��meant a uniform rate of slower time, so that the whole passage marked ritcnuto would be taken at the same time, while each bar and each phrase in a passage marked rallentando would be a little slower than the one before it. That there exists a difference in their uses is conclusively proved by a passage in the Quartet op. 131 of Beethoven, where in the 7th movement (allegro) a phrase of three recurring minims, which is repeated in all five times, has the direction ' Espressivo, poco ri- tenuto' for its first three appearances, which are separated by two bars a tempo, and for the last two times has ritardando, which at length leads into the real a tempo, of which the former separ- ating fragments were but a presage. This is one of the very rare instances of the use of the word ritenuto by Beethoven. The conclusion from it is confirmed by a passage in Chopin's Rondo, op. 1 6, consisting of the four bars which im- mediately precede the entry of the second subject. Here the first two bars consist of a fragment of a preceding figure which is repeated, so that both these bars are exactly the same ; the last two bars however have a little chromatic cadence leading into the second subject. The direction over the first two bars is 'poco ritenuto' and over the last two ' rallentando,' by which we may be quite sure that the composer intended the repeated fragment to be played at the same speed in each bar, and the chromatic cadence to be slackened gradually.
Ritenente is used by Beethoven in the PF. Sonata, op. no, about the middle of the first movement, and again in the Sonata, op. in, in the first movement, in the seventh and fif- teenth bars from the beginning of the Allegro con brio. It would seem that the same effect is intended as if ' ritenuto ' were employed ; in each case, the words ' meno mosso ' might have been used. Beethoven prefers Ritardando to Rallentando, which latter is common only in his earlier works. [J.A.F.M.]
RAMANN, LINA, musical litterateur and educationist, was born at Mainstockheim, near Kitzingen, in Bavaria, June 24, 1833. Her turn for music and her determination to succeed were evident from a very early age. It was not, how- ever, till her seventeenth year that she had any instruction in music. At that time her parents removed to Leipzig, and from 1850 to 1853 she there enjoyed the advantage of pianoforte lessons from the wife of Dr. F. Brendel, herself formerly a scholar of Field's. From this period she adopted the career of a teacher of music, and studied assiduously, though without help, for that end.
In 1858 she opened an institute in Gliickstadt (Holstein) for the special training of music- mistresses, and maintained it till 1865, in which year she founded a more important establish- ment, the Music School at Niirnberg, in con- junction with Frau Ida Volkmann of Tilsit, and assisted by a staff of superior teachers, under MissRamann's own superintendence. With a view to the special object of her life she has published two works ' Die Musik als Gegenstand der Erziehung' (Leipzig, Merseburger, 1868), and
'Allgemeine Erzieh- und Unterrichts-lehre der Jtigend' (Leipzig, H. Schmidt, 1869 ; 2nd ed. 1873), which were both received with favour by the German Press. Since 1860 Miss Ramann has been musical correspondent of the Hamburg ' Jahreszeiten.' A volume of her essays con- tributed to that paper has been collected and published, under the title of ' Aus der Gegenwart' (Nurnberg, Schmid, 1868). In the early part of 1880 she published a study of Liszt's 'Christus' (Leipzig, Kahnt), and later in the year the first volume of a Life of Liszt (1811-1840; Leipzig, Breitkopf & Hartel). This is an important work. It suffers somewhat from over- enthusiasm, but it is done with great care, minuteness, and intelli- gence, and has obviously profited largely by direct information from Liszt himself. Her cousin,
BRUNO RAMANN, was born about 1830 at Er- furt, and was brought up to commerce, but his desire and talent for music were so strong, that in 1857 or 58 he succeeded in getting rid of his business and put himself under Dr. F. Brendel and Riedel, for regular instruction. He then for five years studied under Hauptmann at Leipzig, and is now a resident teacher and composer at Dresden. His works have reached beyond op. 50, but they consist almost entirely of songs for one or more voices, and of small and apparently senti- mental pieces for the pianoforte. He does not appear yet to have attempted any large composition. [G.]
RAMEAU, JEAN PHILIPPE, eminent composer, and writer on the theory of music, born at Dijon, Sept. 25, 1683, in the house now No. 5 Rue St. Michel. His father, 1 Jean, was a musician, and organist of Dijon cathedral, in easy circum- stances. He intended Jean Philippe, the eldest of his three sons, to be a magistrate, but his strong vocation for music and obstinacy of character frustrated these views. According to his biographers he played the clavecin at seven, and read at sight any piece of music put before him: music indeed absorbed him to such an extent when at the Jesuit College that he neg- lected his classical studies, and was altogether so refractory that his parents were requested to remove him. Henceforth he never opened a book, unless it were a musical treatise. He quickly mastered the clavecin, and studied the organ and violin with success, but there was no master in Dijon capable of teaching him to write music, and he was left to discover for himself the laws of harmony and composition.
At the age of 1 7 he fell in love with a young widow in the neighbourhood, who indirectly did him good service, since the shame which he felt at the bad spelling of his letters drove him to write correctly. To break off this acquaintance his father sent him, in 1701, to Italy, where how- ever he did not remain long, a mistake which, in after life, he regretted. He liked Milan, and indeed the attractions of so great a centre of music must have been great ; but for some un- known reason he soon left with a theatrical manager whom he accompanied ns first violin to Marseilles, Lyons, Nimes, Montpellier, and
i His mother's name was Claudine DemartinScourt.