The American Cyclopædia (1879)/New York (city)

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The American Cyclopædia
New York (city)
Edition of 1879. Written by J. W. HawesSee also New York City on Wikipedia, and the disclaimer.

NEW YORK, a city of the state of New York, coextensive with the county of the same name, the commercial metropolis of the United States, and the most populous city in the western hemisphere, situated at the mouth of the Hudson river, about 145 m. below Albany, 18 m. from the Atlantic ocean, 190 m. in a direct line S. W. of Boston, 205 m. N. E. of Washington, and 715 m. E. of Chicago; lat. of the city hall, 40° 42' 43" N., lon. 74° 0' 3" W. The main body of the city is situated on Manhattan island; besides which it includes Randall's, Ward's, and Blackwell's islands in the East river; Governor's, Bedloe's, and Ellis islands in the bay, occupied by the United States government; and a portion of the mainland N. of Manhattan island, and separated from it by Spuyten Duyvel creek and Harlem river. It is bounded N. by the city of Yonkers; E. by the Bronx river, which separates it from the towns of East Chester and West Chester, Westchester co., and by the East river, separating it from Long island; S. by the bay; and W. by the Hudson or North river, which separates it from New Jersey. Its extreme length N. from the Battery is 16 m.; greatest width, from the mouth of Bronx river W. to the Hudson, 4¼ m.; area, nearly 41 sq. m. or 26,500 acres, of which 19 sq. m. or 12,300 acres are on the mainland. Manhattan island is 13½ m. long, and varies in breadth from a few hundred yards at the Battery to 2¼ m. at 14th street, diminishing again to less than 1 m. above 130th street, and having an area of nearly 22 sq. m. or 14,000 acres. The East river islands comprise about 300 acres, and those in the bay 100 more. Manhattan island is bounded N. by Spuyten Duyvel creek and Harlem river, which separate it from the mainland of the state, E. by the East river, S. by the bay, and W. by the Hudson river. The island was originally very rough, a rocky ridge running from the S. point northward, and branching into several spurs, which united after 4 or 5 m., culminating in Washington heights, 238 ft. above tide water, and a bold promontory of 130 ft. at the extreme N. point. The S. portion of the island and the shores in some places were alluvial sand beds, while marshes and ponds also occurred. But the original character of the surface has disappeared in the lower portion, and is disappearing in the upper, before the constant grading and filling for the construction of new or the improvement of old streets. One of the largest bodies of water was the “Collect pond,” nearly 2 m. in circumference and 50 ft. deep, which covered the site of the “Tombs” and adjacent territory, and was connected with marshes on the Hudson by a rivulet on the line of Canal street, which takes its name from this circumstance. The lower part of the island has been considerably widened by filling in the rivers on either side. Several localities in the upper portion are popularly known by different names. Yorkville and Harlem are on the E. side, the former in the vicinity of 86th street, and the latter of 125th street. On the W. side are Bloomingdale and Manhattanville, opposite Yorkville and Harlem respectively. Above Manhattanville and in the vicinity of 150th street is Carmansville, about 1 m. further up Fort Washington or Washington Heights, and at the N. W. extremity of the island Inwood. The mainland portion of the city, formerly constituting the towns of Morrisania, West Farms, and Kingsbridge, Westchester co., was annexed by the act of May 23, 1873, which went into effect on Jan. 1, 1874. The S. portion, comprising Morrisania and a part of West Farms, forms the 23d ward of the city, the rest of West Farms with Kingsbridge constituting the 24th ward. The 23d ward contains several villages, with various popular designations, among which are Mott Haven and North New York, immediately across Harlem bridge; Port Morris, on the East river; and Melrose, Woodstock, Morrisania, Highbridgeville, and Claremont, further N. In the 24th ward are Tremont, Mount Hope, Mount Eden, Fairmount, West Farms, Belmont, Fordham, and Williamsbridge, between the Harlem and Bronx rivers; Kingsbridgeville and Spuyten Duyvel, separated from the N. extremity of Manhattan island by Spuyten Duyvel creek; Mosholu, N. of these; and Riverdale and Mount St. Vincent, on the Hudson. The surface of the new wards is diversified, the greater portion of the land being high and rolling, except in the south, where it is low, and along the shores marshy. The district is traversed by several small sluggish streams, having a S. course, the principal of which are Tibbett's brook, emptying into Spuyten Duyvel creek; Cromwell's creek, discharging into Harlem river at Macomb's Dam bridge; and Mill brook and Leggett's creek, in the southeast. Between the streams the land rises for the most part to from 100 to 280 ft. above tide water, the highest point being on the Riverdale ridge between Tibbett's brook and the Hudson. These ridges are well improved and occupied by country residences. The former town of Morrisania is thickly settled, and is regularly laid out with avenues running N. and S., and streets crossing them at right angles numbered in continuation of those on Manhattan island. It is divided into two nearly equal parts by 3d avenue, continued across Harlem bridge. The rest of the new district is not regularly laid out, though the S. and W. portions of the 24th ward are well provided with streets and avenues, each village having its own system. This new part of the city is to be regulated under the direction of the park commissioners, and the work is now in progress (1875). The two portions of the city are connected by four wagon and two railroad bridges across Harlem river and Spuyten Duyvel creek. Harlem bridge, at 3d avenue and 130th street, is of iron; Macomb's Dam bridge, near 7th avenue and 154th street, and Farmer's and King's bridges, near the N. extremity of the island, are of wood. One of the railroad bridges crosses Spuyten Duyvel creek at its entrance into the Hudson, and is used by one branch of the Hudson River railroad; the other crosses Harlem river a little N. of Harlem bridge, and is used by the other railroad lines that enter the city. A suspension bridge across the upper part of the Harlem, and a tunnel under it, at 7th avenue, are proposed.

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NEW YORK CITY AND VICINITY.

 — On Manhattan island, the older portion of the city below 14th street (2½ m. from the Battery) is for the most part somewhat irregularly laid out. The plan of the upper portion embraces avenues running N. to the boundary of the island, and streets crossing them at right angles from river to river. The avenues are numbered from the east to 12th avenue; E. of 1st avenue in the widest part of the city are avenues A, B, C, and D. Above 21st street, between 3d and 4th avenues, is Lexington avenue, and above 23d street, between 4th and 5th avenues, Madison avenue; 6th and 7th avenues are intercepted by Central park. The avenues are 100 ft. wide, except A and C, which are 80 ft.; Lexington and Madison, 75 ft.; and B and D, 60 ft. Fourth avenue above 34th street is 140 ft. wide, and between 34th and 40th streets (here called Park avenue) it is divided in the centre by a row of beautiful little parks, surrounding the openings of the railroad tunnel. The streets are 60 ft. wide, except 15 of them, which are 100 ft., and are numbered consecutively N. to 225th street at Spuyten Duyvel creek (1st street being 1¾ m. from the Battery); 20 blocks, including the streets, average a mile. The numbers on the avenues run N.; the street numbers run E. and W. from 5th avenue. Between 5th and 6th avenues they range from 1 toward 100 W. (14th street for instance), and between 5th and 4th avenues from 1 toward 100 E. (14th street); crossing 6th or 4th avenue, the numbers commence at 100, and as each avenue is crossed toward the east or west a new hundred is commenced, the number of a building thus indicating the block in which it is situated. The city is compactly built to Central park, about 5 m. from the Battery, and on the E. side for the most part to Harlem, 3 m. further. The W. side is sparsely occupied by cottages and shanties, with many market gardens, to Manhattanville, where and at Carmansville are compact villages. At Fort Washington and above it are many country residences. Broadway, the great central thoroughfare, is 80 ft. wide, and upon it are most of the principal hotels, banks, insurance offices, and great retail stores. It runs N. from the Battery, bending toward the west above 10th street, and, after crossing 5th, 6th, and 7th avenues, terminates at 59th street and 8th avenue. On the E. side the principal thoroughfare is the Bowery, a wide street, with its continuation 3d avenue; and on the W. side, Hudson street and 8th avenue. Fifth avenue contains many handsome churches, but is chiefly noted for the magnificence of its residences, to which it is almost exclusively devoted. The most favorite drives outside of Central park are the Boulevard, St. Nicholas avenue, and 6th and 7th avenues above the park. The Boulevard commences at 59th street and 8th avenue, and terminates at 155th street, following for the most part the line of the old Bloomingdale road, the continuation of Broadway, and coinciding above 107th street with 11th avenue; it is 150 ft. wide, and below 128th street is divided in the centre by a series of little parks. St. Nicholas avenue, 100 ft. wide, runs diagonally along the former Harlem lane from the upper side of Central park at 6th avenue and 110th street to 155th street, whence its continuation is the Kingsbridge road. Wall street, less than half a mile long, running from the lower part of Broadway to the East river, is the money centre of the country. It contains the custom house, United States sub-treasury and assay office, and many of the principal banks and banking houses. In Broad street near Wall are the stock exchange and gold room. — Many of the buildings in the lower portion of the city and along Broadway below 34th street extend from street to street, or to the centre of the block, covering the entire ground space, from five to seven stories high, besides two stories below the surface, with well lighted vaults reaching nearly to the middle of the street. The most common materials here are granite, marble, and other varieties of stone, with iron in many recent structures. Brick is still much used in the cheaper class of dwellings and workshops. The finest residences are of brown stone, four stories high, 5th and Madison avenues and the adjacent streets being lined with stately edifices of this class. The mansion of A. T. Stewart, at the corner of 5th avenue and 34th street, of white marble, three stories high besides basement and Mansard roof, and containing a fine gallery of paintings, is the most splendid residence in the city. Many of the banks, insurance buildings, and other business structures are of palatial size and magnificence. The Drexel building, on the corner of Wall and Broad streets, is seven stories high, built of white marble in the renaissance style. The Bennett building, in Nassau street between Fulton and Ann, is of iron and seven stories high. The publishing house of Harper and brothers is a prominent structure with an iron front in Pearl street. In Broadway, on the corner of Cedar street, is the building of the Equitable life insurance company, having a frontage of 87 ft., a depth of 200, and a height of 137. Above this, on the corner of Liberty street, is the six-story building of the mutual life insurance company, surmounted by a tower containing a clock; and on the corner of Fulton street, the new “Evening Post” building. Further up and adjoining each other, between Fulton and Ann streets, are the Park bank and the “Herald” building, both of marble. On the other side of Broadway, at the corner of Dey street, is the new building of the Western Union telegraph company, ten stories high (including three in the roof), with a clock tower; the two lower stories are of granite, the others of brick trimmed with granite. The height of the main wall is 140 ft. from the ground, and of the platform at the top of the tower 230 ft. In Printing House square, E. of the City Hall park, the “Times” and “World” buildings (occupying the former site of the Brick church), the, new granite building of the Staats-Zeitung, with statues of Gutenberg and Franklin above the portal, and the new “Tribune” building (corner of Spruce street), of brick and granite, nine stories high with a lofty tower, are particularly noticeable. The New York life insurance company's building, on the corner of Broadway and Leonard street, is of white marble in the Ionic style; and opposite is the magnificent building of the Globe mutual life insurance company. A little above this is the Ninth national bank, also a superb structure. The retail store of A. T. Stewart and co. is of iron, five stories high, and occupies the entire block between 9th and 10th streets and Broadway and 4th avenue. The Methodist publishing and mission building, on the corner of Broadway and 11th street, is also of iron, five stories high with a spacious basement. On the corner of Broadway and 14th street is the six-story iron building of the Domestic sewing machine company, and on the corner of Broadway and 20th street Lord and Taylor's store, which has a frontage of 110 ft, a depth of 128, and a height of 122. There are many other business structures scarcely less worthy of mention. — Among the public buildings is the city hall, in the park, 216 by 105 ft., and three stories high; it is a handsome edifice of the Italian style. The front and ends are of white marble, and the rear of brown stone. It was erected from 1803 to 1812, at a cost of more than $500,000, and is occupied by the mayor, common council, and other public officers. The “governor's room” in the second story contains the writing desk on which Washington penned his first message to congress, the chairs used by the first congress, the chair in which Washington was inaugurated first president, and a gallery of paintings embracing portraits of the mayors of the city, state governors, and leading federal officers and revolutionary chieftains, mostly by eminent artists. It has also a very fine portrait of Columbus. The building is surmounted by a cupola containing a four-dial clock, which is illuminated at night by gas. In the rear of the city hall and fronting on Chambers street is the new court house, which was commenced in 1861, and has been occupied since 1867, but is not completed. It is of Corinthian architecture, three stories high, 250 ft. long by 150 ft. wide, and the crown of the dome is to be 210 ft. above the sidewalk. The walls are of Massachusetts white marble; the beams, staircases, &c., are of iron; while black walnut and choice Georgia pine are employed in finishing the interior. The halls are covered with marble tiling. The main entrance on Chambers street is reached by a flight of 30 broad steps, which are ornamented with marble columns. E. of the court house, in the N. E. corner of the park, are two substantial brown-stone buildings, the larger occupied by courts and offices, and the smaller as an engine and court house. S. of these, E. of the city hall, is the hall of records, a massive stone edifice, once a prison, but now occupied by the registry of deeds. The old post office building (formerly the Middle Dutch church) is in Nassau street.

