Statesman's Year-Book 1899

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The Statesman's Year-Book
Statistical and Historical Annual of the States of the World for the Year 1899
 (1899) 
The Statesman's Year-Book
Statistical and Historical Annual of the States of the World for the Year 1899
New York and London: The Macmillan Company pages title-4

THE
STATESMAN'S YEAR-BOOK

STATISTICAL AND HISTORICAL ANNUAL OF THE
STATES OF THE WORLD FOR THE YEAR
1899

EDITED BY
J. SCOTT KELTIE, LL.D., and I. P. A. RENWICK, M.A., LL.B.

American Edition

EDITED BY
CARROLL D. WRIGHT, LL.D.
UNITED STATES COMMISSIONER OF LABOR
PRESIDENT OF THE AMERICAN STATISTICAL ASSOCIATION

THIRTY-SIXTH ANNUAL PUBLICATION

REVISED AFTER OFFICIAL RETURNS

New York
THE MACMILLAN COMPANY
LONDON : MACMILLAN & CO., Ltd.
1899

All rights reserved

Copyright, 1899,
By THE MACMILLAN CO.

Norwood Press
J. S. Cushing & Co. – Berwick & Smith
Norwood Mass. U.S.A.

NOTE.

The matter relating to the U. S. is paged in Roman numerals and is immediately followed by a special index for this part.

The matter relating to the rest of the world follows, and is itself indexed at the end of the volume.

CONTENTS

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Preface 5
page
I. The Nation i
Constitution and Government i
U. S. Embassies and Legations xxiv-xxvii
Foreign Embassies and Legations xxvii-xxxi
Consular Officers of United States xxxi-xlvii
Army xlvii
Navy liv
Legislative Department lxvii
Judiciary lxxxi
Population lxxxvii
Public Domain xci
Immigration xciv
Divorce xcviii
Agriculture xcix
Forestry cvii
Mining cviii
Manufactures cxvi
Liquor Traffic cxx
Commerce cxxiv
Merchant Marine cxlvii
Life-saving Service cxlix
Internal Communications cl
Railways cl
Telegraphs clvii
Telephones clviii
Postal Service clviii
Finance clix
National Banks clxxx
Loan and Trust Companies clxxxiv
Private Banks clxxxiv
Building and Loan Associations clxxxvi
Failures clxxxvii
Bankruptcy Act clxxxix
Fire Insurance cxc
Life Insurance cxcii
Pensions cxciv
Patents cxcvi
Instruction cxcvii
Newspapers cciv
Religion ccv
Crime, Pauperism, etc. ccvii
Strikes and Lockouts ccix
Arbitration ccxi
Political Parties ccxiii
Naturalization ccxv
Spanish War, 1898 ccxvi
II. States and Territories ccxx
Qualifications for Voting ccxxiii
Labor Legislation ccxxiv
State Boards of Arbitration ccxxvi
Factory Inspection ccxxvi
Bureaus of Labor Statistics ccxxvii
State Finances ccxxvii
Hawaii ccxxviii
Porto Rico ccxxxvi
Philippine Islands ccxli
Guam (Ladrones) ccl
Cuba ccl
III. Principal Cities and Towns cclviii
Government cclviii
Population cclix
Municipal Statistics cclx
Street Railways cclxx
IV. Books of Reference concerning the United States cclxxii
MAPS
1. Showing ratio of Imports to Exports, and general direction of each.
2. Territorial Growth of the United States.
3. Cuba and Porto Rico.
4. Hawaiian Islands and Philippine Islands.

PREFACE

The first duty of myself and my colleague, Mr. Renwick, is to return our warmest thanks to those numerous friends in all parts of the world who have co-operated with us again this year in the preparation of the new edition of the Year-Book; without such co-operation it would be impossible to produce the work.

