allow him to appear upon the stage. His en- forced retirement lasted until the end of 1756, when he was permitted to return, and became an established favourite. He had an indifferent voice, but sang with such excellent taste and judgment as to render his organic defect almost imperceptible. He was moreover an admirable actor, and was constantly allotted parts in which no singing was required. This rare union of the qualities of singer and actor peculiarly fitted him for such parts as the Clown in 'Twelfth Night/ and Autolycus in 'The Winter's Tale/ in both of which he excelled. He was the original Cymon in Michael Arne's opera of that name. Lin ley composed for him the well-known song in ' The School for Scandal.' He was for many years a favourite singer at Vauxhall. He com- posed, and about 1762 published in a volume, 'The New Songs in the Pantomime of The Witches ; the celebrated Epilogue in the Comedy of Twelfth Night ; a Song in The Two Gentle- men of Verona ; and two favourite Ballads sung by Mr. Vernon at Vauxhall.' He died at South Lambeth, March 19, 1782. [W.H.H.]
VERON, Louis DJSSIR, born in Paris, April 5, 1798, died there Sept. 27, 1867; the son of a stationer, studied medicine on leaving school, and took his doctor's degree in 1 8 2 3 . He had been intimate with the chemist Regnauld, and on his death bought the patent of his 'Pate Regnauld/ and made a fortune. In 1828 he gave up doctor- ing, and took to writing for the press. In 1829 he founded the 'Revue de Paris,' and became a personage of importance. In spite of this, how- ever, he gave up journalism, and became (March 2, 1831) director of the Opera for five years, with a subsidy of 810,000 francs for the first year, 760,000 francs for the second, and 710,000 francs (respectively 32,500, 30,500, and 28,500) for the last three. Thus at his ease in money matters, with an excellent body of artists, and an able coadjutor in Edmond Duponchel (born 1795, died 1868), who looked after the mise-en-scene, his usual luck did not fail him, for the first work he produced was 'Robert le Diable' (Nov. 21, 1831). The success of Meyerbeer's first masterpiece is well known, but it is not so well-known that the manager of the Opera exacted from the composer a large sum in con- sideration of the expenses of mounting the opera. With much energy and tact, Veron at once set to work to vary and renew the repertoire, as the following list of the works produced for the first time under his administration will show : In 1832 ' La Sylphide/ with Taglioni ; the ope*ra- ballet 'La Tentation/ with a very original march-past of demons ; Auber's opera ' Le Ser- ment/ of which all that remains is the lively overture, and a coquettish air sung to perfec- tion by Mme. Damoreau ; and ' Nathalie/ a ballet for Taglioni. In 1833 ' Gustave III/ with its masked ball ; Cherubini's last opera ' Ali Baba ' ; and ' La ReVolte au Serail/ a smart and witty ballet. In 1 834 ' Don Juan' ; and La Tern- pete/ in which Fanny Elssler made her de*but. .And finally, Feb. 23, 1835, 'La Juive,' with
Falcon, Nourrit and Levasseur Iris greatest success after ' Robert/ and a greater aid to his reputation than any other work. Content with his enormous gains, and unwilling to risk losing them, Dr. VeVon relinquished his licence to Duponchel, and took to politics. Failing to secure his election as a Deputy in 1838 he returned to journalism, and became in turn manager, editor, and sole proprietor (1844) of the ' Constitutional.' This is not the place in which to dilate on the important part played by this paper till Dr. Ve*ron gave it up in 1862, but it admirably served the interests of its pro- prietor, who was twice elected a member of the Corps Legislatif. While attending the Chamber he found time to write his own life under the title of 'Me"moires d'un Bourgeois de Paris' (Paris 1854, 6 vols. 8vo.), which obtained a succes de curiosite, and encouraged its author to further works, 'Cinq cent mille francs de rente ' (1855, 2 v l s - 8vo.) a novel of manners; a sequel to the 'Me'moires* (1856); a political treatise, ' Quatre ans de regne. Ou allons-nous 1* (1857) ; and, finally, one coming more within the scope of this Dictionary, 'Les Theatres de Paris, from 1806 to 1860' (1860, 8vo.). These books are all forgotten, but 4 Mimi Vdron ' (his nickname at the Op^ra balls), the man of business and purveyor of pleasures under Louis Philippe, was a characteristic personage in his day, and a typical ' Bourgeois de Paris/ both in his industry and his vanity.
��VERSCHIEBUNG (Ger. literally shoving aside). The mechanism acted upon by the left pedal of the pianoforte, by means of which the hammers are shifted slightly to the right, so as to strike one or two strings instead of three, thus producing a weaker tone of a peculiarly delicate quality. The word is employed in pianoforte music to indicate the use of this pedal ; thus the directions mit Verschiebung, ohne Verschiebung, are synonymous with the Italian ad nna corda, a tre corde. [See PEDALS ; SORDINI ; U. C.] A charming effect is obtained by Schumann in the slow movement of his Sonata for piano and violin in D minor, op. 121, where he makes the piano play mit Verschiebung t accompanied by the violin am Steg, that is, close to the bridge, thus producing a veiled quality of sound which suits admirably with the refined tone of the piano- forte. [F.T.]
VERSCHWORENEN, DIE (i.e. The Con- spirators) a one-act play, with dialogue, adapted bv Castelli from the French, and composed bv Schubert. The MS. in the British Museum has the date April 1823 at the end. The title was changed by the licensers to the less suggestive one of 'Der hausliche Krieg' (i.e. The Domestic Struggle), but the piece was not adopted by the management, and remained unperformed till March I, 1861, when Herbeck produced it at a Musikverein concert. It was brought out on the stage at Frankfort Aug. 29, 1861 ; in Paris, as 'La Croisade des Dames/ Feb. 3, 1868; at a Crystal Palace Concert ('The Conspirators') Mar. 2, 72. [G.]