reverence. In January 1715 he succeeded Baj as maestro di capella of St. Peter's in Rome, where he com- posed Masses, Salve Reginas, etc. In 1719 he went to London, where his 'Narciso' was per- formed (May 30, 1720), and in 1721 to Lisbon, where he became a court favourite. The long- ing for home and kindred however drove him back to Naples, where Hasse heard him play the harpsichord in 1725. In 1729 he was invited to the Spanish court, and appointed music-master to the Princess of the Asturias, whom he had formerly taught in Lisbon. Ac- cording to the 'Gazetta musicale' of Naples (Sept. 15, 1838) he returned to Naples in 1754, and died there in 1757. Being an inveterate gambler he left his family in great destitution, but Farinelli came to their assistance. (Sacchi'a 'Vita di Don Carlo Broschi.')

As we have said, Scarlatti was in some sense the founder of modern execution, and his in- fluence may be traced in Mendelssohn, Liszt, and many other masters of the modern school. He made great use of the crossing of the hands, and produced entirely new effects by this means. His pieces, unlike the suites of Handel and his predecessors, were all short. Santini possessed 349 of them. Of these Scarlatti himself only

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