In the new edition there have necessarily been considerable alterations as the result of the events of the past year — the American war with Spain, the operations in the Sudan, the action of the European Powers in China. It will be found that the various changes necessitated by these transactions have been duly recorded. In other respects various modifications have been made, and the statistical and other information brought up to date throughout the whole work. The maps this year include a map of Africa, showing the railways, river routes, and telegraphs in Africa, existing and projected; a map of Newfoundland illustrating the French shore question; and a map showing the addition on the Chinese mainland to the colony of Hong Kong. There are preliminary tables showing the Revenue, Expenditure, Debt, and Debt-charge of the principal countries of the World, with the commerce of these countries, in absolute figures and per head of population; as also a table showing the gold and silver production of the World. The Index has been thoroughly revised and extended by Mr. Renwick. The Navies have been again revised by Mr. John Leyland. Such are a few of the new features of the 1899 edition.

J. S. K.

Office of 'The Statesman's Year-Book,'
St. Martin's Street,
London, W.C.

March 8, 1899.

CONTENTS

Preface v
INTRODUCTORY TABLES.
I.—THE BRITISH EMPIRE, 1897-98. xxvi
II.—FINANCE AND COMMERCE OF VARIOUS COUNTRIES. xxvi
III.—THE WORLD'S PRODUCTION OF GOLD AND SILVER. xxx
Additions and Corrections xxxi
LIST OF MAPS.
I.—Map of Hong Kong, showing Recent Additions on the

Mainland.

II.—Map of Newfoundland, illustrating the French Shore

Question.

III.—Map of Africa, showing Railways Constructed and

Projected, and Navigable River Routes.

IV.—Map of Africa, showing Telegraphs Constructed and

Projected.

