Page:Cyclopaedia, Chambers - Volume 2.djvu/530
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pTAR-MICA, Medicines proper to promote Sneezing 5 t . eu fually cali'd Ste> nutatories. See Sternutatory.
The Word is form'd QStb&Greek trfeffibfi Sternutamen- tffl# t Sneering.
PTER1G1UM, or Pterygium, in Medicine, a Difeafe of the Eye, by the Latins cali'd Unguis, Nail'; arid fome- t jmes ?.annUS t Web. See Unguis and Pannus.
The Cure is much the fame as of the Ophthalmia. See
The Word is form 'd from theGra'k if^ov, Ala, Wing.
PTERIGOIDES, or Pterygoides, in Anatomy, two Apophyfcs of the Os Sphenoides j fo cali'd from their re- fembling the Wingsof a Bat. See Spiienoides.
From the Greek w$?v%i nsjnpvy@-?Wmg, and &<P&, Form.
PTERIGOIDEUS, or Pterygoideus lateralis, is a Mufcle of the Jaw, which arifes from the internal part of the Tterigoid.es Procefs, and defcends to be inferted into the inferior part of the internal fide of the lower Jaw, near its Angle.
When it afteth, it draws the Jaw to one fide.
Pterigoideus Extemtis, is a Mufcle which arifes from oradiicharge of Saliva by the Glands of the Mouth ; whe the external part of the fame Procefs, and goes backward ther--it amount to an abfolute Salivation, or not. S~e to be inferted between the Condiloid Procefs, and the Corone, Salivation. n the infide of the lower Jaw. The Word is form'd from the Greek -arjtia, fpUO. to 0020
This pulls the lower Jaw forwards, and makes it fhoot out. beyond the upper. PUBERTY, Ptjbertas, in the Civil Law, a natural
PTERIGOSTAPHILINUS, or Pterygostaphili- Majority; or the Age wherein a Perfon is allow'd to con-
maites ; and produces a Letter ofptolemyto Bora, wherein thac Heretic lays down his Doctrine.— He maintain'd, that in the Law otMofes there were three things tobeconiider'd, mafmuch as it did not all come frorri the fame hand 5 but part of it, faid he, from God, part of it from Mofes, and part of it which came from neither of *em, but confuted al- together in the pure Traditions of the antient Doctors; on which part it was that he founded his Dreams.
PTOLEMAIC Syjlem, or Hypothecs, the Order, orDif- pofition of the Heavens and Heavenly Bodies, wherein the Earth is fuppofed to be at reft, in the Centre ; and the Heavens to revolve round it, from Eaft to Weft i carrying with ? em the Sun, Planets, and fixed Stars, each in their re&eEtive Spheres. See Sun, Earth, Planet, £&.
This Hypothetic took its Name from 'Ptolemy, the great Alexandrian Astronomer; becaufe maintain'd and illustra- ted by him : Not that it was his Invention; for it was much older, as having been held by Arijlotle, Hipparchus, &c. - . See itrfiirther illustrated under the Article System.
PTYALISM, Ptyalismus, In. Medicine, %Spi£ti72g$
nus, in Anatomy, the internal Mufcte of the Uvula ; cali'd by V&lf&lvA, "Novas lubtf Miifcidus 5 as being unknown to the antient Anaromifts.
It arifes flefliy, near the Sphenojlaphilimis, from the Os Tetrofltffl, where the Tube fro-ii the Palate enters that, near an acute Procefs of the Sphenoids s : and afcending to the Proceffus Pterygoides, becomes a broad, flat Tendon, which expands itfelf on the fore-part of the Uvula.
Some of the tendinous Fibres afcend to the lower Edge more or lefs, with H of the Os 1?alati, others defcenddown the fides of xheFan- ces ; the middle Series either unites with thofe of the other fide, or is loft in two fle/hy Bodies that compofe the Uvula.
This Mufcle, with its partner, draw the Uvula upwards, and forwards 5 and alfo raife the Amygdala.
The Word is form'd from the Greek -r-nfov, Wing, and rcepvAH, Uvula.
PTERIGOPHARYNG.EUS, or Pterygofharyn- gjeus, a pair of Mufcles arifing from the Proceffus Pte-
trail: Marriage. See Majority, &c.
Boys arrive at Puberty at fourteen Years of Age ; Maids at twelve. FullPuberty is accounted at eighteen. See Age.
PUBES, a Termufed for the external parts of the Pu- denda, or parts of Generation in both Sexes. See Pu- dendum, &c.
This, from the Age ofpuberty.ls fuppofed to becover'd,
whence the Name. SeellAia.
PUBIS Os, or Os Peclinis, in Anatomy, a Bone of the Hip, fituate in the fore and middle part ot the Trunk ; and making the lower arid inner part of the Os InnominatUuL See Innominatum Os.
