Protocol of the Conference of Paris

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Protocol of the Conference of Paris of November 3rd, 1815.[1]
The plenipotentiaries of the high powers who signed the treaty
PROTOCOL of Conference between Great Britain, Austria, Prussia, and Russia, respecting the Territorial Arrangements, and Defensive System of the Germanic Confederation. Paris, 3rd November, 1815. (The Protocol was initialled on 3rd November and Signed on 20th).[2] The Protocol was drawn up in French, the lingua franca of diplomacy at that time.[3] This translation is by Edward Hertslet found in The map of Europe by treaty; showing the various political and territorial changes which have taken place since the general peace of 1814,[4] with a few headers taken from the French original.

The Ministers of the Imperial and Royal Courts of Austria, of Russia, of Great Britain, and of Prussia, having taken into consideration the measures become necessary by those arrangements with France which are to terminate the present War, have agreed to lay down, in the present Protocol:—

  1. The dispositions relative to the territorial cessions to be made by France, and to the contributions destined for strengthening the line of defence of the bordering States.
  2. Provisions relating to certain changes of Territory in Germany.
  3. Those which relate to the system of Defence of the Germanic Confederation.
A. Provisions respecting the Cessions to be made by France.[7]
King of the Low Countries

Art. I. Considering that His Majesty the King of the Low Countries ought to participate in a just proportion in the advantages resulting from the present arrangement with France, and considering the state of his Frontiers on the side of that country, it is agreed, that the Districts which formed part of the Belgic Provinces, of the Bishopric of Liege, and of the Duchy of Bouillon, as well as the towns of Philippeville and Marienburg, with their Territories, which France is to cede to the Allies, shall be assigned to His Majesty the King of the Low Countries, to be united to his dominions.

His Majesty the King of the Low Countries shall receive, moreover, out of that part of the French contribution which is destined towards strengthening the line of Defence of the States bordering upon France, the sum of 60,000,000 of Francs, which shall be laid out in fortifying the Frontiers of the Low Countries, in conformity with the plans and regulations which the Powers shall settle in this respect.

It is besides agreed, that in consideration of the advantages which His Majesty the King of the Low Countries will derive from these dispositions, both in the increase of, and in the means for defending his territory, that that proportion of the Pecuniary Indemnity payable by France to which His said Majesty might lay claim shall serve towards putting the Indemnities of Austria and Prussia on the level of a just proportion.

Acquisitions of Prussia

Art. II. The districts which, by the new Treaty with France, will be detached from the French territory in the department of the Sarre and the Moselle, including the Fortress of Sarre-Louis, shall be united to the dominions of the King of Prussia.[8]

Acquisitions of Austria

Art. III. The territories which France is to cede in the department of the Lower Rhine, including the Town and Fortress of Landau, shall be united to those possessions on the left bank of the Rhine which devolve to His Imperial and Royal Apostolic Majesty by the Final Act of the Congress of Vienna. His Majesty may dispose of his possessions on the left bank of the Rhine, in the territorial arrangements with Bavaria, and other States of the Germanic Confederation.[8]

Swiss Confederation

Art. IV. Versoy, with that part of the Pays de Gex which is to be ceded by France, shall be united to Switzerland, and form part of the Canton of Geneva.

The Neutrality of Switzerland shall be extended to that territory, which is placed north of a line to be drawn from Ugina (including that Town) to the south of the Lake of Annecy, and from thence to the Lake of Bourget, as far as the Rhone,[9] in the same manner as it has been extended to the Provinces of Chablais and Faucigny by Article XCII of the Final Act of the Congress of Vienna.

Sardinia

Art. V. In order that His Majesty the King of Sardinia may participate, in a just proportion, in the advantages resulting from the present arrangement with France, it is agreed, that the portion of Savoy which remained to France in virtue of the Treaty of Paris of the 30th May, 1814, shall be united (réunis) to the dominions of His said Majesty, with the exception of the Commune of St. Julian, which shall be given up to the Canton of Geneva.

