��in the year 1434 or 1435.* The peculiar form of his name has led to the supposition that he was the son of a dyer ; but the custom of using the genitive case, when translating proper names into Latin, was so common in Flanders during the Middle Ages, that it cannot, in this instance, be accepted as a proof of the fact. All we really know of his social status is, that his profound learning and varied attainments were rewarded with honourable appointments, both in his own country and in Italy. In early youth he studied the Law; took the Degree of Doctor, first in Jurisprudence, and afterwards in Theology ; was admitted to the Priesthood, and eventually ob- tained a Canon ry in his native town. He after- wards entered the service of Ferdinand of Arragon, King of Naples, who appointed him his Chaplain and Cantor, and treated him with marked consideration and respect. At Naples he founded a public Music-School, com- posed much Music, and wrote the greater number of his theoretical works. He returned to Nivelle in 1490, and died there, as nearly as can be ascertained, in 1520. Franchinus Gafurius makes honourable mention of him in several places. None of his Compositions have been printed, but several exist in MS. among the Archives of the Pontifical Chapel. One of these, a ' Missa 1'homme arme*,' a 5, is remarkable for the number of extraneous sentences interpolated into the text. In the 'Sanctus' the Tenor is made to sing ' Cherubim ac Sera- phim, cseterique spiritus angelici Deo in altissi- mis incessabili voce proclamant ' ; in the first 'Osanna,' the Altus sings 'Pueri Hebrseorum sternentes vestimenta ramos palmarum lesu filio David, clamabant ' ; and in the ' Benedictus,' the Tenor interpolates ' Benedictus semper sit filius Altissimi, qui de ccelis hue venit '; while, in each case, the other Voices sing the usual words of the Mass. 8 This senseless corruption of the authorised text, it will be remembered, was one of the abuses which induced the Council of Trent to issue the decree which resulted in the composition of the 'Missa Papze Marcelli.' 3
The theoretical works of J. de Tinctoris are more numerous and important, by far, than his Compositions. Their titles are Expositio manus, ' 'Liber de natura et proprietate tenorum,' 'De notis ac pausis,' 'De regular! valore notarum,' 'Liber imperfectionum notarum,' 'Tractatus alterationum,' 'Super punctis musicalibus,' * Liber de arte contrapuncti,' ' Proportionate musices,' ' Complexus effectuum musices,' and ' Termino- rum musicae diffinitorium.*
This last-named work will, we imagine, be invested with special interest for our readers, since it is undoubtedly the first Musical Diction- ary that ever was printed. It is of such extreme rarity, that, until Forkel discovered a copy in the Library of the Duke of Gotha, in the latter half of the last century, it was altogether unknown. About the same time, Dr. Burney discovered an-
i Not, as some historians have supposed, in 1450. > Bee rol. H. pp. 2286, 229 a. Boo rol. ill. p. 263.
other copy, in the Library of King George III, now in the British Museum. 4 The work is un- dated, and the place of publication is not men- tioned ; but there is reason for believing that it was printed at Naples about the year 1474. It contains 291 definitions of musical terms, arranged in alphabetical order, exactly in the form of an ordinary Dictionary. The language is terse and vigorous, and, in most cases, very much to the purpose. Indeed it would be dimcult to over- estimate the value of the light thrown, by some of the definitions, upon the Musical Terminology of the Middle Ages. Some of the explanations, however, involve rather curious anomalies, as for instance, ' MELODIA idem est quod armonia.'
Forkel reprinted the entire work in his 'Liter- atur der Musik,' p. 204 etc.; and his reprint has been republished, in the original Latin, under the editorship of Mr. John Bishop, of Chelten- ham, by Messrs. Cocks & Co. 5
No other work by J. de Tinctoris has ever been printed ; though both Fe*tis and Choron are said to have once contemplated the publication of the entire series. [W. S. R.]
TIRABOSCHI, GIROLAMO, a well-known writer on Italian literature, born at Bergamo, Dec. 28, 1731, and educated by the Jesuits, to which order he at one time belonged. He was librarian of the Brera in Milan for some years, and in 1 770 removed to a similar post at Modena. His 'Storia della Letteratura Italiana' (13 vols. quarto, 1772 to 1782) includes the history of Italian music. He published besides 'Biblioteca Modenese ' (6 vols. 1 781 to 86) the last volume of which, ' Notizie de' pittori, scultori, incisori, ed architetti, nati degli Stati del Sig. Duca di Modena,' has an appendix of musicians. Tira- boschi died June 3, 1797, at Modena. [F.G.]
TIRANA. An Andalusian dance of a very graceful description, danced to an extremely rhythmical air in 6-8 time. The words which accompany the music are written in ' coplas ' or stanzas of four lines, without any ' estrevillo.' [See SEQUIDILLA, vol. iii. p. 457a.] There are several of them in Preciso's 'Colleccion de Coplas,' etc. (Madrid, 1 799), whence the following example is derived:
TCi eres mi primer amor, Tu me ensefiaste a querer No me ensefies d olvidar, Que no lo quiero aprender. 6
Tiranas are generally danced and sung to a guitar accompaniment. The music of one (' Si la mar fuera de tinta') will be found in 'Arias y Canciones Nacionales Espaiioles' (London, Lonsdale, 1871). [W.B.S.]
TIRARSI, DA, 'to draw out.* Trombe, or Corni, da tirarsi, i.e. Trumpets or Horns with slides, are found mentioned in the scores of Bach's Kirchencantatas, usually for strengthen- ing the voices. See the Bachgesellschaft volumes, ii. pp. 293, 317, 327 ; x. 189, etc. etc. [G.]
- King's Lib. 66. e. 121.
e At the end of ' Hamilton's Dictionary of 2000 Musical Terms.' Translation : Thou art my first love. Thou taughtest me to love, Teach me not to forget, For I do not wish to learn it.