It is juin'd to tne other part by a Cartilage, thicker, but loofer in Women man Men; in the former whereof, the Os Pubis recedes, or gives a little in time of Travel, to give way fortheF^aj. See Delivery.
It has a large pormrien, which makes room for the Paflage
of two Mufcles of the Thigh ; betides a Sinus, whereby
rygoides, where the Tendon of the PterygoftaphTlmus is the Crural Veins' and Arteries pafs to the Thighs. See
reflected. — Some fle/hy Fibres of it do likv wife arife from the upper Jaw-Bonc, behind the farrbe i Grinder, andfome from the /ides of the Tongue, and 05 Hyoides.
From all thefe places its fle/hy Fibres pafs femi-circu- larly ; and meet with thofe ot the oppofite tide in a middle Line on the back fide of the Pharynx externally.
PUBLIC Notary, fee Notary Public.
PUBLICAN, Public anus, among the Romans, a Perfcn who farmed the Imports, Taxes, and public Re- venues.
The Name appears to have been odious to the fe-ws, 6Vc.
In the inner Surface of the Fauces is another Order of apparently becaufe of the Exactions of this fort of
flefhy Fibres, decuffaring each other at acute Angles. They arife both from the fides of the Uvula, and from the Root of the Cartilage ; and defcend obliquely to their In- fernons in the giandulous Membrane of the Pharynx.
This Mufcle ferves both to conftringe the Pharynx, and to com pre fs the Tonfils, and force out the Mucus ; whence itsUfe in Hawking.
The various Originations of the feveral parts of this Mufcle has caufed its being generally divided into feveral Mufcles. — Thus Valfalva calls that part fpringing from the Tongue, thcGloffopharyngeew, that immediately below it, the Hyopharyngitus.
Hence, in like manner, come the Cep b a lop baryvgee us, Sph<£?20pharyng£iis, &c.
PTEROPHORl, in Antiquity, a Name givejrt tofuch of
PUBLICATION, the Act of Promulgating, or making a thing known to the World. See Promulgation.
By the Canons, Publication is to be made of the Bans of Marriage three times, e'er the Ceremony can be fclemnizedj without efpecial Licence to the contrary. See Mark i age.
PUCELLAGE, fee Virginity.
PUDICA Planta, fee Sensitive Plant.
PUERILITY, in Difcourfe. Longinus defines it to be a Thought, which, by being too far fetch'd, becomes flat
andinfipid. Puerility, he adds, is the common Fault of
thofe who afte£t to fay nothing but what is Brillant and Ex- traordinary. See Suijlime.
PUGIL, among Phvficians, &c. a Meafure of Flowers, Seeds, or the like Matters, containing fo much as may be
the Roman Couriers as brought Tidings of any Declaration taken up between the Thumb and two Fore-Fingers. See
of War, a Battel loft, or any Mi/fiap befallen the Roman Measure.
Armies. The Pugil is efteem'd the eighth part of the Handful,
They were fo cali'd becaufe they bore Wings on the See Manipulus.
Points of their Pikes ; from the Greek <v%iw, Wing, and The Word comes from the Latin, Pugillus, little Hand.
asm, I bear. The French frequently call it Pincee, Pinch. Some con-
PTISAN, Ptisan a, in Medicine, a cooling Pnrion, made found Pugil with Manipulus ; andufeit for a Handful,
of Barley boil'd in Water, and ufually fweeten'd with Li- PUISNE, Puny, in Law, a Younger-born 5 or a Child
quorice, &c. born afteranother. SeeMuLiER.
To thefe are fometimes added the Herb Dog's-grafs, and The Word is not only apply'd to the fecond, third, fourth,
Senna to render it laxative.— Mofl of the Decoclions of $$ c . with regard to the firit 5 but to the third with regard to
Phyficians are in Ptifans. SecDEcnc
Feverifh Patients are prohibited Wine,ei?c. and reduced to Ptifans.
The Word is form'd from the Greek «V*f>S which fig- nifies the fame thing.
PTOLEMAITES, a Branch of the antient Gnojlics 5 fo calt'd from their Leader Ptolemy.
This Herefiarch isreprefented as a Man of considerable Learning, who improved confiderably on the Sy.em of the
the fecond, &c.
Thelaitofail is cali'd abfolutelyCtf^ef. See Cadet.
The Word is pure French $ in which Language it bears the fame Signification.
In the like fenfe we fay a Puifne Judge, a TiiifneCotm- fellor. See Judge and Justice.
PUKING, a cant Word for a Naufea, or Difpofition to Vomit. See Nausea and Vomiting.
PUL, in Commerce, a general Name which the Per-
Gnoftics, his Predeceffv.rs, and enlarged i' with a number of jfans give to all the Copper-Moneys current in the Empire 5 Notions and Vifions of hisown. SccGnost 1 cs. particularly the Kabefqui and 2)emi-kabefqui. See Money
S. Epiphaniv.s is very ample on the Subjcft of the Ptole- and Coin.