Part the First.
THE BRITISH EMPIRE.
Reigning Queen and Empress 3
I. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
page
Constitution and Government 6
Area and Population 14
Religion 28
Instruction 33
Justice and Crime 39
Pauperism 42
Finance 43
Defence 55
Production and Industry 67
Commerce 79
Shipping and Navigation 88
Internal Communications 91
Money and Credit 95
Money, Weights, and Measures 98
Books of Reference 99
II. India, the Colonies, Protectorates, and Dependencies
Europe
Gibraltar 105
Malta 106
Asia
Aden, Perim, Somaliland, Sokotra 108
Bahrein Islands 109
Borneo (British) 110
Ceylon
Constitution and Government 112
Area and Population 113
Religion and Instruction 114
Justice, Crime and Pauperism 115
Finance 115
Defence 115
Production and Industry 116
Commerce 116
Shipping and Communications 117
Money and Credit 117
Dependency 118
Books of Reference 118
Cyprus 118
Hong Kong
Constitution and Government 120
Area and Population 121
Instruction 122
Justice and Crime 122
Finance 122
Defence 123
Commerce and Shipping 123
Money and Credit 124
Money, Weights, and Measures 124
Books of Reference 124
India and Dependencies
Government and Constitution 125
Area and Population 128
Religion 135
Instruction 137
Justice and Crime 138
Finance 139
Defence 143
Production and Industry 146
Commerce 151
Shipping and Navigation 157
Internal Communications 159
Money and Credit 162
Money, Weights, and Measures 163
Books of Reference 164
Baluchistan 166
Sikkim 169
Andaman and Nicobar Islands 170
Laccadive Islands 170
Kamaran Island 170
Labuan 170
The Straits Settlements
Constitution and Government 171
Area and Population 172
Instruction 173
Justice and Crime 174
Finance 174
Defence, Production, Industry 175
Commerce 175
Shipping and Navigation 177
Communications 177
Money, Weights, and Measures 177
Books of Reference 178
Wei-Hai-Wei 179
Africa
Ascension Island 180
Basutoland 180
Bechuanaland Protectorate 181
Cape of Good Hope
Constitution and Government 182
Area and Population 183
Religion and Instruction 185
Justice and Crime 186
Pauperism 186
Finance 186
Defence 187
Production and Industry 187
Commerce 188
Shipping and Navigation 190
Internal Communications 190
Banks 190
Money, Weights, and Measures 191
Books of Reference 191
Central Africa (British) 192
Central Africa Protectorate (British) 193
East Africa (British) 194
East Africa Protectorate 195
Uganda Protectorate 196
Zanzibar
Sultan and Government 197
Area, Population, Religion 197
Justice 197
Finance, Commerce 198
Books of Reference 199
Mauritius
Constitution and Government 200
Area and Population 200
Finance, Defence, Commerce 201
Shipping and Communications 202
Money, Weights, and Measures 202
Dependencies 202
Books of Reference 202
Natal
Constitution and Government 203
Area and Population 204
Instruction 205
Finance 205
Defence 205
Industry 206
Commerce 206
Shipping and Communications 207
Books of Reference 207
Niger Coast Protectorate 208
Niger Territories 209
South Africa (British) 212
St. Helena 214
Tristan da Cunha 215
West African Colonies
The Gold Coast 215
Lagos 215
Gambia 216
Sierra Leone 216
America
Bermudas 219
Canada
Constitution and Government 220
Area and Population 222
Religion 224
Instruction 225
Justice and Crime 225
Finance 226
Defence 228
Production and Industry 229
Commerce 230
Shipping and Navigation 234
Internal Communications 234
Money and Credit 235
Money, Weights, and Measures 236
Books of Reference 236
Falkland Islands 238
Guiana, British 239
Honduras, British 240
Newfoundland and Labrador 241
West Indies 244
Bahamas 244
Barbados 244
Jamaica 245
Leeward Islands 247
Trinidad 248
Windward Islands 249
Statistics of West Indies 250
Books of Reference of West Indies 252
Australasia and Oceania
Fiji
Constitution and Government 253
Area and Population 253
Religion 254
Instruction 254
Finance 254
Production and Industry 254
Commerce 255
Shipping and Communications 256
Money, Weights, and Measures 256
Books of Reference 256
New Guinea, British 256
Books of Reference 258
New South Wales
Constitution and Government 258
Area and Population 259
Religion 261
Instruction 262
Justice and Crime 202
Finance 263
