MON ( tfo )
Biore unaccountable, bccauTe but an hundred Tears before,
French Money cf stccoimt, was antiently the Parifis,
two hundred thoufand Befants were exaaed by the Sol dan Tournois, and the Ecu or Crown: but fince the Ordn-
for the Ranfom of St. Lews of trance 3 which were then nance of i6Jj they only reckon by Livres
, , u j„,i.u„r, n HTiv^ Sols, . e. Shillings j and Deniers Fournois
valued at one hundred thoulanrt L,ivrcs. " 1 • a „« r- n «,„ . „u„ o 1
Tho' the Coin:ng of Money be a fpecial Prerogative of The Livre, 20 Sols, or 4 of the Ecu, or Crowr the Sol the King, yet the antient Saxon Princes communicated it to their Subjects ; infomuchthat in every good Town there
Pounds j Pence.
at leaft'one Coiner 5 but at London eight, at CanterEury four for the King, two for the Arch-bifhop, one for the Abbot at Winchester, fix at Rochester, at Bakings two, ££c. See Mint. '* .
The Norman Kings continu'd the fame Cufrom of Coming only Pence, with the Prince's Image on one fide, and on the oiher the Name of the City where it was coin'd, with a Crofs fo deeply imprefs'd, that it might be eafily parted, and broken into two Halves, which fo broken, they call'd Half-pence ; or into four Parts,which they call'd Fourthings, or Farthings. See Farthing.
In the time of King Richard the Firf}, Money coin'd in the Eaft Parts of Germany., came in fpecial requeft in Eng- land, on account of its Purity, and was call'd Eajierling "Money, as all the Inhabitants of thofe Parts were call'd Eajlerlims. And fhortly after, fome, of thofe People skil- led in Coining were fent for hither, to bring the Coin to Perfection 5 which fince has been call'd Sterling for Eafier- li-ng. See Sterling.
King Edward the Firft, who firft adjuftcd the Mcafurc of an Ell by the Length of his Ann, herein imitating Charles the Great,' was the firft alfo who eftablifli'd a certain Stan- dard for the Coin, which is exprefs'tl to this effect by Greg^Rockky, Mayor of London, and Mint-Matter. A Pound of Money containeth twelve Ounces: In a Pound there ought to be eleven Ounces, two Eafterlings, and one Far- thing ; the reft Allay. The hud Pound ought to weigh twenty Shillings and three Pence in Account and Weight. The Ounce ought to weigh twenty Pence, and a Penny twenty four Grains and a half. Note, that eleven Ounces two Pence Sterling ought to be of pure Silver, call'd Leaf Silver, and the Mmter'muft add of other Weight feventecn Pence Half-penny Farthing, if the Silver be fo pure.
About the Year 1320. the States of Europe firft began to coin Gold, and among the red, our King Edward the Third. The firft Pieces he coin'd were call'd Florences, as being coin'd by Flore ntitiet ■> afterwards he coin'd Nobles ; then Rofe-Nobles, current at fix Shillings and eight Pence ; Half-Nobles, call'd Haif-Pennys, at three Shillings and four Pence of Gold 5 and Quarters at twenty Pence, call'd Farthings of Gold. The fucceeding Kings coin'd Rofe- Nobles, and double Rofe-Nobles, great Sovereigns, and half Henry Nobles, Angels, and Shillings.
King ^ames the Firft coin'd Unites, double Crowns, Bri- tannic Crowns. Then the Crowns, Half Crowns, &c.
There are various Kinds offalfe or bafe Money, viz. ei- ther that ft ruck by an unqualify'd Perfon, and of unftatu- table Metals; or that which has loft of its Weight, either by being clipped on the Corners, or filed on the Edges, or laftly, by having fome of its Surface peel'd off 5 if Gold, by Aqua Regalis ; if Silver, by AduaFortis. Another Kind of bafe Money is that made by Pieces of Iron, Copper, or other Metal, cover'd on each fide with a thin Plate or Leaf of Gold or Silver, neatly foder'd and join'd around the Edges, and (truck, like other Coin, with Figures, Le- gends, 5gc. only to be diilinguifh'd from them by the Bulk, and Weight, and Sound.
The Word Mosey comes from the old Anglo-Saxon Munet, and that from Montta a Mnndo, as before obferv'd. From the fame Moneta the Germans have borrow'd their Muntz t the French Monnpye, the Spaniards Maneda, and the Italians Mo- net a.
Moneys of Account, or Manners of reckoning Money in Europe and Afia.
We here confine ourfelves to the Moneys of Account of thofe two Parts of the World : America having none j the refpective Moneys of Account of the Europeans, who have there made Settlements, being eftabliih'd with 'em. As to Africa, the Cities of Barbary and Egypt, whither the Europeans traffick, reckon much after the fame manner as in the Levant, and in the Dominions of the Grand Sig- uier : Fcr the reft, throughout that vaft Extent of Coafts, where we trade for Negroes, Gold-Duft, Elephants Teeth, Wax, Leathers, &c. either the miferabte Inhabitants do not know what Money of Account is 5 or if they have any, 'tis only what Strangers, fettled among them, have introdue'd. The "Macoute, however, and the Tiece, which are Manners of accounting among thefe Barbarians, will be deliver'd in their place.
Evglijh Money of Account is the Pound, Shilling, and Penny Sterling : The Pound containing 10 Shillings, and the Shilling 12 Pence. See Pound, £S?e. Sec alfo Coin, and Sterling.