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New Post Office.

The new building for the post office and United States courts occupies the S. extremity of the City Hall park. It is of Doric and renaissance architecture, with several Louvre domes, and has a front of 279 ft. toward the park and of 144 ft. toward the south, with two equal façades of 262½ ft. on Broadway and Park row. The walls are of Dix island granite, four stories high, besides the Mansard roof. Its cost is between $6,000,000 and $7,000,000. The sub-treasury, formerly the custom house, occupies the site of the old Federal hall on the corner of Wall and Nassau streets, and extends through to Pine street. It is of white marble, entirely fire-proof, 200 ft. by 90, and 80 ft. high, with Doric porticoes of eight columns on Wall and Pine streets, and a granite roof. The rotunda is 60 ft. in diameter, and the dome is supported by 16 Corinthian columns. Its cost was $1,175,000.

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Custom House.

The custom house, formerly the merchants' exchange, also in Wall street, on the corner of William street, is 200 by about 160 ft., and 77 ft. high. It is of Quincy granite, with a portico having 12 front, 4 middle, and 2 rear columns, each of granite, 38 ft. high and 4½ ft. in diameter. The rotunda is 80 ft. high, and the dome is supported on eight pilasters of fine Italian variegated marble. The cost of the building and ground was $1,800,000. It is inadequate and inconvenient for its present use, and the erection of a new custom house has been strongly urged. The police headquarters is in Mulberry street, between Bleecker and Houston, running through to Mott street. It is built of white marble, and is 70 ft. wide by 187 deep, and five stories high. The “Tombs” or city prison, constructed of granite in the Egyptian style, occupies the block bounded by Centre, Elm, Franklin, and Leonard streets, and is 200 by 253 ft. In front are police court rooms. In the area within executions take place.

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Interior of Grand Central Depot.

The Grand Central depot, in 42d street, between 4th and Madison avenues, is built of brick, stone, and iron, and cost nearly $2,250,000. It is 240 ft. on 42d street by 692 ft. toward Madison avenue, and is surmounted by several Louvre domes. It covers 66½ city lots, and, besides containing waiting and baggage rooms and offices, admits 150 cars. It is the largest and finest depot in the country, and is used by most passenger trains of the New York Central and Hudson River railroad, and by the New York and Harlem and the New York and New Haven railroads. The freight depot of the Hudson River railroad, constructed of brick, granite, and iron, and three stories high, occupies the entire square (formerly St. John's park) bounded by Hudson, Beach, Varick, and Laight streets. On the Hudson street front is a bronze statue of Cornelius Vanderbilt, surrounded by emblematic designs, also in bronze. Odd Fellows' hall, on the corner of Grand and Centre streets, is a large, substantially built, brown-stone building, surmounted by a dome. It contains a series of highly ornamented lodge rooms, richly furnished, and in different styles of architecture, Egyptian, Grecian, Elizabethan, &c.

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Masonic Temple.

The masonic temple, of granite, five stories high, on the corner of 23d street and 6th avenue, is 100 by 140 ft., with a dome 50 ft. square rising 155 ft. above the pavement. The grand lodge hall, 84 by 90 ft. and 30 ft. high, will seat 1,200 persons. — The oldest church edifice, until it was torn down in 1875, was the North Dutch, in William street, between Fulton and Ann, erected in 1769.

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Trinity Church.

Trinity, in Broadway opposite Wall street, is in the Gothic style, built of brown stone, 192 ft. long, 80 broad, and 60 high, with a spire 284 ft. high. It has rich stained windows and a good chime of bells. The first edifice was destroyed by fire in 1776, and a new one was erected in 1788; the present edifice was commenced in 1839 and consecrated in 1846. It is open every day. The spire commands a magnificent view. St. Paul's, also in Broadway, is 151 by 73 ft., and has a spire 203 ft. high; the front and rear are of brown stone, and the sides of gray stone colored to match; the pediment contains a white marble statue of St. Paul, and below is the monument of Gen. Richard Montgomery. St. Mark's, in Stuyvesant street, contains in a vault the remains of Gov. Stuyvesant. St. George's, in Stuyvesant square, is 170 by 94 ft., with double spires; it is in the Byzantine style, and is one of the most capacious churches in the city. Grace church, in Broadway near 10th street, is of white freestone, and the interior is exceedingly elaborate with carved work and stained glass. Trinity chapel, in 25th street, 180 by 54 ft., has an interior of Caen stone, with a blue ceiling, rich stained windows, tiled floor, and movable seats. All the above named churches are Episcopal. St. Peter's Catholic church, in Barclay street, is a massive granite building, with an Ionic portico and six granite columns, with a statue of St. Peter. St. Matthew's Lutheran church (originally the first Baptist church), in Broome street, corner of Elizabeth, is of blue stone with battlements of brown stone in the Gothic style, 99 by 75 ft. The Reformed (Dutch) church in Lafayette place, corner of 4th street, is a massive plain building, 110 by 75 ft., with a conical spire. The Washington square Reformed (Dutch) church is a Gothic building of rough granite, with square towers. The Roman Catholic church of the Holy Redeemer, in 3d street, is very large and costly, and richly decorated inside with marble columns and a magnificent altar. The first Presbyterian church, in 5th avenue corner of 11th street, is 119 by 80 ft., and has a spire 160 ft. high. The Presbyterian church in 10th street and University place, of reddish stone, is a Gothic building, 116 by 65 ft., with a spire of 184 ft. The Madison square Presbyterian church is another elegant building. St. Paul's M. E. church, in 4th avenue, is Romanesque, of white marble, 146 by 77 ft.; the spire is 210 ft. high. Calvary Episcopal church, in 4th avenue and 21st street, is a large and handsome edifice of brown stone, with double towers. On the corner below is the Unitarian church of All Souls, of red brick and cream-colored stone in alternate layers, with variegated marble door columns. The free Episcopal church of the Holy Communion, in 6th avenue and 20th street, is of sandstone, cruciform in plan, 104 by 66 ft., with a turret 70 ft. high. The Congregational church (Broadway Tabernacle) in 34th street and 6th avenue is a fine Gothic edifice, with elaborate ornamentation. The Reformed (Dutch) church in 5th avenue, on the corner of 29th street, is an elegant white marble building, with a tall spire of the same material. The fourth Universalist church, in 5th avenue on the corner of 45th street, is in the Gothic style. The main building is 100 by 80 ft., and 90 ft. high. The front is 95 ft., and the towers are 185ft. The “Brick” church (Presbyterian), in 5th avenue on the corner of 37th street, is a spacious brick edifice, with a lofty spire. The first Baptist church, in Park avenue on the corner of 39th street, is a capacious and handsome edifice.

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Reformed (Dutch) Church, 5th avenue and 48th street.

Other noteworthy church edifices are the Reformed (Dutch) church on the corner of 5th avenue and 48th street; St. Thomas's (Episcopal), on the corner of 5th avenue and 53d street; the Fifth avenue Presbyterian church, on the corner of 55th street; the Madison avenue Reformed (Dutch) church, on the corner of 57th street, with a spire 188 ft. high; the Presbyterian memorial church, in Madison avenue, corner of 53d street; St. Bartholomew's (Episcopal), in Madison avenue, corner of 44th street; the church of the Holy Trinity (Episcopal), in Madison avenue, corner of 42d street; the church of the Covenant (Presbyterian), on the corner of Park avenue and 35th street; and the Unitarian church of the Messiah, in 34th street, on the corner of Park avenue.

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Temple Emanuel.

The Jewish temple Emanuel, in 5th avenue on the corner of 43d street, is the finest specimen of Saracenic architecture in America; the interior is magnificently decorated in the oriental style.

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Roman Catholic Cathedral.

The largest church edifice in the city, and one of the largest and finest on the continent, is St. Patrick's cathedral (Catholic), in 5th avenue between 50th and 51st streets, commenced in 1858 and still in progress. It is constructed of white marble in the decorated Gothic style, and is 332 ft. long, with a general breadth of 132, and at the transept of 174 ft. At the front are to be two spires, each 328 ft. high, flanking a central gable 156 ft. high. — There are 30 public parks and triangular spaces, with few exceptions adorned with trees, flowers, and grass plots, and mostly enclosed with substantial iron fences. The Battery, at the S. extremity of the city, looking out upon the bay, so called from having been the site of an early fortification, was at one time the fashionable resort of the citizens, and was surrounded by the residences of the wealthy. It subsequently fell into neglect, but within a few years it has been enlarged, protected by a substantial sea wall, and beautifully laid out. It embraces 21 acres. The Bowling Green, so called from its use prior to the revolution, is just above the Battery at the foot of Broadway, and comprises half an acre. The City Hall park, fronting on Broadway, half a mile above the Battery, has an area of 8¼ acres, of which more than 2 acres are covered by buildings. In Printing House square, E. of the park, is a statue of Franklin. The principal other parks, besides Central and Mount Morris square, are Washington square (8 acres), between W. 4th street and Waverley place and Wooster and Macdougal streets, used as the city cemetery until 1832; Tompkins square (10½ acres), between avenue A and avenue B and 7th and 10th streets, used as a parade ground; Union square (3½ acres), between 14th and 17th streets and 4th avenue and Broadway; Stuyvesant park (4¼ acres), between 15th and 17th streets, and divided by 2d avenue into two distinct parks; Madison square (6½ acres), between 23d and 26th streets and Madison and 5th avenues; and Reservoir square (4¾ acres), E. of 6th avenue, between 40th and 42d streets, and separated from 5th avenue by the distributing reservoir. In Union square are a statue of Lincoln and an equestrian statue of Washington; and near Madison square, at the intersection of Broadway and 5th avenue, is a monument commemorating the achievements of Gen. Worth in the Mexican war. Gramercy park (1½ acre), between 20th and 21st streets and 3d and 4th avenues, is a private ground, belonging to the surrounding property owners. Central park, the great park of the city and one of the largest and finest in the world, was laid out in 1858. It is situated between 59th and 110th streets and 5th and 8th avenues, and is 2½ m. long by ½ m. wide, embracing 843 acres, to which has recently been added Manhattan square (24 acres), which joins it on the west, lying between 8th and 9th avenues and 77th and 81st streets. Between 79th and 96th streets a large portion of the park is occupied by the two Croton reservoirs, the smaller one comprising 35 and the larger 107 acres. It has 18 entrances, 4 at each end and 5 on each side, and four streets (65th, 79th, 85th, and 97th) cross it, to afford opportunity for traffic, passing under the park walks and drives. The original surface was exceedingly rough and unattractive, consisting chiefly of rock and marsh. Art has overcome the natural defects, and the park now, with its fine trees, its beautiful flowers and shrubbery, its walks and drives, and numerous other attractions, is a delightful resort. It contains three artificial lakes, bridges, arches, and other architectural ornaments, buildings for various purposes, statuary, fountains, &c. The old arsenal, a three-story stone building, near the S. E. corner of the park, contains the collections of the “American Museum of Natural History” and the meteorological observatory. In the same building and the surrounding cages is the menagerie of living animals, reptiles, and birds, presented or loaned to the city, comprising many rare specimens. A new building for the museum of natural history is (1875) nearly completed in Manhattan square; and another is in progress in the E. part of the park, near 82d street and 5th avenue, for the metropolitan museum of art, now in 14th street. These are to be erected by the park commissioners at the public cost. (See Park.) Mount Morris square is situated on the line of 5th avenue between 120th and 124th streets, and embraces 20 acres. In the centre rises a rocky eminence to the height of 101 ft. above the sea and 80 ft. above the surrounding plain, commanding magnificent views. The level portion has been handsomely laid out, and walks have been made to the summit of the hill. Morningside park, embracing an irregular area of 471720 acres E. of 10th avenue, between 110th and 123d streets; High Bridge park (23⅓ acres), at the approach to High bridge; and Riverside park (177.86 acres), along the bank of the Hudson between 72d and 129th streets, are not yet laid out. Fleetwood park in the 23d ward, and Jerome park in the 24th, are favorite race courses. The Bowling Green, City Hall park, Washington square, Union square, Stuyvesant park, Gramercy park, Madison square, and some others contain fountains. The public parks are under the control of four commissioners, of whom all except the president serve without pay. — The only cemetery now in use on Manhattan island is that of Trinity church, between 153d and 155th streets and 10th avenue and Hudson river. It comprises 25 acres tastefully laid out and well kept, and contains many fine tombs and monuments. Woodlawn cemetery is in the 24th ward, on the bank of the Bronx river near the N. boundary of the city. It is situated on a wooded ridge, comprises more than 300 acres, and was laid out in 1865. The grounds have been finely improved. The principal other cemeteries in use are the New York Bay cemetery, on the W. shore of the bay, 2½ m. below Jersey City, and Greenwood, Cypress Hills, Evergreens, and Calvary, on Long island. (See Brooklyn, vol. iii., p. 319.) Trinity churchyard contains a monument to the patriots who died in prison during the revolution, and St. Paul's one in memory of Thomas Addis Emmet. The cemetery in 2d street between 1st and 2d avenues also contains a number of monuments. — The climate of New York, tempered by its proximity to the ocean, is generally mild, though changeable; there is considerable hot weather in summer, and the cold in winter is occasionally severe. The meteorological observatory in Central park, organized in 1869, is provided with self-recording instruments invented by Daniel Draper, the director, which register continuously the movements of the thermometer and barometer, the direction, force, and velocity of the wind, and the rainfall. The average monthly temperature and fall of rain and snow for the six years ending with 1874 have been as follows:

MONTHS. Mean
 temperature. 
 Rainfall, 
inches.
 Snowfall, 
inches.




