Page:Sanskrit Grammar by Whitney p1.djvu/199

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Plural:
N. V. विद्वांसस्
vidvā́ṅsas
विद्वांसि
vidvā́ṅsi
तस्थिवांसस्
tasthivā́ṅsas
तस्थिवांसि
tasthivā́ṅsi
A. विदुषस्
vidúṣas
विद्वांसि
vidvā́ṅsi
तस्थुषस्
tasthúṣas
तस्थिवांसि
tasthivā́ṅsi
I. विद्वद्भिस्
vidvádbhis
तस्थिवद्भिस्
tasthivádbhis
D. विद्वद्भ्यस्
vidvádbhyas
तस्थिवद्भ्यस्
tasthivádbhyas
Ab. G. विदुषाम्
vidúṣām
तस्थुषाम्
tasthúṣām
L. विद्वत्सु
vidvátsu
तस्थिवत्सु
tasthivátsu

a. The feminine stems of these two participles are विदुषी vidúṣī and तस्थुषी tasthúṣī.

b. Other examples of the different stems are:
from √kṛcakṛvā́ṅs, cakṛvát, cakrúṣ, cakrúṣī;
from √ninīvā́ṅs, ninīvát, ninyúṣ, ninyúṣī;
from √bhūbabhūvā́ṅs, babhūvát, babhūvúṣ, babhūvúṣī;
from √tantenivā́ṅs, tenivát, tenúṣ, tenúṣī.

462. a. In the oldest language (RV.), the vocative sing. masc. (like that of vant and mant- stems: above, 454 b) has the ending vas instead of van: thus, cikitvas (changed to -van in a parallel passage of AV.), titirvas, dīdivas, mīḍhvas.

b. Forms from the middle stem, in vat, are extremely rare earlier: only three (tatanvát and vavṛtvát, neut. sing., and jāgṛvádbhis, instr. pl.), are found in RV., and not one in AV. And in the Veda the weakest stem (not, as later, the middle one) is made the basis of comparison and derivation: thus, vidúṣṭara, ádāçuṣṭara, mīḍhúṣṭama, mīḍhúṣmant.

c. An example or two of the use of the weak stem-form for cases regularly made from the strong are found in RV.: they are cakrúṣam, acc. sing., and ábibhyuṣas, nom. pl.; emuṣám, by its accent (unless an error), is rather from a derivative stem emuṣá; and ÇB. has proṣúṣam. Similar instances, especially from vidvā́ṅs, are now and then met with later (see BR., under vidvā́ṅs).

d. The AV. has once bhaktivā́ṅsas, as if a participial form from a noun; but K. and TB. give in the corresponding passage bhaktivā́nas; cakhvā́ṅsam (RV., once) is of doubtful character; okivā́ṅsā (RV., once) shows a reversion to guttural form of the final of √uc, elsewhere unknown.