Page:A Dictionary of Music and Musicians vol 4.djvu/680

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664
HANDEL.
HAMMERSCHMIDT.

5, 6 Instrumental-stimmen enthalten.' Contains 22 pieces. (Zittau, 1662.)

12. 'xvii Missae sacrae 5 ad 12 usque vocibus et instrumentis.' (Dresden, 1663.)

13. 'Fest- und Zeit-Andachten' (Festal and Ferial Devotions). Dresden, 1671. Contains 38 settings a 6, in motet style, but with comparative simplicity of contrapuntal treatment, One piece from this work, 'Schaff in mir, Gott, ein reines Herz' (Make me a clean heart, O God), has been reprinted in Schlesinger's 'Musica Sacra,' No. 41. It may be added that some of Hammerschmidt's melodies passed into later Chorale books; among others, his melody to 'Meinen Jesum lass ich nicht.' For interesting remarks on Hammerschmidt's style and his influence on the development of the later Church Cantata in Germany, see Spitta's 'Bach' (English edition), vol. i. pp. 49, 55, 58, 60, 69, 124, 302.

[ J. R. M. ]

HANBOYS, John. The treatise by this author, mentioned in vol. i, appears to be a commentary on the works of Franco, or rather the two Francos, and is chiefly interesting as giving an account of the musical notation of the time. Hanboys divides the notes into Larga, Duplex Longa, Longa, Brevis, Semibrevis, Minor, Semiminor, Minima; each of which is in its turn subdivided into perfect and imperfect notes, the former being equal in value to three of the next denomination below it, the latter to two. Considering the Larga as equivalent to the modern breve, the minim would be equal in value to our semi-demi-semiquaver. Hanboys abolishes the name crotchets used by Franco. This MS. cannot have been written much later than the middle of the 15th century, though Holinshed enumerates John Hanboys among the writers of Edward IV.'s reign, describing him as 'an excellent musician, and for his notable cunning therein made Doctor of Music.' He also appears to have written a book, 'Cantionum artificialium diversi generis,' which has been lost. Hanboys was an ecclesiastic, if we may judge from the epithet 'reverendus,' which is given to him at the end of his treatise.

[ A. H.-H. ]

HANDEL, G. F. P. 649 a, l. 22, for fifth read sixth. Line 37, for King's read Queen's. P. 651 a, l. 27, for 1740, read 1738. Line 16 from bottom, for April 18 read April 13. Line 5 from bottom, for 1749 read 1743. P. 656b, l. 3, for Rev. E. Ward read Rev. A. R. Ward. Additions to the list of works will be found under Händel Gesellschaft, below.

Among the Handel MSS. preserved in the Royal Library at Buckingham Palace is a 'Magnificat,' in the great Composer's own hand-writing, for eight Voices, disposed in a Double Choir, with accompaniments for two Violins, Viola, Basso, two Hautboys, and Organ. The work is divided into twelve Movements, disposed in the following order:—

  1. 'Magnificat anima mea.' (Chorus.)
  2. 'Et exultavit.' (Duet for two Trebles.)
  3. 'Quia respexit.' (Chorus.)
  4. 'Quia fecit mihi magna.' (Duet for two Basses.)
  5. 'Fecit potentiam.' (Chorus.)
  6. 'Deposuit potentes.' (Alto Solo.)
  7. 'Esurientes.' (Duet, Alto and Tenor.)
  8. 'Suscepit Israel.' (Chorus.)
  9. 'Sicut locutus est.' (Chorus.)
  10. 'Gloria Patri.' (Tenor Solo.)
  11. A Ritornello, for Stringed Instruments only.
  12. 'Sicut erat.' (Chorus.)

Unhappily, the MS. is imperfect, and terminates with the Duet we have indicated as No. 7. For the remaining movements, we are indebted to another MS., preserved in the Royal College of Music. The existence of this second copy—a very incorrect one, evidently scored from the separate parts by a copyist whose carelessness it would be difficult to exaggerate—has given rise to grave doubts as to the authorship of the work. It is headed 'Magnificat. Del Rd. Sigr. Erba': and, on the strength of this title, Chrysander attributes the work to a certain Don Dionigi Erba, who flourished at Milan at the close of the 17th century. M. Schœlcher, on the other hand, repudiates the superscription; and considers that, in introducing some six or seven Movements of the 'Magnificat' into the Second Part of 'Israel in Ægypt,' and one, the 'Sicut locutus est' into 'Susannah,' as 'Yet his bolt,' Handel was only making a perfectly justifiable use of his own property; and this opinion was endorsed by the late Sir G. A. Macfarren. The reader will find the arguments on both sides of the question stated, in extenso, in the Appendix to M. Schœlcher's 'Life of Handel,' and in the first volume of that by Dr. Chrysander; and must form his own judgment as to their validity. For ourselves, we do not hesitate to avow our conviction that M. Schœlcher is in the right, in so far as the authorship is concerned, though he errs in ascribing it to the 'Italian period' on the ground that it is written on thick Italian paper. The paper is of English manufacture, bearing a water-mark which, taken in conjunction with the character of the handwriting, proves the MS. to have been written in England about 1735–40; and, as 'Israel' was written in 1736, nothing is more likely than that Handel should have transferred passages from one work to the other. After a careful examination of both the MSS., it seems to us, not only that the external evidence, as far as it goes, is in favour of this view; but, that the style of the Composition points, throughout, to Handel, as its undoubted author. Notwithstanding a few passages to which exception has been taken, it everywhere betrays such evident traces of the Master's hand, that we feel assured no critic would ever have dreamed of questioning its authenticity, but for the doubtful name on a MS. copy chiefly remarkable for its inaccuracy. It is to be hoped, however, that the matter will not be allowed to rest here. Some further evidence must, sooner or later, be produced, on one side or the other. If Erba really wrote the 'Magnificat,' some trace of it ought to be found in Italy. Meanwhile, it is much to be wished that some enterprising publisher would facilitate the discussion, by issuing a cheap edition of the work, no part