January 32.06°  2.91 8.50 
February 31.09   1.76 11.96 
March 36.06   3.32 2.66 
April 48.18   4.10 .75 
May 59.67   3.12 ..... 
June 70.33   3.54 ..... 
July 74.75   5.00 ..... 
August 73.07   4.90 ..... 
September  67.15   3.67 ..... 
October 54.55   4.46 ..... 
November 41.00   3.02 .96 
December  32.51   1.76 9.72 



 Year  51.58   41.56 34.55 

The maximum temperature during the period was 98° above zero, and the minimum 2° below zero. The average number of rainy days per year was 112⅓; of snowy days, 19. The average duration of rain storms per year was 29d. 6h. 32m.; of snow storms, 5d. 23h. 20m. — The growth of the city has been extremely rapid, the population according to different colonial, state, and federal censuses having been as follows:

 YEARS.   Population. 


1656 1,000 
1664 1,500 
1698 4,937 
1731 8,622 
1756 13,046 
1771 21,862 
1786 23,614 
1790 33,131 
1800 60,489 
1805 75,770 
1810 96,373 
1816 93,634 
1820 123,706 
1825 166,086 
1830 202,589 
1835 268,089 
1840 312,710 
1845 371,223 
1850 515,547 
1855 629,810 
1860 805,658 
1865 726,386 
1870  942,292 

The figures for 1870 include 13,072 colored persons, 12 Chinese, and 9 Indians. The following facts are taken from the census of 1870:

 WARDS.  Total
 population. 
 Native born.   Foreign born.  Number
attending
 school during 
the year.
Persons 10
years old and
 upward unable 
to read.
Number
of
 families. 
 Persons 
to a
family.
Number
of
 dwellings. 
Persons
to a
 dwelling. 










  1st 14,463  6,441  8,022  2,833  1,748  2,876  5.03 687  21.05 
  2d   1,312  651  661  123  35  136  9.65 733  1.79 
  3d   3,715  1,752  1,963  521  75  609  6.10 428  8.68 
  4th 23,748  10,456  13,292  4,216  1,906  4,991  4.76 965  24.61 
  5th 17,150  9,245  7,905  2,527  1,144  3,571  4.80 1,289  13.30 
  6th 21,153  9,444  11,709  4,099  4,229  4,487  4.71 983  21.52 
  7th 44,818  24,130  20,688  7,820  2,999  8,974  4.99 2,383  18.81 
  8th 34,913  20,285  14,628  5,204  1,473  7,401  4.72 2,560  13.64 
  9th 47,609  33,020  14,589  7,451  1,175  9,366  5.08 3,917  12.15 
10th 41,431  18,851  22,580  6,364  848  9,291  4.46 1,892  21.90 
11th 64,230  34,805  29,425  13,129  1,713  14,478  4.44 3,086  20.81 
12th 47,497  30,888  16,609  11,578  2,093  7,936  5.99 5,796  8.19 
13th 33,364  19,288  14,076  5,579  1,244  7,061  4.73 1,677  19.90 
14th 26,436  13,379  13,057  4,964  3,601  5,740  4.61 1,471  17.97 
15th 27,587  16,821  10,766  3,104  1,293  4,686  5.88 2,366  11.66 
16th 48,359  29,510  18,849  6,911  1,456  8,955  5.40 3,808  12.70 
17th 95,365  46,033  49,332  16,664  2,105  21,320  4.47 3,966  24.05 
18th 59,593  32,318  27,275  7,186  2,158  11,156  5.34 3,919  15.21 
19th 86,090  48,125  37,965  12,650  2,140  13,873  6.21 6,695  12.86 
20th 75,407  42,660  32,747  12,468  4,092  15,846  4.76 5,048  14.94 
21st 56,703  33,402  23,301  7,879  2,454  9,432  6.01 4,252  13.34 
22d   71,349  46,694  29,655  12,333  3,075  13,604  5.24 6,123  11.65 










City 942,292  523,198  419,094  155,603  43,056  185,789  5.07 64,044  14.72 

Of the natives, 484,109 were born in New York, 8,061 in New Jersey, 5,995 in Massachusetts, 5,140 in Connecticut, 5,099 in Pennsylvania, 2,073 in Virginia and West Virginia, 2,028 in Maryland, 1,235 in Ohio, and 1,224 in Maine; and there were living in the city persons born in every other state and in several of the territories. The foreigners embrace 234,594 natives of the British isles (including 201,999 Irish, 24,442 English, 7,562 Scotch, and 584 Welsh), 151,216 of Germany, 8,265 of France, 4,419 of British America, 2,794 of Italy, 2,737 of Austria (exclusive of Hungary and Bohemia), 2,612 of Scandinavia (including 1,558 Swedes, 682 Danes, and 372 Norwegians), 2,393 of Poland, 2,178 of Switzerland, 1,487 of Bohemia, 1,294 of Cuba, 1,237 of Holland, 1,151 of Russia, 521 of Hungary, 489 of the West Indies (exclusive of Cuba), 453 of Spain, 325 of Belgium, 211 of South America, and 717 of about 20 other countries. There were 457,117 male and 485,175 female inhabitants; 250,353 (122,626 males and 127,727 females) between the ages of 5 and 18; 213,937 males between 18 and 45; 249,990 males 21 years old and upward, of whom 188,276 were citizens of the United States and 61,714 unnaturalized foreigners. Of those attending school, 141,677 were native and 13,926 foreign born, 77,867 males and 77,736 females. There were 62,238 persons 10 years old and upward unable to write, of whom 8,447 were native and 53,791 foreign born, 18,905 males, and 43,333 females; 3,894 between 10 and 15 years of age, 4,423 between 15 and 21, and 53,921 (15,711 males and 38,210 females) 21 and upward. Of the 350,556 persons 10 years old and upward returned as engaged in all occupations, 264,385 were males and 86,171 females, and 8,456 were between 10 and 15 years of age. There were employed in agriculture, 1,401; in professional and personal services, 115,259, including 2,549 barbers and hairdressers, 1,535 boarding and lodging house keepers, 715 clergymen, 49,440 domestic servants, 4,832 hotel and restaurant keepers and employees, 316 journalists, 28,451 laborers, 5,604 launderers and laundresses, 1,283 lawyers, 1,278 livery stable keepers and hostlers, 4,222 government officials and employees, 1,741 physicians and surgeons, and 3,511 teachers; in trade and transportation, 88,611, including 23,872 traders and dealers, 4,744 hucksters, peddlers, and commercial travellers, 27,590 clerks, salesmen, and accountants, 2,625 engaged in banking and brokerage of money and stocks, 730 in insurance, 924 officials and employees of express companies, 2,003 of railroad companies, 917 of street railroad companies, 298 of telegraph companies, 9,813 carmen, draymen, teamsters, &c., and 4,463 sailors, steamboatmen, &c.; in manufactures, 145,285 including 3,855 bakers, 3,533 blacksmiths, 2,276 bookbinders and finishers, 6,960 boot and shoe makers, 6,586 masons and stone cutters, 4,870 butchers, 5,071 cabinet makers and upholsterers, 10,427 carpenters and joiners, 5,550 cigar makers, &c., 1,101 confectioners, 1,606 coopers, 1,477 cotton and woollen mill operatives, 1,744 hat and cap makers, 2,296 iron and steel workers, 3,787 machinists, 9,747 milliners, dress and mantua makers, 5,824 painters and varnishers, 1,432 plasterers, 2,584 plumbers and gas fitters, 5,134 printers, 1,353 ship riggers, carpenters, &c., 18,564 tailors, tailoresses, and seamstresses, and 1,562 tinners. New York averages more than twice as many persons as Philadelphia to a dwelling, and 4.76 more than Fall River, Mass., which comes next to it in this respect among the cities of the Union. The peculiar shape of Manhattan island and the difficulty of transit between its extremities have tended to crowd the population into tenement houses in the lower portion, some parts of which rival the most crowded quarters of any other civilized city. The four most thickly inhabited districts of New York and London compare as follows:

NEW YORK. LONDON.


Wards. Number of
 inhabitants 
 to the acre. 
Districts. Number of
 inhabitants 
 to the acre. 




Tenth 377  Strand 307
Eleventh 328  East London  266
Thirteenth 312  St. Luke's 259
Seventeenth  288  Holborn 229