The Cabinets of the Allied Courts will use their good offices for inducing" His Sardinian Majesty to cede to the Canton of Geneva the Communes of Chesne, Thonex, and some others necessary for disengaging the Swiss territory of Jussy from the effects of the retrocession, by the Canton of Geneva, of that territory situated between the road of Euron and the Lake, which had been ceded by His Sardinian Majesty, by the Act of the 29th March, 1815.[10]

The French Government having consented to withdraw its lines of custom and excise from the frontiers of Switzerland, on the side of the Jura, the Cabinets of the Allied Powers will employ their good offices for inducing His Sardinian Majesty to withdraw in like manner, his lines of custom and excise, on the side of Savoy, at least upwards of a league from the Swiss frontiers, and on the outside of the great road of Saleve, and of the mountains of Sion and Waache.

His Majesty the King of Sardinia shall receive, moreover, out of that part of the French contribution which is destined for the strengthening of the line of Defence of the States bordering upon France, the sum of 10,000,000 of Francs, which is to be laid out in fortifying his frontiers, in conformity with the plans and regulations which the Powers shall settle in this respect.

It is likewise agreed, that, in consideration of the advantages which His Sardinian Majesty will derive from these dispositions, both in the extension and in the means for defending his territory, that part of the pecuniary Indemnity payable by France, to which His said Majesty might lay claim, shall serve towards putting the indemnities of Austria and Prussia on the level of a just proportion.

B. Provisions respecting the Territorial Arrangements in Germany, Austria, and Prussia.
Austria and Prussia

Art. VI. His Imperial and Royal Apostolic Majesty shall cede to His Majesty the King of Prussia, in the department of La Sarre, the districts shown in the amiexed Schedule. His Majesty the King of Prussia engages on his part to satisfy the Grand Dukes of Mecklenburg-Strelitz and Oldenburg, the Duke of Coburg the Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg, and the Count of Papenheim conformably with Article LIV[11] of the Final Act of the Congress of Vienna.

Arrangements for Bavaria

Art. VII. His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias, His Majesty the King of Great Britain, and His Majesty the King of Prussia engage to use every means to obtain for His Imperial and Royal Apostolic Majesty from His Majesty the King of Bavaria the reconveyance of the territories and the objects designated in the annexed Schedule (2), in exchange for the indemnity designated in the same Schedule. They undertake at the same time with the Court of Bavaria to exchange with His Royal Highness the Elector of Hesse, the districts of Aufenau, Wort, and Ilochst, and the road from Saalmunster to Gelnhausen for a sufficient pari of the bailiwick of Lohrhaupten.

In consideration of the arrangements above specified the Four Powers insure to His Majesty the King of Bavaria the following advantages :—

a. An amount proportional to the part of the French contributions intended to reinforce the defensive line of the frontier States, which amount shall be employed according to the plans and regulations which shall be generally fixed in this matter.
b. The Reversion of the part of the Palatinate belonging to the House of Baden, after the extinction of the direct line of the reigning Grand Duke.
c. A military road from Wurzburg to Frankenthal.
d. The right of garrison in the fortified Town of Landau, which will be one of the Fortresses of the Germanic Confederation.

These Articles will be regarded as fully obligatory as soon as the Court of Bavaria shall have declared its adhesion to the arrangements specified above.[8]

The Countries devolved to His Imperial and Royal Apostolic Majesty under Article LI of the Final Act of the Congress of Vienna, and of which His Majesty can dispose by exchange with the other Princes of the Germanic Confederation, being still found, in spite of the representations on this subject made by the Imperial Court of Austria., partly occupied by the Bavarian authorities, there will be made by the Four Cabinets a simultaneous action against the Bavarian Government, in order that the said countries may be placed without delay at the free disposal of His Imperial and Royal Apostolic Majesty.

