Page:Sanskrit Grammar by Whitney p1.djvu/372

From Wikisource
Jump to: navigation, search
This page has been proofread, but needs to be validated.

d. A considerable number, some of them very common ones, of roots in d (which, against ordinary rule, becomes n before the suffix: 157 b). The forms are: unna (also utta), arṇṇa?, klinna, kṣuṇṇa, kṣviṇṇa, khinna, channa, chinná, chṛṇṇá, tunná, tṛṇṇá, nunna (also nuttá and nudita), panná, bhinná, vinna (√vid find: also vittá), çanna (√çad fall), sanná (also sattá), skanná (√skand), syanná (√syand), svinná, hanna. And ánna food, in spite of its different accent, appears to be a like formation from √ad eat.

958. The native grammarians reckon as participles of this formation a few miscellaneous derivative adjectives, coming from roots which do not make a regular participle: such are kṣāma burnt, kṛçá emaciated, pakvá ripe, phullá expanded, çúṣka dry.

Past Active Participle in tavant (or navant).

959. From the past passive participle, of whatever formation, is made, by adding the possessive suffix वन्त् vant, a secondary derivative having the meaning and construction of a perfect active participle: for example, तत् कृतवान् tát kṛtávān having done that; taṁ nigīrṇavān having swallowed him down. Its inflection is like that of other derivatives made with this suffix (452 ff.); its feminine ends in वती vatī; its accent remains on the participle.

960. Derivative words of this formation are found in RV., but without anything like a participial value. The AV. has a single example, with participial meaning: açitā́vaty átithāu one's guest having eaten (loc. abs.). In the Brāhmaṇas also it is hardly met with. In the later language, however, it comes to be quite common. And there it is chiefly used predicatively, and oftenest without copula expressed, or with the value of a personal verb-form in a past tense: primarily, and not seldom, signifying immediate past, or having a true "perfect" value; but also (like the old perfect and the old aorist in later use) coming to be freely used for indefinite time, or with the value of the imperfect (779). For example: māṁ na kaçcid dṛṣṭavān no one has seen (or saw) me; sa nakulaṁ vyāpāditavān he destroyed the ichneumon; or, with copula, mahat kṛcchram prāptavaty asi thou hast fallen upon great misery. Although originally and properly made only from transitive verbs (with an object, to which the participle in ta stands in the relation of an objective predicate), it is finally found also from intransitives: thus, cūtena saṁçritavatī (Ç.) has become united with the mango-tree; gatavatī (ib.) she has gone.

a. The same participle is also made in the secondary conjugations: e. g. darçitavant having shown, prabodhitavant having awakened.