Defence 204
Production and Industry 265
Commerce 268
Shipping and Navigation 270
Internal Communications 270
Money and Credit 271
Books of Reference 272
New Zealand
Government and Constitution 273
Area and Population 275
Religion 277
Instruction 277
Justice and Crime 278
Pauperism 279
Finance 279
Defence 281
Production and Industry 281
Commerce 283
Shipping and Navigation 285
Internal Communications 286
Money and Credit 287
Books of Reference 287
Queensland
Constitution and Government 288
Area and Population 289
Religion 290
Instruction 291
Justice and Crime 291
Pauperism 291
Finance 291
Defence 292
Production and Industry 292
Commerce 293
Shipping and Navigation 294
Internal Communications 295
Banks 295
Books of Reference 295
South Australia
Constitution and Government 296
Area and Population 297
Religion and Instruction 298
Justice and Crime 298
Defence 298
Finance 298
Production and Industry 299
Commerce 299
Shipping and Navigation 301
Communications 301
Banks 301
Books of Reference 302
Tasmania
Constitution and Government 302
Area and Population 303
Religion 304
Instruction 304
Justice and Crime 305
Pauperism 305
Revenue and Expenditure 305
Defence 306
Production and Industry 306
Commerce 307
Shipping and Navigation 308
Internal Communications 308
Books of Reference 309
Victoria
Constitution and Government 309
Area and Population 310
Religion 312
Instruction 312
Justice and Crime 313
Finance 314
Defence 315
Production and Industry 315
Commerce 316
Shipping and Navigation 319
Internal Communications 319
Money and Credit 320
Books of Reference 320
Western Australia
Constitution and Government 321
Area and Population 322
Religion 322
Instruction 323
Justice and Crime 323
Pauperism 323
Finance 324
Defence 324
Production and Industry 324
Commerce 325
Shipping and Communications 326
Money and Credit 326
Books of Reference 327
Australian Defence 327
Australasian Federation 328
Books of Reference 330
Pacific Islands 332
Part the Second.
FOREIGN COUNTRIES.
ABYSSINIA 336
AFGHÁNISTÁN 338
Trade 340
Books of Reference 341
AFRICA, CENTRAL 341
Central Sudan States—Bornu 342
Wadai—Kanem 342
ARGENTINE REPUBLIC
Constitution and Goverament 344
Area and Population 345
Religion and Instruction 346
Justice 347
Finance 347
Defence 348
Production and Industry 350
Commerce 350
Shipping and Navigation 352
Internal Communications 353
Money and Credit 353
Money, Weights, and Measures 354
Diplomatic Representatives 354
Books of Reference 354
AUSTRIA-HUNGARY
Reigning Sovereign 356
Political Relation between Austria and Hungary 358
Common Finance 359
Defence 361
Commerce of the Common Customs Territory 365
Money and Credit 367
Money, Weights, and Measures 367
AUSTRIA—
Constitution and Government 368
Area and Population 371
Religion 373
Instruction 374
Justice and Crime 376
Pauperism 377
Finance 378
Production and Industry 379
Shipping and Navigation 383
Internal Communications 383
Money and Credit 385
Liechtenstein 386
HUNGARY—
Constitution and Government 387
Area and Population 389
Religion 391
Instruction 392
Justice and Crime 394
Pauperism 394
Finance 394
Production and Industry 396
Commerce 399
Shipping and Navigation 399
Internal Communications 400
Money and Credit 401
Austria-Hungary
Diplomatic Representatives 402
Bosnia and Herzegovina 403
Books of Reference 404
BELGIUM
Reigning King 408
Constitution and Government 409
Area and Population 412
Religion 414
Instruction 414
Justice and Crime 416
Pauperism 416
State Finance 417
Local Finance 418
Defence 418
Production and Industry 419
Commerce 421
Shipping and Navigation 424
Internal Communications 425
Money and Credit 425
Money, Weights, and Measures 426
Diplomatic Representatives 426
Books of Reference 426
BHUTAN 427
BOLIVIA
Constitution and Government 429
Area and Population 429
Religion, Instruction, and Justice 430
Finance 430
Defence 430
Production and Indusstry 431
Commerce 431
Communications 431
Money, Weights, and Measures 432
Consular Representative 432
Books of Reference 433
BRAZIL
Constitution and Government 434
Area and Population 436
Religion 437
Instruction 437
Justice and Crime 438
Finance 438
Defence 439
Production and Industry 440