There are about 24,000 tenement houses (containing three or more families living independently). The average transient population has been estimated at 30,000. Since the census the annexation of Morrisania (pop. in 1870, 19,609), West Farms (9,372), and Kingsbridge (about 2,500) has added 31,481 inhabitants, making the population in 1870 within the present limits of the city 973,773. If we apply the ratio of increase that prevailed between 1860 and 1870, the present population (1875) will be about 1,050,000. These figures, confined to the corporate limits of the city, do not give an adequate idea of New York as a business centre. Thousands of people doing business here reside beyond the city limits, coming and going every morning and evening, while Brooklyn, Jersey City, and other neighboring communities are directly dependent upon and practically parts of New York. The country within a radius of 20 m. from the city hall (embracing the S. portion of Westchester co., Kings and the greater part of Queens co., on Long island, Staten island, and Union, Hudson, Essex, and a portion of Passaic and Bergen cos., N. J.) would add, according to the census of 1870, about 925,000 inhabitants (375,000 from New Jersey and 550,000 from New York), and would raise the present population of the metropolis to more than 2,000,000, of whom 1,800,000 reside within 10m. of the city hall. The circle thus described would include some not properly in the category, but would exclude probably an equal number that should be included. — The hotels of New York are among the largest and finest in the world. Chief among them are the Brevoort, Everett, Gilsey, and Hoffman houses, and the Brunswick, Clarendon, Fifth Avenue, Grand, Grand Central, Metropolitan, New York, St. Cloud, St. Denis, St. James, St. Nicholas, Union Square, Westminster, Westmoreland, and Windsor hotels; and of more than 75 other large hotels, several are not much inferior to those named. The Astor house, a massive five-story granite building in Broadway opposite the new post office, the front occupying an entire block, was long a leading hotel, accommodating about 600 guests. It was built by John Jacob Astor, and was opened in 1836. It is now (1875) undergoing alterations for the purpose of adapting the two lower stories to business purposes. The first story was always occupied by stores. The St. Nicholas, opened in 1854, is six stories high, fronting about 275 ft. on Broadway and 200 on Spring street, built of white marble and brown freestone, and has 600 rooms with accommodations for 1,000 guests. It is luxuriously furnished throughout. The Metropolitan fronts 278 ft. on Broadway, with a wing on Prince street 200 by 25 ft. The main building is about 60 ft. deep, six stories high, all of brown freestone. This also is elegantly furnished. The Grand Central hotel is in Broadway between Amity and Bleecker streets, extending through to Mercer street. It is constructed of brick and marble, is eight stories high, and covers 14 full lots. It is magnificently furnished. The building has a frontage of 175 ft., a depth of 200 ft., and is 127 ft. high to the cornice, which is surmounted by a Mansard roof. One of the most expensive and luxurious is the Fifth Avenue hotel, at the junction of Broadway, 5th avenue, and 23d street, opposite Madison square. It is of white marble, six stories high, fronting on three streets, and having room for nearly 1,000 guests. The Windsor hotel, the most recent, is a large and elegant brick structure, seven stories high, the front occupying the entire block on 5th avenue between 46th and 47th streets. In the magnificence of its appointments it is unsurpassed. The Buckingham hotel, in 50th street at the corner of 5th avenue, of brick trimmed with brown stone and seven stories high, is to be opened in the summer of 1875. Some of the hotels are conducted on the European plan, guests hiring rooms, and procuring meals at the restaurant of the hotel or elsewhere; others are kept on the American or full-board plan. Nowhere is the habit of eating away from home so general as in New York, owing to the great distance between residences and places of business; and this habit has made eating houses, lunch rooms, oyster saloons, bar rooms, &c., a prominent feature of the town. They are everywhere, open day and night, and thronged by all classes, according to their quality. The most fashionable restaurant is that of Delmonico in 5th avenue and 14th street. — Horse cars traverse the principal avenues, and there are several lines running across town from river to river. Lines of omnibuses also run to and from the principal Brooklyn ferries along Broadway and 5th avenue and some other streets. These means of conveyance, however, but inadequately accommodate citizens residing in the upper part of the city. Various projects of more rapid transit, both by underground and elevated railways, have been discussed, but the problem is still unsolved. At the close of 1874 there were 16 horse railroad companies in operation, and one line (the New York Elevated railroad) run by steam, having an aggregate paid-in capital of $15,107,670; funded and floating debt, $11,093,057 55; cost of road and equipments, $24,816,820 97; length of road laid, 132.93 m.; number of cars, 1,403; number of horses, 10,688; number of passengers carried during the year, 151,925,632; cost of operating road and for repairs, $6,683,139 42; earnings, $8,449,825 64; number of persons killed, 26; number injured, 68. The eight principal lines, with the number of passengers carried by each, are: Third Avenue, 26,588,000; Broadway and Seventh Avenue (University Place), 19,065,584; Eighth Avenue, 16,100,354; Dry Dock, East Broadway, and Battery, 15,850,345; Sixth Avenue, 15,050,426; Central Park, North and East River, 14,276,767; Second Avenue, 14,032,275; Fourth Avenue, 9,720,697. The last named line, opened in 1832, is a branch of the New York and Harlem railroad. It was the first street horse railroad ever constructed, and was not imitated till 1852, when the Sixth Avenue railroad was opened. One of the 17 lines runs from Harlem bridge to Fordham and West Farms; the others are on Manhattan island. The Elevated railroad runs along Greenwich street and 9th avenue from near the Battery to 34th street. The track is supported by iron posts about 16 ft. high, and the cars are drawn by dummy engines. The fare on the horse cars is commonly five cents and on the omnibuses ten cents. There are 15 steam ferries across East river, viz.: 12 to Brooklyn, 2 to Hunter's Point, and 1 to Astoria; 3 across the bay to Staten island; and 8 across North river, viz.: 5 to Jersey City, 2 to Hoboken, and 1 to Weehawken. These run every few minutes during the day, and some of them all night. Boats also ply to other neighboring points for the accommodation of passengers. An immense suspension bridge is in course of construction across the East river to Brooklyn. (See Bridge, and Brooklyn.) New York has railroad communication with the east by means of the New York, New Haven, and Hartford line, and with the north and west by the New York and Harlem and the New York Central and Hudson River lines. The freight trains and some local passenger trains of the last named come in at the depot in 30th street and 9th avenue, whence the cars are drawn by dummy engines to the freight depot in St. John's park. Convenient and well arranged cattle yards have been opened by this line, extending from 60th to 63d street, and from 11th avenue to the Hudson river. Other trains on the lines named arrive at the Grand Central depot, whence the freight cars of all except the Hudson River line are drawn by horses to the freight depot in Centre street, passing through the tunnel under 4th avenue from 40th to 33d street. Above the Grand Central depot the work of sinking the tracks is now (1875) in progress, so that the cars for the most part to Harlem river will pass through a tunnel under 4th avenue. Half the cost of this work is borne by the city, and half by the New York and Harlem railroad company. By ferry to Jersey City and Hoboken New York communicates with the Pennsylvania, Central of New Jersey, New Jersey Midland, Northern New Jersey, Erie, and Delaware, Lackawanna, and Western railroads for the south and west. The Morris canal terminates at Jersey City. The ferries to Hunter's Point and Brooklyn connect with the various railroads of Long island. — The harbor of New York is one of the finest in the world. The bar is at Sandy Hook, 18 m. from the city, and has two ship channels, from 21 to 32 ft. at low, and 27 to 39 ft. at high tide, admitting vessels of the heaviest draught, the Great Eastern having passed without danger or difficulty. The lower bay is a safe anchorage, of triangular form, from 9 to 12 m. on each side, the N. E. angle opening into the upper or New York bay, through the Narrows, a deep channel between Long and Staten islands, about 1½ m. long by 1 m. wide. The upper bay is an irregular oval, about 8 by 5 m., opening northward into the Hudson river, eastward through the East river into Long Island sound, and westward into Newark bay. The rivers immediately around the city are deep, so that the heaviest ships can approach any of the wharves, while the bottom affords good anchorage, and the tidal currents keep the channels usually free from ice. The average rise and fall of the tide is 4.3 ft. The lower bay contains 88 sq. m. available for anchorage; the upper bay, 14 sq. m.; and the Hudson and East rivers, 13½ sq. m. Vessels and steamers of light draught now pass to and from Long Island sound through the East river, but the obstructions at Hell Gate render navigation by large vessels dangerous. The operations in progress for the removal of these obstructions, under the auspices of the United States government, are expected to render the city accessible from the sound by sea-going vessels of the largest size. (See Blasting.) The Harlem river, it is believed, may be improved at a reasonable cost, so as to admit small vessels. The fortifications consist of an unfinished fort at Sandy Hook and several works at the Narrows, in the bay, and at the entrance of East river into the sound. Fort Tompkins on the hill and Fort Wadsworth at the water's edge, with several batteries, are on the W. or Staten island side of the Narrows, while on the E. or Long island side are Fort Hamilton and an exterior battery. Fort Lafayette, on a reef near the E. shore, noted as a place of detention for political prisoners during the civil war, is now useless. In the bay there are Fort Columbus, Castle Williams, and barbette batteries on Governor's island, Fort Wood on Bedloe's island, and Fort Gibson on Ellis island. Fort Schuyler is on Throgg's neck, on the N. side of the entrance to the sound; and on Willet's point, on the S. side, there is another fortification. The headquarters of the military division of the Atlantic are in W. Houston street on the corner of Greene. There is a navy yard at Brooklyn. The harbor is well provided with lights and beacons. A light ship is stationed off Sandy Hook, and on that point itself are several lighthouses. A prominent light is that on the Nevisink Highlands, S. of Sandy Hook. There are also lights on the E. shore of Staten island and on either side of the Narrows. At the entrance of the sound there is a lighthouse on Throgg's neck and two in the East river, one on North Brother island and the other on the N. point of Blackwell's island. — The shape and situation of Manhattan island are peculiarly favorable to the accommodation of shipping. It has 24¾ m. of available water front, viz.: 13 m. on Hudson river, 9¼ m. on East river, and 2½ m. on Harlem river. Commerce is now mostly carried on below Grand street on East river and 11th street on Hudson river. There are about 70 piers on the former river, and about 80 on the latter. A plan for the improvement of the water front, below 61st street on Hudson river and below Grand street on the East river, has been adopted. A wall of béton and masonry or masonry alone is to be built so far outside of the present bulkhead as to afford room for a river street 250 ft. wide along the Hudson, and for the most part 200 ft. wide along East river below 31st street, above which the contemplated width is 175 ft. From this wall piers 500 or 600 ft. long are to be projected into the rivers. This plan will give on Hudson river, between the Battery and 61st street, a river-wall line of 25,743 ft. and a pier length of 37,529 ft., with a pier area of 3,325,600 sq. ft.; and on East river, between the Battery and 51st street, a river-wall line of 27,995 ft. and a pier length of 28,000 ft., with a pier area of 1,780,000 sq. ft. The total wharf line (piers and river walls) between W. 61st and E. 51st street would therefore be about 37 m., and between W. 11th street and Grand street on East river, 21.43 m. The piers are to be built mostly of preserved wood. The plan is being carried out as rapidly as practicable. The control of the water front is vested in three commissioners of docks. On the East river front facilities are afforded by dry docks and otherwise for repairing vessels of the largest class. New York has communication with the principal coastwise and transatlantic ports by numerous lines of steamers. Besides the Hudson river and other local boats, there are more than 20 lines to various ports on the Atlantic and gulf coasts, owning 75 steamers, with an aggregate of 75,000 tons. To the West Indies and South America six lines despatch 25 steamers with an aggregate tonnage of 75,600. These include the Pacific Mail line, running via the isthmus of Panama to San Francisco, and a line to Rio de Janeiro. There are 12 lines of ocean steamers to British ports, with 105 ships of 310,460 tons, and 7 lines to continental ports, with 69 ships of 205,614 tons; total transatlantic lines, 18, with 174 ships of 516,074 tons. European steamers leave regularly on four days in the week: Tuesdays, Wednesdays, Thursdays, and Saturdays. The principal lines run to Antwerp, Bremen, Bristol, Cardiff, Glasgow, Hamburg, Havre, Liverpool (several), London, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Rotterdam, and Stettin, one or more of them touching at Bergen (Norway), Brest, Cherbourg, Copenhagen, Cork, Plymouth, Queenstown, and Southampton. — New York is preëminently a commercial city, ranking among the first in the world. More than half the foreign commerce of the United States is carried on through the customs district of which it is the port, and about two thirds of the duties are here collected, the whole amount for the year ending June 30, 1874, being $160,522,284 63, of which $109,549,797 79 was collected in the New York district. This district, besides the city, embraces the greater part of Long island, including Brooklyn; Staten island; the New Jersey shore N. of Staten island, including Jersey City; and the shores of Hudson river. The following table exhibits the growth of the foreign commerce of the district, and its percentage of that of the whole United States:

FISCAL YEARS. Imports.  Percentage.  Exports of
 foreign products. 
 Percentage.   Domestic exports.   Percentage.   Total foreign 
commerce.
 Percentage. 









1821-'30 (average)  $36,337,956[1]   45½ $8,797,218[1]   39 $12,786,118[1]   24  $57,921,292[1]   37
1831-'40 (average) 75,392,170[1]   58 9,952,966[1]   50 18,005,852[1]   20 103,350,988[1]   43
1841-'50 (average) 75,757,184[1]   59¾ 8,350,715[1]   64¾ 30,181,578[1]   26¾ 114,289,477[1]   45
1851-'5 (average) 162,470,257[1]   64¼ 15,563,924[1]   71 82,028,805[1]   37 260,062,986[1]   52½
1856-'60 (average)  208,080,148     62¾ 12,657,925     53 102,257,675     31 322,995,748     47
1861 222,966,274     66½ 13,311,495     64½ 137,379,956     60 373,657,725     64
1862 142,215,636     69 10,402,084     61¾ 152,377,961     71½ 304,995,681     70
1863 177,254,415     70 17,369,353     66½ 221,917,978     72½ 416,541,748     71
1864 229,506,499     69½ 12,785,640     63 211,237,222     66 453,479,361     67¾
1865 154,160,819     62 22,627,018     70½ 219,369,873     67¾ 396,157,710     65½
1866 302,505,719     68 7,453,845     50½ 264,510,247     48 574,469,811     57
1867 277,469,510     66¼ 11,235,211     54½ 207,382,457     47¼ 496,087,178     56½
1868 242,580,659     65¼ 15,016,273     66¼ 236,031,239     52 493,627,171     58
1869 295,117,682     67½ 17,741,836     70½ 185,384,264     44¾ 498,243,782     57
1870 293,990,006     63½ 20,339,410     66½ 209,972,491     42 524,301,907     53
1871 357,909,770     66 20,087,211     70½ 285,580,775     50 673,527,756     59½
1872 418,515,829     65¼ 15,161,218     66½ 270,413,674     49¾ 704,090,721     58
1873 426,321,427     64¼ 18,972,099     67 313,129,963     48 758,423,489     56½
1874 395,133,622     66¼ 14,633,463     61½ 340,360,269     49 750,127,354     57
  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 These figures relate to the entire state, but not far from 95 per cent. of the values represented belong to this port.

The fiscal years end on Sept. 30 prior to 1843, after which they end on June 30. The values given in the table are in gold, with the exception of the domestic exports, which from 1862 are mostly in currency. The imports for the nine months ending March 31, 1875, were $275,154,929; exports, $246,399,551. The following tables of imports and domestic exports for the year ending June 30, 1874, embrace the principal countries and articles:

COUNTRIES.  Imports from.   Exports to. 