Art. VIII. Austria shall cede to the Grand Duke of Hesse, as an indemnity for the Duchy of Westphalia, a territory on the left bank of the Rhine, comprising a population of 140,000 inhabitants, conformably to the Treaty between Austria, Prussia, and the Grand Duke, of 10th June, 1815.[12] The arrangements with the Grand Duke of Hesse shall be made according to the annexed Schedule (3), drawn up on the basis of the exchange of territory between Austria and Bavaria, such as may be found indicated in the preceding Article.

Art. IX. The Reversion of the part of the Palatinate belonging to the Grand Duke of Baden having been assured to Austria by the Protocol of 10th June, 1815,[13] of the Conferences of the Congress of Vienna, His Imperial and Royal Apostolic Majesty is ready to renounce this Reversion in favour of His Majesty the King of Bavaria, in order to facilitate the arrangements indicated by Article VII of the present Protocol. The Reversion of Brisgau, which has also been assured to Austria by the said Protocol of 10th June, will be carried out.

C. Defensive System of the Germanic Confederation.

Art. X. The Fortresses of Mayence, Luxemburg, and Landauf[14] are declared Fortresses of the Germanic Confederation, with the exception of the territorial Sovereignty of the Fortresses.

Mayence

The Plenipotentiaries of Austria and Prussia, not being authorised, considering the Acts formerly existing, and the absence of their Sovereigns, to renounce the right of garrisoning the Fortress of Mayence to one or other of their respective Courts, it is agreed that the military service and the administration shall continue to subsist in that Fortress according to the actual arrangement in force, until the Allied Courts shall come to some definitive arrangement on this point.

Luxemburg

Their Majesties, the Emperor of Austria, the Emperor of all the Russias, and His Majesty the King of Great Britain, will employ their best offices in order to obtain for His Majesty the King of Prussia the right of garrisoning the Fortress of Luxemburg, conjointly with His Majesty the King of the Netherlands, as well as the right of nominating the Governor of that Fortress.

Landau

The garrison of Landau shall be, until the time of. its exchange, entirely composed of Austrian troops, and in like manner after the transfer it shall be in time of peace entirely composed of Bavarian troops. Nevertheless, in the case of war, the Grand Duke of Baden shall furnish a third of the garrison necessary for the defence of the Fortress.

Distribution of Sums of Money to be devoted to the Defensive System of Germany.

The Powers having agreed to devote to the defensive system of Germany the sum of 60,000,000 francs, to be taken from a part of the French contribution destined to strengthen the line of Defence of the frontier States, the said sum shall be distributed as follows:—

His Majesty the King of Prussia shall receive 20,000,000 Francs of it for the fortification of the Lower Rhine; 20,000,000 shall be reserved for the construction of a fourth Federal Fortress on the Upper Rhine; His Majesty the King of Bavaria, or some other Sovereign of the countries bordering upon France between the Rhine and the Prussian States, shall have 15,000,000; and 5,000,000 shall be employed to complete the works at Mayence. These different sums shall be disposed of, conformably to the plans and regulations which shall be settled with reference to them.

Art. XI. The present Protocol shall have the force of a Convention between the four Powers, until the arrangements to which they refer may be definitively completed.

Done and signed at Paris, 20th November, 1815.[15]

WELLINGTON. RASOUMOFFSKY.
METTERNICH. CAPODISTRIAS.
HARDENBERG. HUMBOLDT.
CASTLEREAGH. WESSENBERG.

Annex I[edit]

Prussia.

Austria shall cede to Prussia on the left bank of the Rhine :—

a. Saarburg, with the remainder of Conz, according to the limits of the Peace of 1814, and exclusively of Parcelles, on the right bank of the Moselle, which formerly belonged to Luxemburg.

b. Moertzig.
c. Wadern.
d. Tholey.
e. Part of Lebach according to the conditions of 1814.[16]
f. Ottweiler.
q. St. Wendel.
h. The remainder of Birkenfeld and Hermeskeil.
i. The remainder of Baumholder and Grumbach.