Commerce 441
Shipping and Navigation 442
Internal Commimications 442
Money and Credit 442
Money, Weights, and Measures 443
Diplomatic and Consular Representatives 443
Books of Reference 444
CHILE
Constitution and Government 445
Area and Population 446
Religion 447
Instruction 447
Justice and Crime 448
Finance 448
Defence 449
Industry 450
Commerce 451
Shipping and Navigation 453
Communications 453
Money and Credit 453
Money, Weights, and Measures 454
Diplomatic and Consular Representatives 454
Books of Reference 454
CHINA
Reigning Emperor 456
Government 456
Area and Population 457
Religion 459
Instruction 459
Finance 460
Defence 462
Production and Industry 463
Commerce 463
Shipping and Navigation 466
Internal Communications 466
Money, Weights, and Measures 467
Diplomatic Representatives 468
Books of Reference 469
COLOMBIA
Constitution and Government 471
Area and Population 471
Religion and Education 472
Finance 472
Defence 473
Production 473
Commerce 474
Shipping and Communications 474
Money and Credit 475
Money, Weights, and Measures 475
Diplomatic and Commercial Representatives 476
Books of Reference 476
CONGO INDEPENDENT STATE
Constitution and Government 478
Area and Population 479
Finance, Defence 479
Production, Commerce, Shipping 479
Internal Communications 480
Books of Reference 481
COSTA RICA
Constitution and Government 482
Area and Population 482
Religion and Instruction 482
Justice 483
Finance 483
Defence 483
Industry and Commerce 483
Shipping and Communications 484
Money, Weights, and Measures 484
Diplomatic and Consular Representatives 485
Books of Reference 485
DENMARK
Reigning King 486
Constitution and Government 487
Area and Population 489
Religion 490
Instruction 490
Justice and Crime 491
Finance 491
Defence 493
Production and Industry 494
Commerce 494
Shipping and Navigation 496
Internal Communications 496
Money and Credit 496
Money, Weights, and Measures 497
Diplomatic and Consular Representatives 497
Colonies 497
Books of Reference 498
ECUADOR
Constitution and Government 499
Area and Population 499
Religion and Instruction 500
Justice and Crime 500
Finance 500
Defence 501
Commerce 501
Shipping and Navigation 502
Internal Communications 502
Money and Credit 503
Money, Weights, and Measures 503
Diplomatic and Consular Representatives 504
Books of Reference 504
FRANCE
Constitution and Government 505
Area and Population 509
Religion 514
Instruction 515
Justice and Crime 517
Pauperism 518
Finance 518
Defence 522
Production and Industry 530
Commerce 534
Shipping and Navigation 537
Internal Communications 539
Money and Credit 540
Money, Weights, and Measures 541
Diplomatic Representatives 542
Books of Reference 542
Andorra 545
Colonies and Dependencies 545
Asia
French India 547
French Indo-China 547
Annam 548
Cambodia 548
Cochin-China 548
Tonkin 549
Books of Reference 550
Africa
Algeria
Government 550
Area and Population 551
Religion and Instruction 551
Crime 551
Finance 552
Defence 552
Industry 552
Commerce 553
Shipping and Communications 554
Money, Weights, and Measures 555
Books of Reference 555
French Congo and Gabun 556
Madagascar
Government 556
Area and Population 557
Religion, Education, Justice 558
Finance 558
Defence 558
Production and Industry 559
Commerce 559
Shipping and Communications 559
Money and Banks 560
Consular and other Representatives 560
Books of Reference 560
Diégo-Suarez—Nossi-bé—Ste. Marie 561
Mayotte and the Comoro Islands 561
Réunion 561
Obock and Somali Coast 562
Senegal, French Sudan, French Guinea, Ivory Coast and Dahomey 562
Books of Reference 564
Tunis
Bey 564
Government 565
Area and Population 565
Finance 566
Industry 566
Commerce 567
Money, Weights, and Measures 567
Books of Reference 568
America
Guadeloupe and Dependencies 568
Guiana 569
Martinique 569
St. Pierre and Miquelon 569
Books of Reference 570
Australasia and Oceania
New Caledonia and Dependencies 570
Society Islands and Neighbouring Groups 571
Books of Reference 571
GERMAN EMPIRE
Reigning Emperor and King 572
Constitution and Government 573
Area and Population 576
Religion 580
Instruction 581
Justice and Crime 583
Pauperism 584
Finance 585
Defence 587
Production and Industry 594