Argentine Republic $2,056,155  $1,809,341
Austria 434,931  966,214
Belgium 3,865,028  10,796,248
Brazil 25,979,546  3,258,312
Central American states 194,580  281,921
Chili 237,284  1,324,784
China 11,013,846  632,881
Denmark 159,811  882,086
 Danish West Indies 291,885  956,397
France 47,307,803  18,376,080
 French West Indies 1,220,959  752,483
Germany 41,098,655  36,287,769
Great
Britain
 \scriptstyle{

\left\{

\begin{matrix}
\ \\ \ 
\end{matrix}

\right. } England
Scotland
Ireland
 126,764,649   156,639,737
11,203,304  19,959,113
788,128  23,823,105
 Gibraltar 7,952  1,952,778
 Dominion of Canada 718,195  1,784,828
 Newfoundland and Labrador 109,901  1,432,461
 British West Indies 2,956,959  5,475,289
 British Guiana 547,678  929,698
 British East Indies 9,652,133  234,338
 Hong Kong 400,491  24,513
 British possessions in Africa 404,170  281,405
 British possessions in Australia  800,326  2,501,526
Greece $423,305  $32,668
Hayti 1,348,830  3,297,466
Italy 5,421,740  3,985,373
Japan 2,043,385  356,122
Liberia 33,644  101,464
Mexico 5,508,043  1,439,253
Netherlands 2,032,739  7,605,647
 Dutch West Indies 1,290,533  657,780
 Dutch East Indies 3,255,284  434,245
Peru 692,640  1,095,833
Portugal 451,959  1,369,705
Russia 890,133  1,212,405
Santo Domingo 177,371  414,895
Spain 3,732,364  2,471,299
 Cuba 57,029,687  12,529,576
 Porto Rico 2,427,493  1,094,289
 Other Spanish possessions 3,870,410  100,313
Sweden and Norway 201,944  907,324
Turkey (Europe and Asia) 361,545  1,777,205
Turkey (Africa) 150,861  332,421
United States of Colombia 7,676,026  4,748,821
Uruguay 2,404,662  647,112
Venezuela 4,838,241  1,921,854
All other places 673,641  463,892


IMPORTS.
ARTICLES. VALUE.
Sugar (1,000,252,669 lbs.) $49,298,625
Woollen manufactures:
 Dress goods (58,390,219 sq. yds.) $16,868,983
 Cloths and cassimeres 9,853,558
 Carpets (2,510,097 sq. yds.) 2,886,983
 Shawls 1,841,140
 Other manufactures 5,891,486 — 37,842,155
Coffee (172,595,005 lbs.) 33,485,559
Silk:
 Dress and piece goods 14,935,958
 Other manufactures 7,391,860
 Raw (343,670 lbs.) 1,827,893 — 24,155,711
Cotton manufactures:
 Hosiery, shirts, and drawers 4,042,770
 Bleached and unbleached (19,592,634 sq. yds.) 2,405,676
 Printed, painted, or colored (14,500,060 sq. yds.) 2,046,650
 Other manufactures 15,214,084 — 23,709,180
Gold and silver bullion and coin 18,401,242
Iron and steel manufactures:
 Steel railroad bars (224,237,614 lbs.) 7,349,671
 Pig iron (106,756,827 lbs.) 1,542,238
 Cutlery 1,314,789
 Other manufactures 7,577,226 — 17,783,924
Tea (39,931,658 lbs.) 15,024,794
Flax manufactures 14,376,173
Hides and skins, not furs 10,879,623
Tin:
 In plates (988,210 cwt.) 8,551,631
 In bars, blocks, or pigs (85,859 cwt.) 2,310,643 — 10,862,274
Fruits and nuts 9,241,838
Tobacco and manufactures of:
 Leaf tobacco (8,559,065 lbs.) 4,785,663
 Cigars (746,379 lbs.) 2,637,904 — 7,423,567
Chemicals, drugs, dyes, and medicines 6,522,132
India rubber and gutta percha (13,166,507 lbs.) 5,880,165
Leather (8,546,529 lbs.) 5,682,506
Wines, spirits, and cordials 5,617,999
Glass and glassware 4,971,948
Soda and salts of (183,795,145 lbs.) 4,464,233
Wool (21,691,625 lbs.) 3,965,458
Fancy goods 3,806,044
Melado and sirup of sugar cane (86,806,943 lbs.) 3,543,714
Flax seed (2,084,475 bushels) 3,358,369
Molasses (13,729,643 galls.) 3,066,551
Gloves of kid, &c. (448,719 doz. pairs) 2,961,211
Earthen, stone, and china ware 2,906,063
Rags of cotton or linen (65,042,194 lbs.) 2,843,971
Furs and fur skins 2,719,615
Hemp (16,640 tons) 2,494,703
Books, pamphlets, engravings, &c. 2,389,140
Watches and watch movements and materials 2,134,456
Straw and palm-leaf manufactures 2,046,853
Precious stones 1,985,032
Buttons and button materials partly fitted 1,953,432
Wood and manufactures of 1,838,070
Hair:
 Human and manufactures of 716,872
 Other and manufactures of 933,448 — 1,650,320
Gums (9,895,429 lbs.) 1,069,578
Clothing 1,592,547
Spices, including ginger, pepper, and mustard
(9,081,108 lbs.) 1,529,002
Opium and extracts of (250,604 lbs.) 1,470,099
Jute:
 Raw (8,008 tons) 899,647
 Manufactures of 536,764 — 1,436,411
Barley (1,067,018 bushels) 1,348,998
Lead (27,622,266 lbs.) 1,348,967
Hops 1,133,005
Paintings, chromo-lithographs, photographs, and statuary 1,068,623
Barks, medicinal (4,730,540 lbs.) 1,057,227
Paper and manufactures of 1,056,394
Paints 931,793
Rice (29,864,744 lbs.) 897,886
Beer and other malt liquors (995,033 galls.) 836,984
Jewelry and manufactures of gold and silver 728,387
 
EXPORTS.
 
Bread and breadstuffs:
 Wheat (41,482,167 bush.) $62,223,391
 Wheat flour (2,098,036 bbls.) 15,049,823
 Indian corn (18,696,175 bush.) 14,059,455
 Rye (1,344,589 bush.) 1,354,165
 Indian corn meal (201,991 bbls.) 817,148
 Bread and biscuit (8,136,436 lbs.). 510,096 — 94,014,078
Provisions:
 Bacon and hams (238,602,635 lbs.) $23,202,938
 Lard (160,870,982 lbs.) 14,946,337
 Cheese (88,315,565 lbs.) 11,624,406
 Pork (42,482,749 lbs.) 3,583,640
 Beef (22,448,121 lbs.) 1,782,963
 Butter (3,620,653 lbs.) 899,041 — $56,039,325
Gold and silver bullion and coin 46,433,564
Cotton:
 Raw (237,855,558 lbs.) 41,489,597
 Manufactures 1,556,316 — 43,045,913
Oils:
 Mineral, illuminating (129,213,255 galls.) 23,121,059
 Mineral, crude (13,367,003 galls.) 1,624,697
 Naphthas (7,898,742 galls.) 859,104
 Sperm and whale (834,496 galls.) 883,851 — 26,488,211
Tobacco:
 Leaf (160,258,360 lbs.) 16,117,749
 Manufactures of 2,252,882 — 18,370,631
Iron and steel manufactures:
 Machinery 2,393,916
 Muskets, pistols, &c. 2,213,338
 Edge tools 818,270
 Locomotives (42) 607,091
 Other manufactures 2,148,494 — 8,181,109
Wood:
 Lumber, &c. 3,776,321
 Other manufactures of 1,825,906 — 5,602,227
Tallow (67,207,231 lbs.) 5,373,177
Leather (11,960,991 lbs.) 2,992,430
Furs and fur skins 2,977,619
Oil cake (122,878,065 lbs.) 2,634,947
Agricultural implements 2,568,765
Hides and skins, not furs 1,717,419
Drugs, chemicals, and medicines 1,508,100
Sewing machines and parts of 1,317,486
Rosin and turpentine (322,042 bbls.) 1,258,917
Hemp and manufactures of 959,111
Clocks and parts of 893,893
Railroad cars (831) 745,016

The quantity and value of tea imported since 1857 are given below:

 Fiscal 
years.
Quantity,
lbs.
Value.



1857  16,158,926   $5,014,726
1858 31,166,475  6,857,610
1859 27,561,415  7,066,939
1860 28,711,402  8,315,374
1861 19,613,855  5,058,332
1862 23,787,513  6,230,535
1863 27,418,315  7,338,678
1864 34,348,765  9,805,027
1865 17,720,508  4,430,239
1866 39,085,060  $9,934,397
1867 36,514,725  11,372,116
1868 34,480,261  10,122,074
1869 38,967,743  12,119,588
1870 41,697,021  12,206,109
1871 46,646,013  15,743,815
1872 46,146,822  15,547,681
1873 50,780,011  18,586,946
1874 39,931,658  15,024,794

Previous to 1855 about one half the imports consisted of dry goods, but since that time the proportion of general merchandise has steadily increased, and dry goods now form less than one third of the total. The value of foreign dry goods imported into New York since 1849 has been as follows:

 Calendar 
years.
Value.


1849  $44,435,571
1850 60,106,375
1851 62,846,731
1852 61,654,144
1853 93,704,211
1854 80,842,936
1855 64,974,062
1856 93,362,893
1857 90,534,129
1858 $60,154,509
1859 113,152,624
1860 103,927,100
1861 43,636,689
1862 56,121,227
1863 67,274,547
1864 71,619,752
1865 91,965,138
1866 126,222,825
1867 $86,263,643
1868 80,905,834
1869 94,726,417
1870 109,498,523
1871 132,480,777
1872 136,831,612
1873 114,160,465
1874 106,520,453

The relative proportion of the different classes of dry goods for the last three years are shown in the following table:

 CLASS.  VALUE OF IMPORTS.

1872. 1873. 1874.




Woollen  $42,794,336   $37,999,047   $34,278,882 
Cotton 28,345,694  25,143,673  22,139,783 
Silk 85,094,096  26,132,541  26,358,883 
Flax 19,085,811  16,191,011  15,065,926 
Miscellaneous  11,511,675  8,694,193  8,676,879 

The movements of shipping in the foreign trade of the district for the year ending June 30, 1874, were as follows:

ENTRANCES.
FLAG. SAILING
VESSELS.
STEAMERS. TOTAL.



No. Tons. No. Tons. No. Tons.







American  2,202  785,874  231  338,181  2,433  1,124,055
Foreign 3,413  1,471,377  877  2,454,186  4,290  3,925,563






 Total  5,615  2,257,251  1,108  2,792,367  6,723  5,049,618
CLEARANCES.
FLAG. SAILING
VESSELS.
STEAMERS. TOTAL.



No. Tons. No. Tons. No. Tons.







American 1,650  603,111  224  330,420  1,874  933,531
Foreign 3,343  1,431,318  886  2,472,369  4,229  3,903,687






 Total  4,993   2,034,429   1,110   2,802,789   6,103   4,837,218

The following were the entrances and clearances in the coastwise trade for the same year:

  SAILING
VESSELS.
STEAMERS. TOTAL.



No. Tons. No. Tons. No. Tons.







Entrances 1,159  256,700  1,583  1,517,481  2,742  1,774,181
Clearances   2,235   462,137   1,846   1,713,275   4,081   2,175,412

The number and tonnage of each class of vessels belonging in the district on June 30, 1874, and the same particulars for those built during the year ending on that date, are shown in the following table:

CLASS. BELONGING. BUILT.


No. Tonnage. No. Tonnage.





Sailing vessels  2,810  600,020  89  7,532
Steamers 788  351,686  60  25,712
Canal boats 2,486  243,281  196  18,929
Barges 546  123,536  51  11,829




 Total  6,630   1,318,523   396   64,002

Of the first total 847, tonnage 580,424, were registered; 5,225, tonnage 731,643, enrolled; and 558 (under 20 tons), tonnage 6,456, licensed. The number of vessels registered, enrolled, and licensed in the district on June 30, 1873, was 7,071, with an aggregate tonnage of 1,353,147, viz.: sailing vessels, 2,793, tonnage 596,789; steamers, 771, tonnage 349,313; barges, 525, tonnage 106,407; canal boats, 2,982, tonnage 300,638. The number of vessels built in the district during the year ending on that date was 601, with an aggregate tonnage of 71,545. — About two thirds of the immigrants to the United States land at New York. The number landing at this port during the last ten years, compared with the entire immigration, has been as follows:

 Calendar 
years.
 New York.  United
States.



1865 196,347   249,061 
1866  233,418  318,494 
1867 242,731  298,358 
1868 213,686  297,215 
1869 258,989  395,922 
1870 212,170  378,796 
1871 229,639  367,789 
1872 294,581  449,483 
1873 266,818  437,004 
1874 140,041  260,814 

The whole number of aliens landing at New York since 1847 is 5,438,544. In that year a state board of emigration was constituted, which has in charge the interests of immigrants. The general landing depot is in Castle Garden at the Battery. This structure was originally a detached fort surrounded by water, erected by the federal government in 1807 and called Castle Clinton. It was ceded to the city in 1822, and was subsequently used as a place of amusement until leased by the commissioners of emigration in 1855. It was in this building that Jenny Lind made her first appearance in America. The commissioners have several institutions on Ward's island for the accommodation of sick and needy immigrants, viz.: the Verplanck state hospital, a lunatic asylum, houses of refuge, a nursery or home for children, &c. They generally contain about 1,000 inmates. (See Emigration, vol. vi., p. 573.) The quarantine establishment is situated on artificial islands constructed for the purpose on the West bank, a shoal off the E. shore of Staten island. The health officer of the port resides at the “boarding station,” on Staten island. The West Bank hospital, completed in 1869 at a cost of more than $500,000, is a one-story edifice, divided into eight wards, each 89 ft. long and 24 wide, and each capable of accommodating 50 patients. It is lighted with gas and connected with the city by telegraph. There is also a building for the detention of persons exposed to disease while on passage in infected vessels, and a warehouse for the storage of infected goods. These institutions are under the control of a state board of quarantine commissioners. — Only partial statistics of the internal and coasting trade are obtainable. The former is carried on by means of the Hudson river and the Erie and other canals, as well as by rail. The completion of the Erie canal in 1825 made New York the maritime outlet for the surplus produce of the great west. Previous to that time western produce went down the Susquehanna to Baltimore or the Schuylkill to Philadelphia; and except in the region tributary to the Hudson river and Long Island sound, New York had no domestic commerce. The five following tables relating to the principal articles of domestic produce are from the annual report of the produce exchange for 1873-'4:

RECEIPTS FOR NINE CALENDAR YEARS.

