made her his concubine, and is said by some authorities to have married her after she bore him a son, Sancho. The vacillations and submissions of El Motamid did not save him from the fate which overtook his fellow-princes. Their scepticism and extortion had tired their subjects, and the mullahs gave Yusef a “fetva” authorizing him to remove them in the interest of religion. In 1091 the Almoravides stormed Seville. El Motamid, who had fought bravely, was weak enough to order his sons to surrender the fortresses they still held, in order to save his own life. He died in prison in Africa in 1095.
Authorities. — Dozy, Histoire des Musulmans d’Espagne, Leiden, 1861; and Historia Abbadidarum (Scriptorum Arabum loci de Abbadidio), Leiden, 1846. (D. H.)
ABBADIE, ANTOINE THOMSON D’ (1810–1897), and ARNAUD MICHEL D’ (1815–1893), two brothers notable for their travels in Abyssinia during the first half of the 19th century. They were both born in Dublin, of a French father and an Irish mother, Antoine in 1810 and Arnaud in 1815. The parents removed to France in 1818, and there the brothers received a careful scientific education. In 1835 the French Academy sent Antoine on a scientific mission to Brazil, the results being published at a later date (1873) under the title of Observations relatives à la physique du globe faites au Brésil et en Éthiopie. The younger Abbadie spent some time in Algeria before, in 1837, the two brothers started for Abyssinia, landing at Massawa in February 1838. They visited various parts of Abyssinia, including the then little-known districts of Ennarea and Kaffa, sometimes together and sometimes separately. They met with many difficulties and many adventures, and became involved in political intrigues, Antoine especially exercising such influence as he possessed in favour of France and the Roman Catholic missionaries. After collecting much valuable information concerning the geography, geology, archaeology and natural history of Abyssinia, the brothers returned to France in 1848 and began to prepare their materials for publication. The younger brother, Arnaud, paid another visit to Abyssinia in 1853. The more distinguished brother, Antoine, became involved in various controversies relating both to his geographical results and his political intrigues. He was especially attacked by C. T. Beke, who impugned his veracity, especially with reference to the journey to Kaffa. But time and the investigations of subsequent explorers have shown that Abbadie was quite trustworthy as to his facts, though wrong in his contention — hotly contested by Beke — that the Blue Nile was the main stream. The topographical results of his explorations were published in Paris in 1860–1873 in Géodésie d’Éthiopie, full of the most valuable information and illustrated by ten maps. Of the Géographie de l’Éthiopie (Paris, 1890) only one volume has been published. In Un Catalogue raisonné de manuscrits éthiopiens (Paris, 1859) is a description of 234 Ethiopian manuscripts collected by Antoine. He also compiled various vocabularies, including a Dictionnaire de la langue amarinna (Paris, 1881), and prepared an edition of the Shepherd of Hermas, with the Latin version, in 1860. He published numerous papers dealing with the geography of Abyssinia, Ethiopian coins and ancient inscriptions. Under the title of Reconnaissances magnétiques he published in 1890 an account of the magnetic observations made by him in the course of several journeys to the Red Sea and the Levant. The general account of the travels of the two brothers was published by Arnaud in 1868 under the title of Douze ans dans la Haute-Éthiopie. Both brothers received the grand medal of the Paris Geographical Society in 1850. Antoine was a knight of the Legion of Honour and a member of the Academy of Sciences. He died in 1897, and bequeathed an estate in the Pyrenees, yielding 40,000 francs a year, to the Academy of Sciences, on condition of its producing within fifty years a catalogue of half-a-million stars. His brother Arnaud died in 1893. (J. S. K.)