Commerce 598
Shipping and Navigation 602
Internal Communications 604
Money and Credit 607
Money, Weights, and Measures 607
Diplomatic Representatives 608
Books of Reference 608
Foreign Dependencies 610
Togoland 610
Kamerun 611
German South-West Africa 612
German East Africa 613
Kiau-Chau 614
In the Western Pacific 614
Books of Reference 615
States of Germany
Alsace-Lorraine
Constitution 616
Area and Population 617
Religion, Instruction, Justice and Crime 617
Finance 618
Production and Industry 618
Books of Reference 618
Anhalt
Reigning Duke 618
Constitution 619
Area and Population 619
Finance 620
Baden
Reigning Grand-Duke 620
Constitution 621
Area and Population 621
Religion and Instruction 622
Finance 623
Production and Industry 623
Communications 624
Books of Reference 624
Bavaria
Reigning King 624
Regent 624
Constitution and Government 625
Area and Population 626
Religion 628
Instruction 628
Justice, Crime, and Pauperism 628
Finance 629
Army 629
Production and Industry 630
Books of Reference 630
Bremen
Constitution 631
Area and Population 631
Religion, Justice, and Crime 631
Finance 632
Commerce and Shipping 632
Books of Reference 632
Brunswick
Regent 632
Constitution 633
Area and Population 633
Finance 634
Production and Industry 634
Books of Reference 634
Hamburg
Constitution 634
Area and Population 635
Religion, Justice, Crime, and Agriculture 636
Finance 636
Commerce and Shipping 636
Books of Reference 638
Hesse
Reigning Grand-Duke 638
Constitution 639
Area and Population 639
Religion and Instruction 640
Finance 640
Production and Industry 641
Books of Reference 641
Lippe
Reigning Prince 642
Constitution 642
Area and Population 642
Finance and Industry 643
Lübeck
Constitution 643
Area and Population 643
Religion, Instruction, Justice, and Pauperism 644
Finance 644
Commerce and Shipping 644
Books of Reference 645
Mecklenburg-Schwerin
Reigning Grand-Duke 645
Constitution 645
Area and Population 646
Religion and Instruction 646
Justice, Crime, and Pauperism 646
Finance 647
Production 647
Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Reigning Grand-Duke 647
Constitution and Finance 648
Area, Population, &c. 648
Oldenburg
Reigning Grand-Duke 649
Constitution and Revenue 650
Area and Population 650
Religion, Instruction, and Justice 651
Production 651
Books of Reference 651
Prussia
Reigning King 652
Constitution and Government 654
Area and Population 658
Religion 661
Instruction 661
Justice, Crime 663
Finance 663
Army 665
Production and Industry 666
Commerce 667
Internal Communications 667
Books of Reference 667
Reuss, Elder Branch 668
Reuss, Younger Branch 668
Saxe-Altenburg 670
Saxe-Coburg and Gotha 671
Saxe-Meiningen 673
Saxe-Weimar
Reigning Grand-Duke 674
Constitution and Revenue 675
Area and Population 675
Religion, Instruction, Justice, and Crime 676
Production 676
Saxony
Reigning King 676
Constitution and Government 677
Area and Population 678
Religion 679
Instruction 680
Justice, Crime, and Pauperism 680
Finance 680
Production and Industry 680
Communications 682
Books of Reference 682
Schaumburg-Lippe
Reigning Prince 682
Constitution and Finance 682
Area and Population 682
Schartzburg-Rudolstadt 683
Schwartzburg-Sonderhausen 684
Waldeck 685
Württemberg
Reigning King 686
Constitution and Government 686
Area and Population 687
Religion 688
Instruction 688
Crime and Pauperism 689
Finance 689
Army 690
Industry 690
Books of Reference 690
GREECE
Reigning King 691
Constitution and Government 692
Area and Population 693
Religion 694
Instruction 694
Finance 695
Defence 697
Production and Industry 698
Commerce 699
Navigation and Shipping 701
Internal Communications 701
Money and Credit 701
Money, Weights, and Measures 702
Diplomatic Representatives 702
Books of Reference 702
GUATEMALA
Constitution and Government 704
Area and Population 704
Religion 704
Instruction 704
Crime 704
Finance 705
Defence 705
Production and Industry 705
Commerce 706
Shipping and Communications 706
Money, Weights, and Measures 707
Diplomatic and Consular Representatives 707
Books of Reference 707
 HAITI
Constitution and Government 708
Area and Population 708
Religion and Instruction 709