ARTICLES. 1866. 1867. 1868. 1869. 1870. 1871. 1872. 1873. 1874.










BREADSTUFFS.
Flour bbls. 2,721,657  2,605,849  2,855,986  3,537,539  4,120,941  3,576,068  3,038,364  3,513,887  4,017,207
Wheat, bush. 5,766,664  9,706,804  12,950,068  23,952,250  23,913,748  26,763,967  16,221,907  34,624,931  41,817,215
Corn, bush. 22,218,519  15,024,221  18,995,072  10,691,749  9,230,840  26,849,916  40,757,115  24,680,831  29,329,000
Oats, bush. 8,703,220  8,054,164  10,278,781  8,721,608  9,621,936  12,436,260  12,264,226  11,012,924  10,792,919
Barley, bush. 5,076,203  2,223,769  2,274,255  2,524,663  3,907,822  2,926,223  3,973,303  1,820,576  [1]2,776,025
Rye, bush. 1,277,701  748,984  775,612  365,468  563,184  1,063,033  491,851  849,873  592,114
Peas, bush. .........  .........  .........  .........  198,514  114,781  192,560  172,345  583,069
Malt, bush. 594,314  443,105  514,620  473,988  1,053,597  793,046  1,124,953  571,494  ..........
Corn meal, bbls. 120,562  66,073  125,802  90,676  56,987  90,675  160,587  155,744  178,775
Corn meal, sacks 298,510  329,079  315,505  220,782  262,547  177,633  92,336  151,652  ..........









Total grain[2], bush.  58,352,367   50,256,208   61,234,620   65,241,404   69,921,175   89,543,673   90,930,336   92,137,971   106,870,252
PROVISIONS.
Pork, bbls. 130,865  159,468  103,823  95,725  124,554  169,726  146,629  181,241  152,216
Beef, bbls. and tcs. 65,574  105,734  91,769  80,196  121,877  155,800  47,178  38,202  64,944
Cut meats, bbls. and tcs.  98,078  118,988  82,415  79,552  146,540  180,919  332,469  563,903  335,798
Lard, bbls. and tcs. 205,077  433,092  285,659  205,959  171,745  275,444  358,754  409,203  386,973
Lard, kegs .........  .........  .........  .........  45,071  23,617  28,352  28,977  38,088
Dressed hogs, No. 91,591  73,379  101,060  87,214  70,411  112,299  88,103  107,191  ..........
Tallow, pkgs. .........  .........  25,736  18,419  13,605  42,666  39,622  58,193  ..........
SUNDRIES.
Seeds, bush. 139,943  66,722  72,098  21,258  101,549  336,700  280,632  212,916  ..........
Ashes, casks 5,964  4,806  6,109  8,092  6,868  6,424  6,712  7,412  8,824
Cotton, bales 667,669  657,371  567,965  662,622  875,467  732,314  755,054  955,150  991,272
Oil cake, pkgs. 114,010  92,898  85,692  106,485  102,162  73,277  143,926  185,101  ..........
Whiskey, bbls. 101,375  147,210  47,694  183,482  177,571  166,825  177,096  195,805  185,410
NAVAL STORES.
Crude turpentine, bbls. 32,248  11,428  11,119  14,079  6,661  8,986  9,686  11,158  12,606
Spirits turpentine, bbls.  63,022  62,644  64,078  65,632  70,280  67,937  76,056  67,805  76,509
Rosin, bbls. 379,541  395,505  448,694  557,150  496,293  508,983  582,063  470,213  535,166
Tar, bbls. 45,412  24,238  37,008  76,255  46,973  19,376  29,382  38,275  46,511
Pitch, bbls. .........  .........  .........  7,710  2,342  1,111  1,827  2,109  3,730
DAIRY PRODUCTS.
Butter, pkgs. 458,952  557,397  503,516  636,879  547,308  993,307  695,827  948,520  980,853
Cheese, boxes 731,740  1,304,904  1,108,627  1,338,305  1,549,507  1,459,623  1,718,732  2,007,663  2,038,240
  1. Including malt.
  2. reducing flour and meal


EXPORTS TO FOREIGN PORTS FOR THE SAME PERIOD.

ARTICLES. 1866. 1867. 1868. 1869. 1870. 1871. 1872. 1873. 1874.










BREADSTUFFS.
Flour, bbls. 910,508  949,318  1,195,819  1,584,735  1,937,793  1,618,814  1,182,240  1,661,606  2,177,608
Wheat, bush. 626,713  4,665,315  5,969,878  17,526,900  18,444,608  22,027,443  13,263,604  27,753,714  34,791,249
Corn bush. 11,625,826  8,455,920  6,812,237  1,800,122  469,543  12,318,637  25,332,416  16,168,152  19,000,995
Oats bush. 1,190,583  144,665  94,707  49,893  28,986  47,757  32,243  49,535  122,528
Barley, bush. 1,329,842  886,893  90  .........  .........  98,504  17,402  40,120  3,560
Rye, bush. 248,646  473,260  152,993  142,542  225,050  525,511  607,165  1,018,038  641,661
Peas, bush. 282,992  680,763  189,226  123,156  290,758  101,956  155,343  138,132  463,193
Corn meal, bbls. 149,773  151,669  191,011  137,627  102,668  127,208  194,040  181,445  168,603









Total grain[1], bush. 20,306,461  20,508,413  19,771,239  27,978,669  29,455,914  43,595,502  45,901,493  54,020,056  66,754,241
PROVISIONS.
Pork, bbls. 95,905  93,494  89,887  68,541  92,808  163,494  159,296  199,558  178,070
Beef, bbls. and tcs. 39,942  24,325  32,483  52,300  73,823  137,568  90,018  102,416  94,028
Lard, lbs. 26,256,700  52,726,900  49,395,500  36,915,400  31,519,100  121,914,203  173,616,695  183,633,441  139,982,979
Bacon, lbs. 30,993,300  38,820,000  44,993,600  41,424,400  31,507,300  92,144,591  208,373,391  307,044,288  222,430,348
Tallow, lbs. .........  18,498,600  13,248,300  23,394,000  18,245,500  41,742,533  54,907,403  61,801,282  56,640,728
[2]Butter, lbs. 1,552,021  1,534,000  30,624  87,358  753,902  7,173,252  4,817,937  3,587,376  4,611,896
[2]Cheese, lbs. 43,459,443  57,105,633  39,006,569  50,938,590  58,724,491  81,540,662  67,004,553  89,477,483  94,102,050
SUNDRIES.
Petroleum, galls.  34,501,385   33,834,133   52,803,202   65,993,690   87,667,397   94,916,584   93,306,213   146,801,172   138,420,830
Cotton bales 476,088  494,411  376,475  290,229  483,810  608,027  354,135  600,279  571,658
Ashes, casks 3,052  3,330  3,064  3,186  2,325  1,905  1,832  1,194  2,222
NAVAL STORES.
Crude turpentine, bbls. 13,596  827  704  812  403  283  529  365  822
Spirits turpentine, bbls.  22,113  31,125  17,635  17,810  17,342  15,272  21,246  20,108  10,941
Rosin, bbls. 234,367  312,441  367,421  458,357  395,033  379,051  436,819  395,886  383,543
Tar, bbls. 20,461  4,633  9,977  35,555  15,502  9,594  15,940  22,167  26,520
Pitch, bbls. .........  .........  .........  5,030  3,720  2,779  3,503  3,499  5,596
  1. reducing flour and meal
  2. 2.0 2.1 From 1866 to 1870, inclusive, the exports are from May 1 to April 30.

RECEIPTS OF LIVE STOCK SINCE 1860.

 CALENDAR 
YEARS.
Cattle. Sheep.  Live hogs.  Calves.





1860 234,077 518,750  323,918  39,436
1861 228,584 512,336  559,421  32,368
1862 244,862 494,342  1,148,209  30,465
1863 270,561 519,316  1,101,699  35,709
1864 275,212 782,462  517,673  75,621
1865 279,435 836,733  532,194  77,991
1866 303,767 1,030,621  656,639  62,114
1867 294,086 1,139,596  1,000,113  69,636
1868 296,419 1,415,811  887,351  72,604
1869 330,308 1,470,828  901,725  91,529
1870 361,016 1,463,878  889,625  116,457
1871 379,372 1,316,408  1,310,280  121,171
1872 433,664 1,179,518  1,923,727  115,130
1873 447,445 1,206,715  2,019,904  116,015
1874  457,709   1,165,653   1,774,221   104,719


ESTIMATED VALUE

Of the principal Articles of Domestic Produce received at New York during the Year 1873.

ARTICLES.  Quantity.   Value. 



Breadstuffs:
 Flour, bbls. 3,513,887  $22,840,266
 Wheat, bush.  34,624,931  51,937,396
 Corn bush. 24,680,831  17,276,582
 Oats, bush. 11,012,924  5,506,462
 Barley, bush. 1,820,576  3,186,008
 Rye, bush. 849,873  849,873
 Peas bush. 172,345  172,345
 Malt, bush. 571,494  1,142,988
 Beans, bush. 213,520  543,800
 Corn meal, bbls. 155,744  622,976
 Corn meal, sacks 15l,652  454,956
 Seeds, bush. 212,916  1,058,748

 $105,592,400
Provisions:
 Pork, bbls. 181,241  $2,718,615
 Beef, bbls. and tcs. 38,202  687,636
 Lard, bbls. and tcs. 409,203  13,094,206
 Lard, kegs 28,977  208,839
 Cut meats, pkgs. 563,903  28,195,150
 Tallow, pkgs. 58,193  4,645,440
 Grease, pkgs. 22,987  484,727
 Stearine, pkgs. 22,836  856,350
 Dressed hogs, No. 107,191  1,500,674
 Cheese, boxes 2,007,663  16,864,369
 Butter, pkgs. 948,520  19,918,920
 [1]Eggs, bbls. 471,893  8,258,127

$97,433,053
Live hogs, No. 2,019,904  $15,149,280
Naval stores:
 Tar, bbls. 38,275  $114,825
 Pitch, bbls. 2,109  5,272
 Rosin, bbls. 473,213  1,419,639
 Spirits turpentine, bbls. 67,805  1,195,848
 Crude turpentine, bbls. 11,158  111,583

$2,847,167
Sundries:
 Wool, lbs. 16,650,933  $6,660,373
 Ashes, casks 7,412  355,796
 Petroleum, bbls. 3,640,000  21,000,000
 Whiskey, bbls. 195,805  9,790,000
 Oil cake, pkgs. 185,101  740,400

$38,546,569
  Total estimated value   $259,568,469
  1. About 70 dozen to a barrel.

There are other articles which would swell the aggregate value to more than $300,000,000. These include buckwheat flour, fish, apples and other fruits, vegetables, cattle, sheep, horses, hay, hops, cotton, tobacco, oils, coal, wood, and numerous articles of minor importance. Cotton is brought here from all parts of the south for shipment. Immense quantities of coal are required to supply the European steamers as well as for domestic use.


ESTIMATED VALUE

Of the principal Articles of Domestic Produce exported from New York during the Year 1873.

ARTICLES.  Quantity.   Value. 



