Page:A Dictionary of Music and Musicians vol 4.djvu/606

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590
CHORALE.
 

psalms, motets, cantiones, etc., for 4, 6, 8 or 9 voices. His writings combine simplicity with religious grandeur; and the congregational and choral singing of his various churches was renowned and regarded as a model.

Matthäus Apelles von Löwenstern, born 1594 at Neustadt in Upper Silesia, studied at the university of Frankfort on the Oder, directed the music of the church at Neustadt, and was taken by Duke Henry of Oels to his court as music-director, becoming in 1626 praeses of the Prince's school at Bernstadt, and in 1631 director of chamber music at the court of the Emperor Ferdinand II, whose successor ennobled him. But he subsequently went back to the Duke of Oels, with whom he lived in wealth and prosperity, and had a character for beneficence and generosity. His talents were shown both in writing sacred verse and in composing vocal music to German words, in a pleasing and flowing style. He published 'Symbola oder Gedenksprüche,' containing 30 hymns for 1–9 voices; the best are 'Jesu meum solatium,' 'Nun preiset Alle Gottes Barmherzigkeit,' 'Wenn ich in Angst und Noth,' 'Mein' Augen schliess ich jetzt'; also 'Fruelings Meyen,' 1644.

Johann Schopp, born at Hamburg at the beginning of the 17th century, lived there till 1642, and subsequently at Lüneburg. He was a violinist and composer, and published 'Neue Paduanen, Galliarden, Allemanden, etc.,' Hamburg, 1633–40, in 3–6 parts; 30 deutsche Concerte von 1, 2, 3, 4 und 8 Stimmen,' Hamburg, 1644; 'Joh. Risten Himmlische Lieder. Mit sehr anmuhtigen, mehrerentheils von Joh. Schopen gesetzten Melodeyen,' Lüneburg, 1641–2; 'Joh. Ristens frommer Christen alltägliche Hausmusik,' Lüneburg, 1654 (the melodies by him and Michael Jacobi in common); 'Phil, von Zesens dichterische Jugend- und Liebes-Flammen und dessen geistliche Wollust Salomonis, rait Melodien,' Hamburg, 1651; 'Jacob Schwieger's Flüchtige Feldrosen mit Melodien,' Hamburg, 1655. In these works are found the well-known chorale tunes 'Lasset uns den Herren preisen,' 'Ermuntre dich, mein schwacher Geist,' 'Werde munter, mein Gemüthe.' It is impossible to overlook the great change that has come over the chorale with the commencement of the 17th century, especially in the writings of Gumpelzhaimer, Löwenstern, and Schopp—a change which is the direct consequence of putting the melody in the upper part, and writing for four fixed voice-parts. The new form of the tune is closely similar to that of English hymns of the period; it has the modern scale with the leading note, rhythm in equal bars, and the common chord with its inversions. The melody has a clearer rhythm and a more rapid and easy swing, in fact becomes far more like a secular song; which goes far to explain the fact that just about the year 1600 popular secular songs were adapted to sacred words, especially 'Isbruck, ich muss dich lassen' in 1598, 'Venus du und dein Kind' in 1605, and 'Mein Gmüth ist mir verwirret ' in 1613.

Johann Rosenmüller, born in the Electorate of Saxony at the beginning of the 17th century, was collaborator at the Thomasschule at Leipzig in 1647, and director of music in 1648. On account of alleged scandalous conduct towards pupils in 1655 (which perhaps was not true, as in later life he bore a high character in Germany) he had to leave Leipzig and went to Venice; he was subsequently appointed Kapellmeister at Wolfenbüttel, where he died in 1686. He published chorales harmonized in many parts. His works are: 'Kernsprüche, mehrentheils aus heiliger Schrift, mit 3, 4 bis 7 Stimmen sammt ihrem Basso continue gesetzt,' Leipzig, 1648 (containing 20 hymns); 'Studenten-Musik von 3 und 5 Instrumenten,' Leipzig, 1654; '12 Senate da camera a cinque strornenti,' Venice, 1667 and 1671; and Sonatas with 2–5 instruments, Nuremberg, 1682.

Joh. Geo. Ebeling, born at Lüneburg about 1620, was in 1662 director of the music at the principal church of Berlin, and in 1668 professor of music at the Caroline Gymnasium at Stettin, where he died in 1676. He composed church music, and some chorales of his are favourites; e.g. ' Warum sol It ich mich denn gramen.' He published 'Archaeologia Orphica sive antiquitates musicae,' Stettin, 1657; 'Pauli Gerhardi Geistliche Andachten, bestehend in 120 Liedern mit 4 Singstimmen, 2 Violinen und General-bass', Berlin, 1666–7; and an arrangement of the latter for piano, Berlin, 1669.

Jacob Hintze, born 1622 at Bernau near Berlin, became in 1666 court musician to the Elector of Brandenburg at Berlin; but he retired to his birthplace, where he died in 1695, with the reputation of being an excellent contrapuntist. He edited the 12th edition of Crüger's "Praxis pietatis," Berlin, 1690, adding to it 65 hymns to the Epistles by himself, none of which are said to be ever used now; but others in the book are his, some of which continue to be favourites, especially "Gieb dich zufrieden" and "Alle Menschen müssen sterben" (if the latter be really by him). Concerning the chorales composed by Bach, refer to Spitta's Bach, vol. iii. p. 108, 114, 287, etc. (English edition).

The literature of the subject is considerable, and only a few of the most important modern works can conveniently be mentioned here. The great standard work is that of Carl von Winterfeld, 'Der evangelische Kirchengesang und sein Verhaltniss zur Kunst des Tonsatzes,' in three large quarto volumes, with abundant specimens of the setting of the old tunes from ancient manuscripts (Leipzig, 1843–47); it is, however, not clearly arranged. G. Döring's 'Choralkunde' (Danzig, 1865), and E. E. Koch's 'Geschichte des Kirchenlieds und Kirchengesangs, mit besonderer Rücksicht auf Würtemberg,' 2 vols. (Stuttgart 1847), are useful guides. Of collections of chorales, treated either as 4-voice hymns or for singing in unison, there is a great number. The following may be noted as having especial interest:—'J. S. Bach's mehrstimmige Choralgesänge und geistliche Arien zum erstenmal