xiv Alphabetical list of Authorities
Biblical and philosophical works. Among his writings was a Prayer Book which is cited in these Notes chiefly from the description of the Manuscripts by J. Bondi (Frankfurt a. M. 1904).
SEPHARDIM. The Sepharad of the Scriptures (Obadiah 20) was identified with Spain; hence the Sephardim are the Spanish. The Sephardic liturgy is so named because it was developed by the Jews of Spain. It is widely used by Oriental Jews, and in many European congregations.
SEPTUAGINT. The Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible, begun in Alexandria in the third century preceding the current era. Septuagint literally means seventy; the translation, it was said, was executed by seventy-two scholars appointed for the purpose.
SHULḤAN ARUCH. The Code compiled, on the basis of older Codes, by Joseph Karo (1488-1575). It contains four parts: Orah Ḥayyim, Yoreh Deah, Eben Ha-Ezer and Ḥoshen Ha-mishpat.
SOPHERIM. The word literally means Scribes. The Rabbinic tractate so named deals with the regulations as to preparation of the Scrolls of the Law by the scribes. The tractate also includes many rules as to the reading of the law, besides much else of a liturgical nature. In its present form, the tractate is probably of the eighth century, but much of the material contained in it is far older.
TALMUD. Literally teaching. The Talmud consists of the Mishnah with the commentary called Gemara. There are two compilations, the Palestinian or Jerusalem Talmud (cited in the Notes as TJ.) and the Babylonian (cited as T.B.). The Babylonian Talmud was completed in Babylonia by the end of the fifth century; the Palestinian was compiled about a century earlier.
TARGUM. The Aramaic translation of the Hebrew Bible.
TOSEPHTA. A collection of early Rabbinic passages, be longing in character to the Mishnah, but not included in that Code. Tosephta literally means addition.
ṬUR. The Code of Rabbinic law and ritual compiled by Jacob Asheri (1283-1340) was entitled by him the Four