Breadstuffs:
 Flour, bbls. 1,661,606  $10,800,439
 Corn meal, bbls. 181,445  635,057
 Wheat, bush. 27,753,714  41,630,571
 Corn, bush. 16,168,152  10,347,617
 Oats, bush. 49,535  24,767
 Barley, bush. 40,120  50,150
 Rye, bush. 1,018,038  956,955
 Peas, bush. 138,132  172,665
 Barley malt, bush. 815  1,141
 Beans, bush. 75,756  189,390
 Oatmeal, bbls. 970  67,900
 Clover seed, bags 66,594  998,910

$65,875,562
Provisions:
 Pork, bbls. 199,558  $3,043,259
 Beef, bbls. and tcs. 102,416  1,662,706
 Lard, lbs. 183,633,441  15,914,898
 Bacon, lbs.  307,044,288  26,148,764
 Tallow, lbs. 61,801,282  5,098,606
 Butter, lbs. 3,587,376  1,147,960
 Cheese, lbs. 89,477,383  11,632,072
 Stearine, lbs. 2,426,683  206,268
 Grease, lbs. 6,845,384  479,177

$65,333,710
Oils, gallons:
 Cotton seed 362,235  $199,229
 Whale 64,698  25,879
 Sperm 419,779  734,613
 Lard 262,511  326,259
 Linseed 10,970  8,776
 Fish oil 319,682  207,798
 Naphtha 8,327,822  921,889
 Petroleum, refined 138,276,472  25,180,145
 Benzine 196,878  19,688
 Oil cake, lbs. 123,208,797  2,464,160

$30,088,431
Naval stores:
 Crude turpentine, bbls. 365  $1,095
 Spirits turpentine, bbls. 20,108  10,054
 Rosin, bbls. 395,886  1,227,246
 Pitch, bbls. 3,499  8,747
 Tar, bbls. 22,167  83,127

$1,330,269
Sundries:
 Hops, bales 8,290  $663,200
 Wool, bales 10,110  808,800
 Whiskey, bbls. 1,205  46,176
 Ashes, casks 1,194  47,880
 Hay, bales 23,354  70,065
 Alcohol, bbls. 31,990  2,456,832

$4,092,958
  Total estimated value.   $166,720,925

There are in New York and Brooklyn 63 stationary grain warehouses, including stores, with a storage capacity of 11,450,000 bushels, and 33 floating elevators, with a transfer capacity of both in the aggregate of 195,000 bushels per hour. The operations in Spanish and leaf tobacco for the last five years were:

 CALENDAR 
YEARS.
SPANISH, BALES. LEAF, HHDS.


 Received.  Taken for
 consumption. 
 Stock on hand 
at beginning
of year.
 Received.   Shipped.   Stock. 







1870 59,215  56,360  15,999  69,354  48,555  16,488
1871 75,982  82,044  18,854  97,886  82,313  12,659
1872 144,531  127,827  12,792  67,485  53,119  6,569
1873 82,610  95,456  29,496  115,224  94,865  11,885
1874  103,456   111,685   16,650   124,544   73,994   46,445

The receipts of wool and the deliveries of naval stores for consumption since 1867 have been:

 CALENDAR 
YEARS.
WOOL, LBS. NAVAL STORES, BBLS.


From domestic
 ports and interior. 
 From foreign ports.  Total.  Turpentine.  Spirits
 turpentine. 
Rosin. Tar.








1867 21,716,200 17,904,779  39,620,979  10,790  36,184 98,378   23,465 
1868 34,768,200 12,319,361 47,087,561 10,901  46,180 69,141  23,606
1869 27,041,200 21,490,430 48,581,630 10,378  45,193 136,137  32,273
1870 30,869,200 12,470,351 43,339,551 5,952  53,341 103,653  30,471
1871 24,980,200 39,411,118 64,391,318 8,266  51,849 120,736  18,183
1872 20,294,000 48,883,668 69,177,668 10,583  66,259 113,530  17,493
1873 21,895,800 20,763,807 42,659,607 10,197  66,668 181,637  15,593
1874 24,273,600 25,310,281 49,583,881 11,157  62,676 149,824  18,071

The following table exhibits the quantity of coffee and of domestic and foreign sugar and molasses taken from the port for consumption for 20 years:

 CALENDAR YEARS.   Coffee, lbs.   Sugar, tons.   Molasses, 
gallons.




1855 74,919,075  159,326 12,876,434 
1856 82,674,590  171,616 9,818,923 
1857 60,892,824  147,810 9,164,787 
1858 98,156,662  185,801 11,239,685 
1859 83,700,472  190,135 12,010,290 
1860 66,885,297  213,325 10,836,519 
1861 103,800,586  183,855 8,406,269 
1862 67,564,315  219,330 12,026,808 
1863 64,607,080  195,164 18,162,293 
1864 85,896,097  142,047 16,843,785 
1865 109,209,790  213,568 16,752,180 
1866 114,514,295  227,134 18,878,052 
1867 132,335,511  220,437 20,639,904 
1868 150,316,962  240,555 21,950,924 
1869 150,727,756  254,579 20,810,750 
1870 153,968,572  267,265 18,464,451 
1871 157,992,642  323,785 19,248,616 
1872 156,157,854  331,025 17,454,053 
1873 154,253,838  356,110 14,885,675 
1874  180,965,844  435,265  14,147,344 

The value of foreign dry goods thrown upon the market in 1872 was $132,330,866; in 1873, $115,488,346; in 1874, $108,898,694. The importers and jobbers of New York supply directly or indirectly a large portion of the demand of the country for foreign goods and many articles of domestic manufacture, and their agents are found in every section of the Union. Its retail stores are unsurpassed for size and magnificence by those of any other city. The chamber of commerce, an influential body of leading merchants and business men, organized in 1768 and incorporated by royal charter in 1770, holds monthly meetings to consider questions affecting the interests of trade and commerce generally. It publishes annual reports, from which a part of the commercial statistics of this article are derived. The legislative act of April 24, 1874, created a tribunal of arbitration for the settlement of mercantile or commercial disputes between members of the chamber, or other persons who may voluntarily submit to its jurisdiction. The arbitrator is appointed by the governor with the consent of the senate during good behavior; his decisions are final, and a judgment may be entered thereon with the same force and effect as a judgment of the supreme court. The produce exchange, cotton exchange, and other similar organizations are important bodies. — On Oct. 2, 1874, there were 48 national banks in the city, and their condition was as follows:

 
RESOURCES.
 
Loans and discounts $201,777,054
Overdrafts 426,116
Bonds for circulation 30,899,100
Bonds for deposits 650,000
U. S. bonds on hand 7,635,750
Other stocks and bonds 7,089,934
Due from other national banks 11,951,903
Due from other banks and bankers 2,006,414
Real estate, furniture, and fixtures 8,734,927
Current expenses 1,983,801
Premiums 1,437,170
Checks and other cash items 2,230,570
Exchanges for clearing house 76,860,065
Bills of other national banks 2,191,418
Bills of state banks 1,947
Fractional currency 263,422
Specie 14,406,267
Legal-tender notes 20,874,595
U. S. certificates of deposit 31,555,000
5 per cent. redemption fund with U. S. treasurer  1,464,616
Additional amount with U. S. treasurer 293,845

 Total $424,733,914
 
LIABILITIES.
 
Capital stock $68,500,000
Surplus fund 22,653,881
Undivided profits 12,042,089
National bank notes outstanding 25,291,781
State bank notes outstanding 115,501
Dividends unpaid 246,682
Individual deposits 201,323,282
U.S.deposits 422,809
Deposits of U. S. disbursing officers 25,788
Due to national banks 68,189,355
Due to other banks and bankers 25,230,753
Notes and bills rediscounted ...........
Bills payable 691,993

 Total $424,733,914

The number of state banks of deposit and discount on Jan. 1, 1875, was 26, and their condition was as follows:

 
RESOURCES.
 
Loans and discounts, less due from directors and brokers $43,305,720
Overdrafts 22,639
Due from banks 3,617,953
Due from directors 1,392,694
Due from brokers 1,792,303
Real estate 1,602,211
Specie 2,145,329
Cash items 10,885,805
Stocks, promissory notes, and U. S. certificates of indebtedness 1,270,901
Bonds and mortgages 146,815
Bills of solvent banks and U. S. demand and legal-tender notes  5,242,778
Loss and expense account 599,467
Assets, not included under either of the above heads 93,456

 Total $72,118,148
 
LIABILITIES.
 
Capital $16,685,200
Notes in circulation 37,921
Profits 6,870,701
Due banks 5,052,742
Due individuals and corporations other than banks and depositors 344,955
Due treasurer of the state of New York 95,925
Due depositors on demand 42,897,908
Amount due, not included under either of the above heads 132,769

 Total $72,118,148

The clearing house, organized in 1853 to facilitate the transaction of business and the settlement of accounts between its members, comprised 59 banks at the close of 1874. Its transactions during the year were as follows: exchanges, $22,223,212,644; balances, $1,024,709,941. A gold exchange was introduced into the clearing-house transactions in 1872, the business of which in 1874 was as follows: exchanges, $2,226,832,248; balances, $332,395,085. There were 44 savings banks on Jan. 1, 1875: aggregate resources, $195,335,164; number of accounts open, 494,086; amount due depositors, $180,010,703. The three having the largest amounts of deposits are: Bowery savings bank, $27,169,481; bank for savings, $20,582,990; seamen's bank for savings, $13,822,402. There are 10 trust companies: aggregate resources July 1, 1874, $55,489,822; paid-in capital, $11,318,000; deposits in trust, $22,050,068; general deposits, $14,801,720. The number of fire insurance companies on Jan. 1, 1875, was 54, and of fire and marine companies, 17: aggregate assets, $41,961,107; liabilities, except scrip, and capital, $10,487,652; scrip, $694,621; capital stock paid in, $20,104,020; fire risks outstanding, $1,906,696,231; marine and inland risks outstanding, $2,074,314. There were 9 marine insurance companies: aggregate assets, $25,035,786; liabilities, except scrip and capital, $7,444,444; scrip, $11,974,655; joint stock capital, $1,662,080; marine and inland risks outstanding, $166,835,990; fire risks outstanding, $8,725,514. The condition of the life insurance companies, 20 in number, was as follows: aggregate assets, $189,813,950; liabilities, except capital, $163,249,701; capital stock, $3,555,500; number of policies outstanding, 356,944; amount of same, $973,115,417. The United States assay office was established in 1854. Its operations to the close of 1874 were as follows: gold deposits, $286,113,919; silver deposits, $32,320,330; silver parted from gold, $2,094,265; fine silver bars manufactured, $18,349,245; fine gold bars manufactured, $222,302,258; gold transmitted to Philadelphia mint for coinage, $145,700,196; silver transmitted, $19,271,990. The deposits of bullion in 1874 were $12,415,944; gold and silver bars manufactured, $9,802,326; bullion transmitted to mint, $5,083,148. — The manufactures of New York, though secondary in importance to its commercial and mercantile interests, are varied and extensive. In the value of products, according to the census of 1870, it is the first city in the Union, though surpassed by Philadelphia in the value of materials used, amount of capital invested, and number of establishments and hands employed. The whole number of manufacturing establishments in 1870 was 7,624, employing 1,261 steam engines of 28,716 horse power, and 16 water wheels of 863 horse power; number of hands employed, 129,577, of whom 91,305 were males above 16, 32,281 females above 15, and 5,991 youth; amount of capital invested, $129,952,262; wages paid during the year, $63,824,040; value of materials used, $178,696,939; of products, $332,951,520. The statistics of the principal branches are as follows:

INDUSTRIES. No. of
 establishments. 
 No. of hands 
employed.
 Value of materials.   Value of products. 





