Page:A Dictionary of Music and Musicians vol 3.djvu/469

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SEE, THE CONQUERING HERO.

'Judas Maccabeus' was produced April I, 1747, and repeated April i, 1747, 'with additions.' One of the additions was ' See, the conquering hero,' doubtless on account of the great success which had greeted it in ' Joshua ' three weeks before. The air has been often treated as a theme for variations, and Reinecke has recently com- bined it with the chorale 'Nun danket alle Gott,' in his overture 'Friedensfreier' (1872) at the conclusion of the Peace between Germany and France. [G.]

SEGNO, i.e. the sign $. [See DAL SEGNO.]

SEGUE, 'follows' as Segue V aria, ' the aria follows'; a direction frequently found at the end of recitatives. It is thus equivalent to the more modern word attacca. It is also found occasion- ally at the foot of a page where a space is left after one movement in order that the next may begin at the top, to avoid turning over in the middle. It then indicates that no stop is to be made between the two movements. [J.A.F.M.]

SEGUIDILLA (sometimes written SIGUI- DILLA), a popular national dance of Spain. The origin of both name and dance are uncertain; it existed in La Mancha in the time of Cervantes (see Don Quixote, Part II, chap. 38), but there is no evidence to show whether it is indigenous, or introduced into Spain by the Moors. It is however certain that from La Mancha it spread all over Spain, and it is still danced in both town and country. Seguidillas are divided into three kinds Seguidillas Manchegas, the original form of the dance, in which it assumes a gay and lively character ; Seguidillas Boleras, 1 more measured and stately ; and Seguidillas Gitanas, danced very slowly and sentimentally. To these some writers add a fourth kind, the Seguidillas Taleadas, said to be a combination of the original Seguidilla with the Cachucha. The music is written in 3-4 or 3-8 time, usually in a minor key, and is performed on the guitar with occa- sionally a flute, violin, or Castanet accompani- ment. The coplas, or words sung by the musicians, are written in couplets of four short lines followed by an estrevillo or refrain of three lines, but some coplas want this latter feature. Both music and words often partake of the character of an im- provisation, the former remarkable for strange and sudden modulations, and the latter treating of both serious and comic subjects. A collection of coplas was published at the end of the last century by N. Zamacola, writing under the pseudonym of Don Preciso. From the intro- duction to this book, the following quaint description of the Seguidilla is translated : ' So soon as two young people of the opposite sexes present themselves standing face to face at a distance of about two varas 2 in the middle of the room, the ' ritornelo' or prelude of the music begins ; then the seguidilla is insinuated by the voice if it be a manchega, by singing the first line of the copla, if it be a bolera, by singing

1 Not to be confounded with the Bolero, said to have been Invented In 17)-0 by Don Sebastian Zerezo.

2 1 vara 34 inches.

��SEGUIN.

��457

��two lines, which must only take up four bars. The guitar follows, playing a pasacalle ; 3 and at the fourth bar the seguidilla begins to be sung. Then the dance breaks out with castanets or crotolas, 4 running on for a space of nine bars, with which the first part concludes. The guitar continues playing the pasacalle, during which the dancers change to opposite positions by means of a very deliberate and simple pro- menade (' paseo'). While singing again, at the beginning of the fourth bar, each goes on for nine bars more, making the variations and differ- ences of their respective schools, which forms the second part. Again they change places, and upon each dancer returning to the spot where they began to dance, the third part goes on in the same way as the second, and on arriving at the ninth bar, the voice, the instrument, and the castanets cease all at once, and as if impromptu, the room remaining in silence, and the dancers standing immovable in various beautiful attitudes, which is what we call "well stopped" (Bien parado).' Space will not allow us to give an example of the music which accompanies this beautiful dance. In Book IV. of Luigi Borghi's

  • Opera Dances' (London, 1783) is a seguidilla

modified for theatrical representation, and in the First Act of 'Carmen' there is a Spanish air which Bizet has entitled ' Seguidille.' Better examples than these will be found in Mendel's Lexicon (sub voce Seguidilla), and in the Ap- pendix to Part I. of Mariano Soriano Fuertes's 4 Historia de la Musica Espaftola ' (Madrid, 1 855- 1859), in which specimens are given of the varieties of the dance. With regard to the words, the following copla (from Don Preciso's 'Colleccion de Coplas,' Madrid, 1799) may serve as an example :

El Lunes me enamoro, Mrtes lo digo. Mtercoles me declare, Jiieves consigo:

Vigrnes doy zelos Y Sabado y Domingo BUBCO Amor nuevo. 5 fW.B.S.")

SEGUIN, ARTHUR EDWARD SHELDEN, com- monly known as EDWARD, was born in London, April 7, 1 809. He received his musical education at the Royal Academy of Music, and first ap- peared in public in 1828 at concerts and perform- ances of Italian operas given by its pupils. His voice was a deep bass, of very extensive compass, and he met with a very favourable re- ception. In 1829 he sang at Exeter Festival. In 1831 he appeared at the theatre in Tottenham Street as Polyphemus in Handel's 'Acis and Galatea.' In 1832 he sang at the Concert of Ancient Music. In 1833 and 1834 he was en- gaged at Covent Garden, and in the latter year appeared at the King's Theatre as II Conte Robinson in Cimarosa's 'Matrimonio Segreto,' and also sang at the Festival in Westminster

Literally 'street-pass'; any popular street-song. See PASSA-

CAOLIO.VOl.il. p. 6610.

< A kind of Castanet.

5 Translation : ' On Monday I fall In love, on Tuesday I say so, Wednesday I declare myself, Thursday I succeed : Friday I causa jealousy, and Saturday and Sunday I seek a fresh love."

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