Finance 709
Defence 709
Commerce and Communications 709
Money, Weights, and Measures 710
Diplomatic and Consular Representatives 710
Books of Reference 711
HONDURAS
Constitution and Government 712
Area and Population 712
Instruction 712
Finance 712
Production and Commerce 713
Communications 713
Money, Weights, and Measures 713
Diplomatic and Consular Representatives 714
Books of Reference 714
ITALY
Reigning King 715
Constitution and Government 716
Area and Population 719
Religion 726
Instruction 733
Justice and Crime 735
Pauperism 736
Finance 737
Defence 742
Production and Industry 748
Commerce 751
Navigation and Shipping 753
Internal Communications 754
Money and Credit 755
Money, Weights, and Measures 756
Diplomatic Representatives 756
Foreign Dependencies 757
Books of Reference 758
JAPAN
Reigning Sovereign 761
Constitution and Government 761
Local Government 763
Area and Population 763
Religion 765
Instruction 765
Justice and Crime 765
Pauperism 766
Finance 766
Defence 768
Production and Industry 770
Commerce 771
Shipping and Navigation 772
Internal Communications 773
Money and Credit 773
Money, Weights, and Measures 774
Diplomatic Representatives 775
Books of Reference 775
KOREA
Government 777
Area and Population 777
Religion and Instruction 778
Finance 778
Defence 778
Production and Commerce 778
Money 780
Books of Reference 780
LIBERIA
Constitution and Government 780
Area and Population 781
Finance 781
Commerce 781
Money, Weights, and Measures 782
Diplomatic and Consular Representatives 782
Books of Reference 782
LUXEMBURG 783
MEXICO
Constitution and Government 784
Area and Population 785
Religion, Instruction, Justice 786
State Finance 787
Local Finance 788
Defence 788
Production and Industry 789
Commerce 790
Shipping and Communications 791
Money and Credit 791
Money, Weights, and Measures 792
Diplomatic and Consular Representatives 792
Books of Reference 793
MONACO 794
MONTENEGRO
Reigning Prince 795
Government 795
Area and Population 796
Religion 796
Instruction 796
Justice, Crime, and Pauperism 797
Finance, Defence 797
Production and Industry 797
Commerce 798
Communications 798
Money 798
Books of Reference 798
MOROCCO
Reigning Sultan 799
Government 799
Area and Population 799
Defence 800
Commerce 800
Money, Weights, and Measures 801
Diplomatic and Consular Representatives 802
Books of Reference 802
NEPAL 803
NETHERLANDS (THE)—
Reigning Sovereign 805
Government and Constitution 806
Area and Population 809
Religion 811
Instruction 811
Justice and Crime 813
Pauperism 813
Finance 814
Defence 816
Production and Industry 818
Commerce 820
Shipping and Navigation 823
Internal Communications 824
Money and Credit 826
Money, Weights, and Measures 827
Diplomatic and Consular Representatives 828
Colonies 828
Dutch East Indies
Government and Constitution 828
Area and Population 829
Religion 831
Instruction 831
Justice and Crime 832
Finance 832
Defence 833
Production and Industry 834
Commerce 835
Shipping and Communications 836
Money and Credit 837
Money, Weights, and Measures 837
Consular Representatives 837
Dutch West Indies
Dutch Guiana, or Surinam 837
Curaçao 839
Books of Reference 840
NICARAGUA
Constitution and Government 843
Area and Population 843
Instruction 843
Finance 844
Industry and Commerce 844
Shipping and Communications 845
Money, Weights, and Measures 845
Diplomatic and Consular Representatives 846
Books of Reference 846
OMAN 847
ORANGE FREE STATE
Constition and Government 848
Area and Population 848
Religion 849
Instruction 849
Justice and Crime 849
Finance 849
Defence 850
Production and Industry 850
Commerce 850
Communications 851
Books of Reference 851
PARAGUAY
Constitution and Government 852
Area and Population 852
Religion, Instruction, and Justice 853
Finance 853
Defence 854
Production and Industry 854
Commerce 854
Communications 855
Books of Reference 855
PERSIA
Reigning Shah 857
Government 858
Area and Population 859
Religion 859
Instruction 860
Justice 860
Finance 860
Defence 861
Production and Industry 861
Commerce 862
Money and Credit 864
Communications 864
Money, Weights, and Measures 865
Diplomatic Representatives 866
Books of Reference 867
PERU
