Sanskrit Grammar

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Sanskrit Grammar  (1889) 
by William Dwight Whitney
A description of the Sanskrit language of the Indian subcontinent.

SANSKRIT GRAMMAR

Including both the Classical Language, and
the older Dialects, of Veda and Brahmana

BY

WILLIAM DWIGHT WHITNEY


Late Professor of Sanskrit in Yale University, Knight of the Prussian Order
Pour le Mérite, Corresponding Member of the Académie des Inscrip-
tions et Belles-Lettres of the Institute of France, etc., Editor-
in-Chief of The Century Dictionary, an Encyclopedic
Lexicon of the English Language


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CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS

HARVARD UNIVERSITY PRESS

LONDON: GEOFFREY CUMBERLEGE

OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS

1950


CONTENTS.


Chap. Page.
Preface v
Introduction xi
I. Alphabet 19
II. System of Sounds; Pronunciation 1034
Vowels, 10; Consonants, 13; Quantity, 27; Accent, 28.
III. Rules of Euphonic Combination 3487
Introductory, 34; Principles, 37; Rules of Vowel Combination, 42; Permitted Finals, 49; Deaspiration, 53; Surd and Sonant Assmiliation, 54; Combinations of Final s and r, 56; Conversion of s to ṣ, 61; Conversion of n to ṇ, 64; Conversion of Dental Mutes to Linguals and Palatals, 66; Combinations of Final n, 69; Combinations of Final m, 71; the Palatal Mutes and Sibilant, and h, 72; the Lingual Sibilant, 77; Extension and Abbreviation, 78; Strengthening and Weakening Processes, 81; Guṇa and Vṛddhi, 81; Vowel-lengthening, 84; Vowel-lightening, 85; Nasal Increment, 86; Reduplication, 87.
IV. Declension 88110
Gender, Number, Case, 88; Uses of the Cases, 89; Endings of declension, 103; Variation of Stem, 107; Accent in Declension, 108.
V. Nouns and Adjectives 111176
Classification etc., 111; Declension I., Stems in a, 112; Declension II., Stems in i and u, 116; Declension III., Stems in Long Vowels (ā, ī, ū): A. Root-words etc., 124; Stems in Diphthongs, 130; B. Derivative Stems etc., 131; Declension IV., Stems in ṛ and ar, 137; Declension V., Stems in Consonants, 141; A. Root-stems etc., 143; B. Derivative Stems in as, is, us, 153; C. Derivative Stems in an, 156; D. in in, 161; E. in ant or at, 163; F. Perfect Participles in vāṅs, 169; G. Comparatives in yāṅs or yas, 172; Comparison, 173.
VI. Numerals 177185
Cardinals, 177; Ordinals etc, 183.
VII. Pronouns 185199
Personal, 185; Demonstrative, 188; Interrogative, 194; Relative, 195; other Pronouns: Emphatic, Indefinite, 196; Nouns used pronominally, 197; Pronominal Derivatives, Posessives etc., 197; Adjectives declined pronominally, 199.
VIII. Conjugation 200226
Voice, Tense, Mode, Number, Person, 200; Verbal Adjectives and Nouns, 203; Secondary Conjugations, 203; Personal Endings, 204; Subjunctive Mode, 209; Optative, 211; Imperative, 213; Uses of the Modes, 215; Participles, 220; Augment, 220; Reduplication, 222; Accent of the Verb, 223.
IX. The Present-System 227278
General, 227; Conjugations and Conjugation Classes, 228; Root-Class (second or ad-class), 231; Reduplicating Class (third or hu-class), 242; Nasal Class (seventh or rudh-class), 250; nu and u-Classes (fifth and eight, or su- and tan-classes), 254; nā-Class (ninth or krī-class), 260; a-Class (first or bhū-class), 264; Accent á-Class (sixth or tud-class), 269; ya-Class (fourth or div-class), 271; Accented yá-Class or Passive Conjugation, 275; So-called tenth or cur-class, 277; Uses of the Present and Imperfect, 278.
X. The Perfect-System 279296
Perfect Tense, 279; Perfect Participle, 291; Modes of the Perfect, 292; Pluperfect, 295; Uses of the Perfect, 295.
XI. The Aorist-System 297330
Classification, 297; I. Simple Aorist: 1. Root-Aorist, 299; Passive Aorist 3d sing., 304; 2. the a-Aorist, 305; II. 3. Reduplicated Aorist, 308; III. Sibilant Aorist, 313; 4. the s-Aorist, 314; 5. the iṣ-Aorist, 320; 6. the siṣ-Aorist, 323; 7. The sa-Aorist, 325; Precative, 326; Uses of the Aorist, 328.
XII. The Future-Systems 330339
I. The s-Future, 331; Preterit of the s-Future, Conditional, 334; II. The Periphrastic Future, 335; Uses of the Futures and Conditional, 337.
XIII. Verbal Adjectives and Nouns: Participles, Infinitives, Gerunds 340360
Passive Participle in tá or ná, 340; Past Active Participle in tavant, 344; Future Passive Participles, Gerundives, 345; Infinitives, 347; Uses of the Infinitives, 351; Gerunds, 355; Adverbial Gerund in am, 359.
XIV. Derivative or Secondary Conjugation 360391
I. Passive, 361; II. Intensive, 362; Present-System, 365; Perfect, Aorist, Future, etc., 370; III. Desiderative, 372; Present-System, 374; Perfect, Aorist, Future, etc., 376; IV. Causative, 378; Present-System, 380; Perfect, Aorist, Future, etc., 383; V. Denominative, 386.
XV. Periphrastic and Compound Conjugation 391403
The Periphrastic Perfect, 392; Participial Periphrastic Phrases, 394; Composition with Prepositional Prefixes, 395; Other Verbal Compound, 400.
XVI. Indeclinables 403417
Adverbs, 403; Prepositions, 414; Conjuctions, 416; Interjections, 417.
XVII. Derivation of Declinable Stems 418480
A. Primary Derivatives, 420; B. Secondary Derivatives, 454.
XVIII. Formation of Compound Stems 480515
Classification, 480; I. Copulative Compounds, 485; II. Determinative Compounds, 489; A. Dependent Compounds, 489; B. Descriptive Compounds, 494; III. Secondary Adjective Compounds, 501; A. Possessive Compounds, 501; B. Compound with Governed Final Member, 511; Adjective Compounds as Nouns and as Adverbs, 512; Anomalous Compounds 514; Stem-finals altered in Composition, 514; Loose Construction with Compounds, 515.
Appendix 516520
A. Examples of Various Sanskrit Type, 516; B. Example of Accentuated Text, 518; Synopsis of the conjugation of roots bhū and kṛ, 520.
Sanskrit Index 521539
General Index 540551
This work published before January 1, 1923 is in the public domain worldwide because the author died at least 100 years ago.