ABBADIE, JAKOB (1654?–1727), Swiss Protestant divine, was born at Nay in Bern. He studied at Sedan, Saumur and Puylaurens, with such success that he received the degree of doctor in theology at the age of seventeen. After spending some years in Berlin as minister of a French Protestant church, where he had great success as a preacher, he accompanied Marshal Schomberg, in 1688, to England, and next year became minister of the French church in the Savoy, London. His strong attachment to the cause of King William appears in his elaborate defence of the Revolution (Défense de la nation britanniqne, 1692) as well as in his history of the conspiracy of 1696 (Histoire de la grande conspiration d’Angleterre). The king promoted him to the deanery of Killaloe in Ireland. He died in London in 1727. Abbadie was a man of great ability and an eloquent preacher, but is best known by his religious treatises, several of which were translated from the original French into other languages and had a wide circulation throughout Europe. The most important of these are Traité de la vérité de la religion chrétienne (1684); its continuation, Traité de la divinité de Jésus-Christ (1689); and L’Art de se connaitre soi-méme (1692).
’ABBAHU, the name of a Palestinian ’amora (q.v.) who flourished c. 279–320. ’Abbahu encouraged the study of Greek by Jews. He was famous as a collector of traditional lore, and is very often cited in the Talmud.
ABBA MARI (in full, Abba Mari ben Moses ben Joseph), French rabbi, was born at Lunel, near Montpellier, towards the end of the 13th century. He is also known as Yarhi from his birthplace (Heb. Yerah, i.e. moon, lune), and he further took the name Astruc, Don Astruc or En Astruc of Lunel. The descendant of men learned in rabbinic lore, Abba Mari devoted himself to the study of theology and philosophy, and made himself acquainted with the writing of Moses Maimonides and Nachmanides as well as with the Talmud. In Montpellier, where he lived from 1303 to 1306, he was much distressed by the prevalence of Aristotelian rationalism, which, through the medium of the works of Maimonides, threatened the authority of the Old Testament, obedience to the law, and the belief in miracles and revelation. He, therefore, in a series of letters (afterwards collected under the title Minhat Kenaot, i.e. “Jealousy Offering”) called upon the famous rabbi Solomon ben Adret of Barcelona to come to the aid of orthodoxy. Ben Adret, with the approval of other prominent Spanish rabbis, sent a letter to the community at Montpellier proposing to forbid the study of philosophy to those who were less than thirty years of age, and, in spite of keen opposition from the liberal section, a decree in this sense was issued by ben Adret in 1305. The result was a great schism among the Jews of Spain and southern France, and a new impulse was given to the study of philosophy by the unauthorized interference of the Spanish rabbis. On the expulsion of the Jews from France by Philip IV. in 1306, Abba Mari settled at Perpignan, where he published the letters connected with the controversy. His subsequent history is unknown. Beside the letters, he was the author of liturgical poetry and works on civil law.
Authorities. — Edition of the Minhat Kenaot by M. L. Bislichis (Pressburg, 1838); E. Renan, Les rabbins français, pp. 647 foll.; Perles, Salomo ben Abraham ben Adereth, pp. 15–54; Jewish Encyclopedia, s.v. “Abba Mari.”
ABBAS I. (1813–1854), pasha of Egypt, was a son of Tusun Pasha and grandson of Mehemet Ali, founder of the reigning dynasty. As a young man he fought in Syria under Ibrahim Pasha (q.v.), his real or supposed uncle. The death of Ibrahim in November 1848 made Abbas regent of Egypt, and in August following, on the death of Mehemet Ali — who had been deposed in July 1848 on account of mental weakness, — Abbas succeeded to the pashalik. He has been generally described as a mere voluptuary, but Nubar Pasha spoke of him as a true Turkish gentleman of the old school. He was without question a reactionary, morose and taciturn, and spent nearly all his time shut up in his palace. He undid, as far as lay in his power, the works of his grandfather, good and bad. Among other things he abolished trade monopolies, closed factories and schools, and reduced the strength of the army to 9000 men. He was inaccessible to adventurers bent on plundering Egypt, but at the instance of the British government allowed the construction of a railway from Alexandria to Cairo. In July 1854 he was murdered in Benha Palace by two of his slaves, and was succeeded by his uncle, Said Pasha.
ABBAS II. (1874– ), khedive of Egypt. Abbas Hilmi Pasha,