with at Weimar in T 804, and praised to Goethe ; and to another spoken of by Mooser in 1857 as having been up to a then recent date used at the meetings of the Freemason's Lodge at Freiberg. Gottfried Silbermann invented the CEMBAL D' AMOUR, a kind of double clavichord. [A. J.H.]
SILCHER, FRIEDRICH, well-known composer of Lieder, born June 27, 1789, at Schnaith, near Schorndorf in Wiirtemburg, was taught music by his father, and by Auberlen, organist at Fellbach near Stuttgart. He was educated for a schoolmaster, and his first post was at Ludwigsburg, where he began to compose. In 1815 he took a conductorship at Stuttgart, and composed a cantata, which procured him, in 1817, the post of conductor to the University of Tubingen. This he held till 1860, when he retired, and died shortly after (Aug. 26) at Tubingen. The honorary degree of Doctor had been conferred upon him by the University in 1852. His most important publications are 'Sechs vierstimmige Hymnen' (Laupp), 'Drei- stimmiges wiirtemb. Choralbuch' (ibid.), and ' Swabian, Thuringian, and Franconian Volks- lieder' (12 parts), many of which are his own compositions. Several of Silcher's melodies have become true songs of the people, such as ' Aeun- chen von Tharau,' ' Morgen muss ich weit von liier,' 'Ich weiss nicht was soil es bedeuten,' ' Zu Strassburg ent der Schanz,' etc. The Lieder were published simultaneously for i and 2 voices, with PF, and for 4 men's voices. He edited a method for harmony and composition in 1851. A biographical sketch of Silcher by Kostlin appeared in 1877. C F -G']
SIMAO. [See PORTOGALLO.]
SIMILI, 'like '; a word commonly used in a series of passages or figures of similar form, to be performed in exactly the same way. After the first few bars of such passages or figures the word simili is used to save trouble of copying the marks of expression and force at every recurrence of the figure. ' Simili marks '
�� ��occur generally in MS. or old printed music, and signify that the contents of the previous bar are to be repeated in every consecutive succeeding bar in which the marks occur. [J.A.F.M.]
SIMPSON, CHRISTOPHER. [See SYMPSON.] SIMPSON, THOMAS, an English musician, who settled in Germany, and about 1615 was a violist in the band of the Prince of Holstein Schaumburg. He published the following works: 'Opusculum neuer Pavanen, Galliarden, Cour- anten und Volten,' Frankfort, 1610 ; 'Pavanen, Volten und Galliarden,' Frankfort, 1611 ; and ' Tafel Consort allerhand lustige Lieder von 4 Instrumenten und General-bass/Hamburgh, 1621, containing, besides pieces by Simpson himself, some by Peter Phillips, John Dowland, Robert and Edward Johnson, and others. [W.H.H.] SIMROCK. A very famous German music- publishing house, founded in 1790 at Bonn by
��Nikolaus Simrock, second waldhorn player in the Elector's band, to which Beethoven and his father belonged. The first of Beethoven's works on which Simrock's name appears as original pub- lisher is the Kreutzer Sonata, op. 47, issued in 1 805. But he published for Beethoven an Edi- tion tres Correcte ' of the two Sonatas in G arid D minor (op. 31, nos. i and 2), which Nageli had printed so shamefully ; and there is evidence in the letters that Simrock was concerned in others of Beethoven's early works. The next was the Sextet for strings and 2 horns, op. 81 b (1810) ; then the two Sonatas for PF. and cello, op. 102 (1817) ; the ten themes with variations for PF. and violin or flute, op. 107 (1820). In 1870 a branch was founded in Berlin by PETER JOSEPH SIMROCK, who has published the principal works of Brahms since that date. [G.]
SINA, Louis, born in 1778, played 2nd violin to Schuppanzigh in Prince Lichnowsky's youth- ful quartet [see vol. i. p. 132] and later in the Rasoumowsky quartet, when the Count himself did not play.
Notwithstanding the high esteem in which he was held as a player, very few details of his life are given. He was a pupil of E. A. Forster, the same whom Beethoven called his ' old master.' In 1819 he was in Breslau with Lincke, and is noticed in an account of the musical season in that city, in the A. M. Zeitung, for Nov. I7th of that year. Sina afterwards emigrated to Paris, where he was known as an odd old bachelor, whose unfailing humour made him a welcome guest among the artists and amateurs in the Paris salons. He died, quite suddenly, at Bou- logne, Oct. 2, 1857, and was so little known there that his body would probably have remained un- buried but for the offer of a Protestant clergy- man, by whom he was interred in the graveyard on the S. Omer road. [A.W.T.]
SINCLAIR, JOHN, bora near Edinburgh in 1790 was instructed in music from childhood, and while still young joined the band of a Scotch regiment as a clarinet plaj^er. He also taught singing in Aberdeen, and acquired sufficient means to purchase his discharge from the regi- ment. Possessed of a fine tenor voice, he was desirous of trying his fortune upon the stage, came to London and appeared anonymously as Capt. Cheerly in Shield's 'Lock and Key' at the Haymarket, Sept. 7, 1810. His success led to his becoming a pupil of Thomas Welsh. He was engaged at Covent Garden, where he appeared Sept. 30, 1811, as Don Carlos in Sheridan and Linley's ' Duenna.' He remained there for seven seasons, during which he had many original parts. He was the first singer of the stUl popular reci- tative and air ' Orynthia,' and 'The Pilgrim of Love ' in Bishop's ' Noble Outlaw,' produced April 7, 1815. He also sang originally in Bishop's Guy Mannering' and 'The Slave,' and Davy's ' Rob Roy,' and acquired great popularity by his performance of Apollo in ' Midas.' In April 1 8 1 9 he visited Paris and studied under Pellegrini, and thence proceeded to Milan and placed him-