Deniers. See Livre, Denier, &c. The Maille, Obole, or Half-penny Tournois, is alfo now a. Money of Account, tho anticntly a real Coin. The Maille is divided into two Pites, and each Pite into two Semi-pites; all Moneys of Account. To which mull; be added the Franc, of the fame Value with the Livre, viz. 20 Sols Tournois j and the Blanc, 5 Deniers Tour- nois j and the Carolus, Ten : All three antiently real Coins* See Franc, ££c.
Dutch and Flemijb Moneys ( of Account. In Holland, Ze- land, Brabant, and Cologne, they ufe the Fund r, or Livre de Gros j Schelling, or Sol de Gros; and Penning, or De- niers Gros. The/Pundt, containing 20 Schelling j and the Schelling, 12 Permings. The Pundt equal to 7 Livres, 4 Sols French, or fo Shillings ^Sterling. They alfo ac- count by Florins or Guilders, Putards and Pennings: The Florin is equal to yof the Pound, or 20 Patards; and the Patard, 12 Pennings. The Merchants ufe each Method of Accounting indifferently.
Spanijh Money of Account, is the Pefo, Dticat of Silver and Vellon, Rial of Veilon, and Cornados and Maravedis of Silver and Vellon. The Vc(o is to the Duc.it as 12 to 10. The Ducat of Silver contains ti Rials of Silver; and that of Vellon, 11 Rial;; ot Vellon; which makes a difference of near one half. The Silver Rial -being Current for 7 Shillings Sterling, -nd that of Vellon only at 3 ;Srf. Ster- ling. 54 M/.ravedis make the Rial of Vellon, and 63 that of Silver The Maravedis is divided into 4Cornaros.
German and Swtfs Moneys of Account. In Switzerland, and many of the chief Cities of Germany, particularly Francfort, they account by Florins (but on a footing diffe- rent from thar of Holland) by Creux's or Creuxers, and Pen- nine. The Florin equal to 3 Shillings Sterling, and divi- ded into rio Creux or Rreux, and the Creux into 8 Pcn- nins. In others, as Nuremberg, &c. they account by Rix- dollars, Florins, and Creux. The Rixdollar equal to 4. 8 d. Sterling, divided into 100 Creux, and rhe Creux into S Pennins. In others, as Hambourg, Berlin, $$c. by Rixdollars, Marks Lubs, Schillings Lubs, and Deniers Lubs. The Rixdollar and Dollar on the foot of the French Crown, or 4 : 6 Sterling, divided into 3 Marks, and the Mark into 16 SchelHngs, and rhe Schelling into 12 Pen- niiis. At Hambourg they alfo ufe the Livre, Schelling, and Denier de Gros. At Jusbourg and Bolzamo?it, they account by Tallers and Creux's ; the Taller equal to 4 : 6 Ster- ling, divided into 00 Creux's. At Nkmbourg, by Rixdol- lars Gros and Fenins 5 the Rixdollar equal to 4 : 6 Ster- ling, divided into 36 Gros, and the Gros into 12 Fenins. At Strasbourg by Florins, Creux, and Penins. The Florin equal to 1 : 6 Sterling, divided into 60 Creux, and the Creux into 8 Pennins.
Italian .Voneys of Account. In Italy, the Moneys of Ac- count are various, almoll as the Cities of Commerce. At Rome, ihey account by Pounds, Shillings, and Pence of Gold di Stamp.i. At Venice, by Ducats, and Gros di Banco* The Ducat divided into 24 Gros, each Gros equal to 2 Pence 4 Sterling. And by Ducats Currant, call'd alfo Sequins, equal to 9 : 2 Sterling; and by Pounds, Shillings, and Pence. At Lucca and Bergamo, they ufe the four laft; and only ihe three Iaft at Boitlogna, Mantua, and Savoy : In Geneva, befides Pounds, Shillings, and Pence, they account alfo by Florins, containing tfSoldis, or 6 Pence ~ Sterling. At Leghorn and Genoa, befides Pounds, Shillings, and Pence, they account by Piaftres, equal to 4 : 6 Sterling. At Nova, their Moneys of Account are Crowns, Shillings, and Pence of Gold de Marc. At Raticonis, Pounds, Florins, and Gros. At Ancona, Crowns, Shillings, and Pence. At Naples, Du- cats, Tarins, and Grains, equal to one Shilling Sterling, di- vided into 20 Grains.
Sicilian and Maltefe Moneys of Account. htMejfim, Pa- lermo, and throughout Sicily, they account by Pounds, Oun- ces, Tarins, Grains, and Piccoli's; which are fumm'd by" 3c, 20, and 6": the Ounce being 30 Tarins, theTarinao Grains, and the Grain 6 Piccoli's. At Malta, they account by Pounds, Ounces, Carlins, and Grains. The Ounce 30 Tarins, or 60 Carlins, or tfoc Grains j the Carlin equal to 6 4 Sterling.
Tolifit Moneys of Account. Throughout Poland, molt of the Dominions of the King of Pruffa, and Dantzic, they ac- count by Rixdollars, Roups, and Grochs. The Rixdollar equal to 4 : 6 Pence Sterling, and divided into 32 Roups ; and again, in the Pruffian Territories, into 24 Grochs : In Poland, into 90 Grochs. Sometimes they ufe the Florin, Groch, and Penny.
Swedijh, Danijh, and Mufcovhe Moneys of Account. In Sweden, they account by Dalles, equal to 32 Sols Lubs, or