EUROPEAN SCHOOLS OF FORESTRY. 317
agricultural, or forestral journals, and thirty-five are of the political, literary, or illustrated class."
The design of this academy is, in the words of another, " to impart a thorough, practical, and professional education to those who are to become the owners or managers of estates, and to farmers and foresters in public or private service, and to enable them to become champions of progress among their colleagues in business."
At the University of Tubingen, a chair of Agriculture and Forestry has existed since 1817.
The Polytechnic School at Carlsruhe, in Baden, has a department of forestry, with two professors. From thirty-five to forty students attend, of whom about one fifth are foreigners. The requirements for admission are as follows : Citizens of the state, who wish to enter the state forestry service, after attending a full course at the gymnasium, are admitted, and must pass through a course of four years, of which the first two are devoted to those fundamental and auxiliary studies which do not relate directly to forest-science, but which serve as a preparation for the remaining two years' studies, or the forest-course proper. Foreigners may attend the first two years or not, as they pre- fer. . An age of seventeen years is required for admission. At the close of the second year the state students must pass an examination in natural philosophy and mathematics ; but if they fail they are allowed one more trial. This examination entitles them to enter upon the last two years of special forest studies, in which they are taught agricult- ure, forest jurisprudence, and the higher mathematics, when they are again examined, and, if j^assed, are qualified for a place in the state service. The examination at the end of the first two years is by the professors of the polytechnic school, and the final examination by the forest directors, a person skilled in law, a professor of agriculture, a professor of forest management, and two professors of mathematics.
After passing all examinations, the candidate is assigned to the general district foresters as an assistant, to enable him to become prac- tically acquainted with his duties, and he receives a tract of forest to manage. After six to ten years, according to the number waiting, he gets a position as general district forester. The number of forest dis- tricts in Baden at present is one hundred and ten, to about four of which appointments are made annually. The Forest Direction has its seat in Carlsruhe, and is composed of six members, who are in- spectors.
The aids to instruction at this forest school are a valuable collection of objects pertaining to the subject, a chemical and physiological lab- oratory, to which a greenhouse is annexed, and a forest garden. The area of forests in Baden is 1,262,493 acres.
A school of forestry was established in connection with the Uni- versity of Giessen, in Hesse-Darmstadt, in 1825, with two chairs of forestry and a course of three years. In 1831 this school was imited