�� ��ut the reader is strongly advised to refer to this remarkable work for himself.
A later and very complete collection of exer- cises and studies is that published in Paris by Heugel under the title of 'Solfeges du Conservatoire, par 2 Cherubini, Catel, Me'hul, Gossec, et Langle"/ edited by Edouard Batiste, Professeur de Solfe'ge,' etc. It is in eight volumes Svo., including a hundred preparatory exercises by Batiste himself. The first exercise in the main collection is a short theme with 57 variations. The studies increase in diffi- culty, and the later ones require great powers of vocalisation. Those by Gossec abound in re- iterated notes and in passages of extended com- pass. There are duets and trios, some of which are very elaborate. A curious one by Cherubini is in free fugal imitation, with the respective entries of the second and third voices taking place at an interval of 24 bars. Canons and fugues are in abundance, amongst them a fugue in 5-4 by Catel. One exercise by Cherubini is without bars, and another by the same composer is headed ' Contrepoint rigoureux a cinq voix sur le Plaint Chant.' If these two collections of vocalizzi are studied and conquered, an amount of theoretical and practical knowledge, as well as control over the voice, will have been gained that will fulfil every possible requirement pre- paratory to acquaintance with the great operatic and oratorical works. Mention must not be omitted of Concone's useful Exercises, of more modest calibre, which have gained a large popu- larity throughout musical Europe ; nor of those of Madame Marchesi-Graumann, which give a great deal of excellent work, and were highly approved by Rossini. [H.C.D.]
SOLIE, JEAN PIERRE (real name SOULIER), bora at Nimes, 1755, died in Paris Aug. 6, 1812, was one of the good singers and composers at the Opera Comique in its early days. The son of a cello-player he learnt that instrument, and had a good musical education at the Nimes mail rise, after which he played in the orchestra and taught singing till his debut as a tenor in 1778. His success in the provinces tempted him to go to r*aris, but he failed at first, in 1782, and remained away till after three years success in the largest theatre of Lyons. He was
��1 The abbreviation 'Alia V SS" can hardly mean other than alia Vergine Santisslma.' The a must be a mistake of the French printer. These abbreviations are alternated through the exercise with, farther on, 'Satila al celo,' 'Alia SS Trinlta,' and last of all 4 co moti gloria Eterna. 1 The word ' Satila ' must also be a mistake. A later edition has this phrase, 'Satila al colo,' and the other 'co naoli gloria eterna.' This does not help to clear up the matter.
2 Cherubini's Autograph Catalogue [see vol. 1. p. 343 a] contains an immense number of Solfeggi written between the years 1822 and 1S42, in his capacity of Director of the Conservatoire, for the Examinations of the Pupils of that Institution.
��engaged in 1787 for the Opera Comique, where he remained, gradually making his way up- wards to the first place in the company, espe- cially after relinquishing the part of tenor de f/out for that of baritone. The baritone was then a novelty, and Me'hul wrote for Solie" several parts which have since become identified with his name. He next tried his hand at composition, and with equal success, for his operas comiques number 33 in all, 'Jean et Genevieve' (1792) being the first, and 'Les Mdnestrels' 3 acts (1811) the last. ' Le Jockey' (Jan. 6), 'Le Secret' (April 20, 1796), ' Le Chapitre Second' (June 17, 1799) in one act; and ' Le Diable a quatre' (Nov. 30, 1809), and 'Mademoiselle de Guise' in 3 (March 17, 1808), were published. Though this music is now entirely out of date, many of its pretty airs became favourites with the vaudeville writers, and were set to a variety of words. Several may be found in the ' Clef du Caveau.'
Solid had several sons ; the eldest drowned himself in 1802 ; but Emile (born in Paris, 1 80 1) published in 1847 two pamphlets on the Ope'ra Comique and Ope'ra, also some short biographies of French musicians. He left a son, Charles, who is a conductor, and produced at Nice in 1879 an opdra-comique, 'Scheinn Baba, ou 1'intrigue du Harem,' 3 acts, the subject of which seems to have been borrowed from the Intrigue au Se"rail.' [G.C.]
SOLITAIRE, LE. Carafa's most popular opera comique ; in 3 acts, words by Planard. Pro- duced at the Feydeau, Aug. 17, 1822. Its most favourite number, though not its best, is a ron- deau
C'est le solitaire,
Qui voit tout,
Qui salt tout,
Eat partout. [G.]
SOLMISATION (Lat. Solmisatio). The art of illustrating the construction of the Musical Scale by means of certain syllables, so associated with the sounds of which it is composed as to exemplify both their relative proportions, and the functions they discharge as individual members of a system based upon fixed mathematical prin- ciples.
The laws of Solmisation are of scarcely less venerable antiquity than those which govern the accepted proportions of the Scale itself. They first appear among the Greeks, and doubtless proved as useful to the Fathers of the Lyric Drama, and the Singers who took part in its gorgeous representations in the great Theatre at Athens, as they have since done to Vocalists of all ages. Making the necessary allowance for differences of Tonality, the guiding principle in those earlier times was precisely the principle by which we are guided now. Its essence con- sisted in the adaptation to the Tetrachord of such syllables as should ensure the recognition of the Hemitone, wherever it occurred. Now, the Hemi- tone of the Greeks, though not absolutely identical with our Diatonic Semitone, was its undoubted