Annex II[edit]

Arrangement with Bavaria.[6]
Cessions demanded from Bavaria.
Population.
1. The Ilausruckviertel 92,396
2. The Innviertel 125,671
3. The Principality of Salzburg, with the exception of the Bailiwicks of Waging, Tettmanning-, Seisendorf, and Laufen ; the three last, so far as they are situated on the left bank of the Salzbach and the Saal 168,000
4. The Tyrolese Bailiwick of Vils 946
Total 387,013

His Majesty the King of Bavaria would grant freedom of transit on the road which leads from the Tyrol to Bregenz by the Bavarian States, for a quantity of salt and corn, to be agreed upon.

Indemnities
A. On the Left Bank of the Rhine.
Population.
1. In the Department of Mont-Tonnerre.
a. The district of Deux-Ponts 93,596
b. The district of Kaiserslautern 73,022
c. The district of Spire, excepting the cantons of Worms and Pfeddersheim 144,042
d. In the district of Alzey, the canton of Kercheim-Poland 12,066
2. In the Department of the Sarre.
a. The canton of Waldmohr 10,795
b. The canton of Bliescastel 14,636
c. The canton of Ooussel, excepting certain places on the road from St. Wendel to Baumholder—approximately 8,698
3. In the Department of the Lower Rhine.
The canton of Landau, with the territory on the left bank of the Lauter 53,887
B. On the Right Bank of the Rhine.
a. The bailiwicks Fuldois.[17] 26,304
b. The bailiwick of Radewitz 3,000
c. Of Darmstadt—the bailiwicks of Mittenberg, Amorbach, Heubach, and Alzenau 24,601
d. Of Bade—part of the bailiwick of Wertheim 4,927
Total 409,634

Annex III[edit]

Territorial Transfers by the Grand Duke of Darmstadt.
Darmstadt would cede:
A. To Prussia. Subjects.
The Duchy of Westphalia 140,000
B. To Bavaria.
The bailiwicks of Mittenberg 8,094
Amorbach 7,092
Heubach 3,505
Alzenau 5,970
24,661
C. To Hesse-Cassel.
The bailiwick of Hanau, conformably to the Conventions of Frankfort 14,018
D. To the Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg.
The Sovereignty over 6,366
Total 185,045

The Grand Duke of Darmstadt would make himself liable for one-half of the private debts of the Prince of Ysemburg.

The overplus of the above-named Indemnities will be employed to obtain for His Prussian Majesty the Sovereignty of the possessions of Wittgenstein and Berleburg.

The best endeavours will be made to use the part of the country of Ysemburg, situated on the left bank of the Maine, in the exchanges which the Grand Duke of Hesse is to make with the Elector of Hesse for the bailiwicks above mentioned, sub Lit. 0., and to obtain from the Elector of Hesse the whole of the road from Saalmunster to Haynau.

Darmstadt would obtain :

A On the Left Bank of the Rhine Subjects.
The Town of Mayence 26,400
Nieder-Olm 12,113
Ober-Ingelheim 13,523
Bingen 8,191
Wollstein 10,806
Worstadt 15,403
Oppenheim 14,606
Bechtheim 15,834
Alzey 15,961
Pfeddersheim 14,573
Worms 5,718
B. On the Right Bank of the Rhine:
The villages of Nieder-Ursel and Ober-Erlenbach 1,104
The Principality of Ysemburg 47,454
Total 201,640
C. The ownership of the Salt Mines of Kreutznach.

Notes[edit]

  1. Case of the Free Zones of Upper Savoy and the District of Gex , Permanent Court of International Justice, Parties: France & Switzerland, August 19th, 1929, Initiated March 29th, 1928. p.3
  2. British Foreign Office uses 20th in the text of the French original. Hertslet uses 3rd November. Both sources footnote that the agreement was initialled on 3rd November and signed on the 20th. (British Foreign Office pp. 234,239. Hertslet p. 333)
  3. For French the version, see "State Papers," Volume III (1918–1816),(Hertslet p. 234) p. 234: Protocole de la Conférence entre les Plénipotentiaires des 4 Cours Alliées, sur les Arrangemens Territoriaux, et le Système Défensif delà Confédération Germanique; et qui tiendra lieu d'une Convention Particulière à ce sujet. (See Table of Contents page iii "Conferences between the Plenipotentiaries of the 4 Powers, and Communications between them and France, relative to the Arrangements for a General Peace .................... Paris, July, November, 1815..." page 214
  4. Hertslet (No. 38) pp. 326–336
  5. See Article VII, § d, and note, p. 5.(Hertslet p. 328)