Constition and Government 868
Area and Population 868
Religion 869
Instruction 869
Finance 870
Defence 871
Industry 871
Commerce 872
Shipping and Navigation 873
Internal Communications 873
Money, Weights, and Measures 874
Diplomatic Representatives 875
Books of Reference 875
PORTUGAL
Reigning King 877
Constition and Government 878
Area and Population 879
Religion 881
Instruction 882
Justice and Crime 882
Finance 883
Defence 884
Production and Industry 885
Commerce 886
Shipping and Navigation 888
Internal Communications 889
Money and Credit 889
Money, Weights, and Measures 889
Diplomatic Representatives 890
Dependencies 890
Books of Reference 893
RUMANIA
Reigning King 895
Constition and Government 895
Area and Population 896
Religion and Instruction 897
Finance 897
Defence 898
Production and Industry 899
Commerce 900
Shipping and Communications 901
Money, Weights, and Measures 901
Diplomatic and Consular Representatives 901
Books of Reference 902
RUSSIA
Reigning Emperor 903
Constitution and Government 905
Area and Population 910
Religion 916
Instruction 918
Justice and Crime 921
Finance 923
Defence 935
Production and Industry 946
Commerce 952
Shipping and Navigation 959
Internal Communications 961
Money and Credit 965
Money, Weights, and Measures 967
Diplomatic and Consular Representatives 967
 Finland
Population 968
Instruction 969
Pauperism and Crime 969
Finance 969
Industry 969
Commerce 970
Shipping and Navigation 971
Internal Communications 971
Money, Weights, &c. 972
Dependencies in Asia
Bokhara 972
Khiva 973
Port Arthur and Talien-Wan 974
Books of Reference 975
SALVADOR
Constitution and Government 979
Area and Population 979
Instruction and Justice 979
Finance 980
Production and Commerce 980
Shipping and Communications 981
Money, Weights, and Measures 981
Diplomatic Representatives 981
Books of Reference 981
SAMOA 982
SANTO DOMINGO
Constitution and Government 983
Area and Population 984
Religion and Instruction 984
Justice 984
Finance 984
Defence 985
Production and Industry 985
Commerce 985
Shipping and Communications 985
Money, Weights, and Measures 986
Diplomatic and Consular Representatives 986
Books of Reference 986
SERVIA
Reigning Sovereign and Family 987
Constitution and Government 987
Area and Population 988
Religion 989
Instruction 989
Justice, Crime, Pauperism 990
Finance 990
Defence 991
Production and Industry 992
Commerce 992
Communications 994
Money and Credit 994
Money, Weights, and Measures 994
Diplomatic and Consular Representatives 994
Books of Reference 995
SIAM
Reigning King. 996
Government 996
Area and Population 997
Religion and Instruction 998
Finance 998
Defence 998
Production and Industry 999
Commerce 999
Shipping and Communications 1000
Money, Weights, and Measures 1001
Diplomatic and Consular Representatives 1001
Books of Reference 1001
SOUTH AFRICAN REPUBLIC
Constitution and Government 1003
Area and Population 1004
Religion 1004
Instruction 1004
Finance 1005
Defence 1005
Production and Industry 1005
Commerce 1006
Communications 1006
Swaziland 1006
Books of Reference 1007
SPAIN
Reigning Sovereign 1008
Queen Regent 1008
Government and Constitution 1009
Area and Population 1012
Religion 1013
Instruction 1014
Finance 1014
Defence 1016
Production and Industry 1018
Commerce 1019
Shipping and Navigation 1021
Internal Communications 1021
Money and Credit 1022
Money, Weights, and Measures 1022
Diplomatic and Consular Representatives 1022
Colonies 1023
Books of Reference 1023
SWEDEN AND NORWAY
Reigning King 1025
Sweden
Constitution and Government 1026
Area and Population 1028
Religion 1031
Instruction 1031
Justice and Crime 1031
Pauperism 1031
Finance 1032
Defence 1033
Production and Industry 1035
Commerce 1036
Shipping and Navigation 1038
Internal Communications 1038
Money and Credit 1039
Norway
Constitution and Government 1040
Area and Population 1042
Religion 1044
Instruction 1044
Justice and Crime 1045
Pauperism 1045
Finance 1046
Defence 1047
Production and Industry 1049
Commerce 1050
Shipping and Navigation 1052
Internal Communications 1053
Money and Credit 1054
Money, Weights, and Measures 1055
Diplomatic Representatives 1055
Books of Reference 1056