    [The Fortress of Landau] was restored to Germany by Art. I of the Definitive Treaty of 20th November, 1815. By Art. II of the Treaty between Austria and Bavaria of 16th April, 1816, Landau was given to Bavaria. By Art. II of the Treaty between the 4 Allied Powers of 20th July, 1819, Bavaria was confirmed in the possession of Landau; and by Art. III of the same Treaty, the Fortress of Landau was declared to be one of the Fortresses of the Germanic Confederation. On the 6th July, 1869, a Protocol was signed between North Germany, Bavaria, &c, respecting the Joint Property of the Movable Materiel of War in the Federal Fortresses of Landau, &c.(Hertslet, p.5 footnote)

  6. 6.0 6.1 See Treaty between Austria and Bavaria of 14th April, 1816. (Hertslet p. 333,)
  7. Section A was presented to the Parliament of the United Kingdom on 2 February 1816 as part of the Peace of Paris of November the previous year, where it was titled "11. Extract of a Protocol, relative to the territories and places ceded by France, 20 November." (Hansard pp. 246,247, 274). The title used in Hansard was used in some other contemporary publications.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 See Treaty between Great Britain, Austria, &c, of 20th July, 1819. (Hertslet p. 328,330)
  9. See Treaty of Paris (1815)/Act on the neutrality of Switzerland (Hertslet p. 328).
  10. Annex XII to the Vienna Congress. Treaty of 9th June, 1815, (Hertslet pp. 70,329)
  11. See Convention of 1st July, 1816. (Hertslet p. 330)
  12. Territorial Convention between Austria, Prussia, and Hesse-Darmstadt Signed at Vienna 10th June, 1815, (Hertslet pp. 278,331)
  13. By the Project of Convention annexed to the Protocol of 10th June, 1815, the Reversion of Brisgau, and of the Palatinate, were secured eventually to the House of Austria—excepting those parts which were ceded to Prussia (Hertslet p. 331).
  14. See Treaty between Austria and Bavaria of 16th April, 1816 (Hertslet p. 331).
  15. British Foreign Office uses 20th in the text of the French original. Hertslet uses 3rd November. Both sources footnote that the agreement was initialled on 3rd November and signed on the 20th. (British Foreign Office pp. 234,239. Hertslet p. 333)
  16. Treaty of Paris, Article 2.4 (Hertslet p. 333).
  17. Viz., the Bailiwicks of Bruckcnau, Hammelburg, that part of Bieberstein belonging to Austria, and a part of the Bailiwick of Weihers belonging to Prussia, or other adjoining territories sufficient to compensate for the Bailiwicks of Saalnriinster, of Ursel, and of Sannerz, which Austria places at the disposal of Prussia.(Hertslet p. 334).

References[edit]

  • Hertslet, Edward (1875). The map of Europe by treaty; showing the various political and territorial changes which have taken place since the general peace of 1814, London, Butterworths. (No. 38) pp. 326–336
  • Great Britain Foreign Office, British and Foreign State Papers Volume III (1815-1816), H. M. S. O., 1838
  • Hansard, The Parliamentary Debates from the Year 1803 to the Present Time ..., Volume 32. 1 February to 6 March 1816, T.C. Hansard, 1816. pp. 274,276
No. XI.—EXTRACT OF A PROTOCOL for regulating the Dispositions relative to the Territories and Places ceded by France, by Articles I, II, and III, of Treaty.
Extract of a Protocol, relative to the territories and places ceded by France, 20 November