Artificial flowers 35  1,109  $303,226  $767,475 
Bags, other than paper 339  1,116,950  1,625,000 
Belting and hose (leather) 13  171  693,500  1,093,000 
Billiard and bagatelle tables 10  159  229,618  606,250 
Bookbinding 65  2,044  2,712,723  4,187,315 
Boots and shoes 162  4,287  3,140,279  6,935,365 
Boxes, packing 105  1,947  1,163,919  2,872,759 
Brass founding and finishing 49  555  487,967  1,091,117 
Brass, rolled and sheet 317  350,000  635,000 
Bread and other bakery products  455  2,344  3,848,097  6,728,587 
Brooms and wisp brushes 27  581  434,308  1,063,400 
Cards, playing 215  370,000  655,000 
Carpets, other than rag 2,438  2,275,000  3,702,600 
Carriages and wagons 95  1,768  1,355,389  3,684,578 
Chromos and lithographs 22  351  196,095  594,050 
Clothing, children's 1,194  335,045  550,000 
Clothing, men's 739  17,084  21,384,214  34,456,884 
Clothing, women's 209  3,663  1,723,916  3,824,882 
Coffee and spices, ground 14  174  2,426,384  3,748,430 
Collars and cuffs, paper 742  392,000  994,000 
Confectionery 103  1,120  1,442,912  3,309,623 
Cooperage 67  929  558,277  1,163,123 
Drugs and chemicals 29  486  1,204,000  2,252,950 
Engraving 30  769  300,801  1,308,308 
Envelopes 330  523,800  1,067,500 
Feathers, cleaned, dressed, &c. 16  479  365,800  693,525 
Flouring mill products 275  5,005,130  5,999,600 
Frames, mirror and picture 58  857  626,761  1,492,329 
Fruits, canned and preserved 158  773,000  981,500 
Furniture, not specified 295  4,837  $3,892,497  $10,256,045 
Furniture, chairs 43  470  408,515  1,079,411 
Gas 1,162  1,666,915  3,854,432 
Gas and lamp fixtures 16  773  441,642  1,322,000 
Gold leaf and foil 13  229  117,100  601,680 
Grease and tallow 79  2,638,710  3,037,000 
Hair work 59  689  294,044  698,060 
Hardware 58  690  455,070  1,159,825 
Hat materials 32  541  1,058,758  1,777,972 
Hats and caps 92  2,793  2,435,951  4,665,957 
Heating apparatus 281  510,412  997,995 
Hoop skirts and corsets 26  2,281  1,265,784  2,709,566 
India-rubber and elastic goods 418  937,105  1,606,000 
Iron, forged and rolled 204  392,590  672,125 
Iron, bolts, nuts, &c. 76  47,194  151,000 
Iron, nails and spikes, cut, &c. 34  32,231  53,800 
Iron, railing, wrought 19  188  153,268  431,100 
Iron, pigs 50  258,000  400,000 
Iron, castings 54  3,365  3,062,091  7,243,027 
Jewelry 198  3,508  3,851,297  9,595,700 
Lead, pig 30  916,350  970,500 
Lead, pipe 48  7,520,990  10,607,800 
Lead, shot 13  398,900  486,000 
Leather, tanned 19  520  1,125,965  1,771,704 
Leather, curried 13  49  676,122  900,000 
Leather, morocco, tanned, &c. 12  173  451,152  634,366 
Liquors, malt 60  1,039  4,908,279  7,770,680 
Lumber, planed 273  993,500  1,359,300 
Machinery, not specified. 83  2,439  1,778,200  4,639,410 
Machinery, engines and boilers 31  1,348  964,331  2,687,961 
Malt 13  237  1,839,750  2,898,973 
Marble and stone work 72  1,772  1,613,277  4,132,880 
Masonry, brick and stone 19  1,238  1,300,860  2,494,534 
Millinery 39  1,106  440,888  898,719 
Mineral and soda waters 34  381  230,363  701,001 
Molasses and sugar, refined 10  121  21,814,337  25,794,333 
Musical instruments, not specified  11  100  74,020  193,654 
Musical instruments, organs 11  240  146,190  581,300 
Musical instruments, pianos 69  2,018  1,499,876  3,863,225 
Oil, animal 68  868,555  1,049,463 
Paints 14  267  1,253,250  2,003,250 
Paper, printing 14  793  1,804,300  2,737,000 
Paper, other than printing 126  142,600  327,000 
Patent medicines 34  369  1,307,100  2,645,000 
Photographic material 102  120,500  695,200 
Printing of cloths 65  749,600  817,100 
Printing, not specified 14  1,669  2,510,250  5,311,260 
Printing, book 15  262  392,284  766,720 
Printing, newspaper 28  1,005  1,909,766  3,987,566 
Printing, job 69  857  499,567  1,509,385 
Saddlery and harness 98  608  370,999  990,433 
Sash, doors, and blinds 35  560  629,450  1,365,700 
Sewing machines 10  2,961  850,650  6,660,140 
Ship building and repairing 46  589  454,480  1,397,061 
Silk goods 311  292,000  568,573 
Silver ware 12  244  351,950  761,000 
Soap and candles 28  679  2,888,596  4,522,710 
Starch 621  1,500,000  2,700,000 
Straw goods 15  1,390  357,890  950,000 
Tin, copper, and sheet-iron ware 136  1,080  1,017,324  2,177,630 
Tobacco and cigars 84  171,200  244,900 
Tobacco, other than cigars, and snuff  13  472  1,913,735  3,904,881 
Tobacco, cigars 640  3,525  2,376,986  5,956,970 
Type founding 11  588  568,218  1,278,252 
Umbrellas and canes 28  1,121  772,160  1,812,839 
Upholstery 45  710  716,263  1,082,672 
Varnish 115  1,287,400  1,774,700 
Watch cases 33  511  796,000  1,754,500 
Wire 202  402,000  750,000 
Wire work 29  1,232  710,739  1,424,380 
Wood work 79  585  534,099  1,247,318 

In the district annexed since the census there are some important establishments, the most noteworthy of which are the extensive breweries in Morrisania. The value of manufactures in 1860 was $159,107,369. — Under the charter of 1873, the city is governed by a mayor and a board of 22 aldermen, with various boards of commissioners. It is divided into 24 wards and 557 election districts, forms the first judicial district of the state, and, with the exception of the 23d and 24th wards (which elect with Westchester co. until a new apportionment is made), sends 5 senators and 21 assemblymen to the state legislature, and 7 members to congress. The mayor is elected by the qualified voters for a term of two years, and receives an annual salary of $12,000. The aldermen are chosen annually, and receive a salary of $4,000 each, except the president of the board, who receives $5,000. Six are elected by the voters of the city at large (no one being permitted to vote for more than four candidates), and three from each of the four lower senate districts (no one being permitted to vote for more than two). The upper senate district with the 23d and 24th wards elects four aldermen (no one being permitted to vote for more than three). The commissioners and heads of departments are appointed by the mayor with the consent of the board of aldermen. They receive salaries varying from $3,000 to $15,000 a year, and their terms of office vary from three to six years. The principal officers of the finance department are the comptroller and chamberlain or treasurer; the latter receives a salary of $30,000, out of which he pays clerk hire and office expenses. The department of taxes and assessments is under the direction of three commissioners. The mayor, comptroller, president of the board of aldermen, and president of the department of taxes and assessments constitute the board of apportionment, which fixes the amount to be raised by taxation. The president of the department of taxes and assessments and two others, appointed by the mayor and removable at pleasure, are commissioners of accounts, whose duty it is to examine the accounts and expenditures of the various departments. The commissioner of public works has charge of the public buildings, streets, sewers, water, gas, &c. The superintendent of buildings is charged with the duty of seeing that the laws and ordinances respecting the construction of buildings are complied with. The principal officers of the law department are the corporation counsel, corporation attorney, and public administrator. The board of health consists of the president of the board of police, the health officer of the port (a state official), and two commissioners. Three commissioners of excise grant licenses for the sale of intoxicating liquors. The courts of general jurisdiction in civil matters are the supreme court for the first district, with five justices (salary $17,500), and the superior court and court of common pleas with six judges each (salary $15,000). The justices and judges are elected for a term of 14 years. The surrogate, recorder, and city judge (salary $15,000 each) are elected for six years. The superior criminal courts are the oyer and terminer, held by a justice of the supreme court, and the general sessions, held by the recorder or city judge (after Jan. 1, 1876, to consist of three judges, term 14 years). The marine court has civil jurisdiction to the amount of $1,000, and consists of six judges (salary $10,000) elected for six years. For the purposes of district courts, which have civil jurisdiction to the amount of $250, the city is divided into 10 judicial districts, in each of which a justice (salary $8,000) is elected for a term of six years. There are 11 police justices (salary $8,000), appointed by the mayor with the consent of the board of aldermen for a term of 10 years, each of whom has power to hold a police court in either of the six police court districts. Two police justices hold the court of special sessions, with power to try cases of misdemeanor. The sheriff, county clerk, district attorney, and register are the principal other officers. The county government in most respects is identical with that of the city, the aldermen acting as supervisors. The United States courts for the southern district of New York are held in the city. For police purposes it is divided into 32 precincts, with one sub-precinct. The river and harbor police constitute one of these precincts, employing a steamer and several small boats in patrolling the waters adjacent to the city. The force consists of a superintendent, 4 inspectors, 35 captains, 140 sergeants, 78 doormen (attached to the station houses), and 2,260 patrolmen. Included in these numbers are the sanitary squad, 64 men; court squad, 42; mounted squad, 13; and detective force, 30. There are in addition 20 surgeons, a superintendent of telegraphs and four telegraph operators at the central office, and a chief clerk and 21 clerks. The police department is under the control of four commissioners. Attached to it is the bureau of street cleaning. The central office is connected with the different stations by lines of telegraph. The value of lost property restored to owners by the department in 1874 exceeded $1,200,000; number of lodgings furnished in the station houses, about 230,000, of which three fourths were to persons classed as “habituals;” number of lost children restored to their parents, more than 4,000. The number of prisoners arraigned before the police courts during the year ending Oct. 31, 1874, was 84,821 (60,213 males and 24,608 females), of whom 35,561 were discharged, 49,251 held for trial, and 9 cases were pending at the date of the report. Of those held, 32,906 were males and 16,345 females; 40,827 were disposed of by the magistrates, and 8,424 were sent to the general and special sessions for trial; 10,671 were born in the United States, 18,089 in Ireland, 3,927 in Germany, 1,753 in other foreign countries, and the nativity of 14,811 was not given. The number arraigned for different classes of offences, with the disposition of cases, was as follows:

CLASSIFICATION. Male.  Female.  Total.




Felonies 4,131  490  4,621 
 Held for trial 2,718  280  2,998 
Misdemeanors 10,579  1,847  12,426 
 Held for trial 5,894  918  6,812 
Intoxication  27,203   13,574   40,777 
 Convicted 14,186  8,927  23,113 
Disorderly conduct 11,959  6,305  16,264 
 Fined or bailed 5,962  4,081  10,043 
Vagrancy 1,751  1,388  3,139 
 Held for trial ...  ....  2,865 
Children sent to reformatories  660  214  874 

The fines collected through the police courts and court of special sessions amounted to $71,287 25. The paid fire department, organized in 1865, is one of the best equipped and most efficient in the world. The city is divided into ten divisions, in each of which a battalion is organized consisting of several companies. The force consists of a chief and 748 officers and men, organized into 42 steam engine companies, 18 hook and ladder companies, and 4 chemical engine companies. The chemical engines carry their own supply of extinguishing fluid. Steam engines used by the department are drawn by horses, except five, which are propelled by the steam they generate. There are four boats equipped for extinguishing fires on the water front, of which two belong to the department of charities and correction and one to the police department. The central office in Mercer street is connected with the different engine houses by telegraph wires, and there are 548 street boxes, from which an alarm of fire may be transmitted instantaneously. The telegraph force consists of a superintendent, a chief operator, and six assistants. The fire department is under the control of three commissioners. The bureau of combustibles connected with it is charged with the duty of regulating and licensing the storage and sale of dangerous combustible material. The business of the fire marshal is to investigate the causes of fires and to secure the arrest and punishment of incendiaries. The following table gives the number of fires and the loss in each year since 1866:

 YEARS.   No. of 
fires.
Loss.



1866 796   $6,428,000 
1867 873  5,711,000 
1868 740  4,342,000 
1869 850  2,626,393 
1870 964  2,120,212 
1871 1,258  $2,127,250 
1872 1,681  4,409,000 
1873 1,398  2,648,795 
1874 1,411  1,328,844 

—New York is supplied with pure water from Croton river, a small stream in Westchester co., by an aqueduct completed in 1842. A dam was thrown across the river, raising the water 40 ft. and forming Croton lake. The aqueduct proper is constructed of stone, brick, and cement, arched above and below, is about 7½ ft. wide and 8½ high, with an inclination of 13 in. to the mile, and has a capacity of 115,000,000 gallons daily. The water is carried across the Harlem river in cast-iron pipes on a bridge of granite (known as the High bridge), 1,460 ft. long, which is supported by 14 piers, the crown of the highest arch being 116 ft. above high-water mark. High bridge terminates on Manhattan island at 174th street, forms a wide footway, and affords magnificent views. The receiving reservoir in Central park contains 150,000,000 gallons, and the retaining reservoir just above it 1,030,000,000 gallons. The distributing reservoir covers more than four acres on Murray hill, between 40th and 42d streets, fronting on 5th avenue, and holds 20,000,000 gallons. It is divided into two parts, is 45 ft. above the pavements and 115 ft. above tide water, and affords a fine view from the walks that surround it. The length of the aqueduct from Croton lake to the distributing reservoir is 40½ m. A “high service” reservoir holding 11,000,000 gallons, and a tower to support a tank holding 55,000 gallons, have been constructed in Highbridge park, for supplying the more elevated portions of the city. The water to fill the reservoir and tank is pumped from the aqueduct by powerful engines. The storage reservoir at Boyd's Corners, Putnam co., completed in 1873, will hold 3,000,000,000 gallons. The cost of the works for supplying the city with water to the close of 1874 was $25,000,000. A water tax is imposed upon the buildings supplied, which in 1874 amounted to $1,361,857 43, and from 1842 to the close of 1874 to $24,717,017 50. Measures are in progress for supplying the new wards with Croton water. The number of miles of water pipes laid on Manhattan island in May, 1873, was 370.6; the number of fire hydrants was 3,136. There were laid out on the map of the island 448 m. of streets, roads, and avenues, of which 378 m. were legally opened, 303 m. regulated and graded, and 253 m. paved. For drainage purposes there were 288.54 m. of sewers, 6.02 m. of underground drains, 14.72 m. of culverts, and 3,854 receiving basins. The number of public gas lamps was 18,910; miles of gas mains, 543⅔. The island is supplied with gas by six companies, and the new wards by two companies. Several free floating baths are maintained in summer by the city for the accommodation of the poorer citizens. The number of plans and specifications for new buildings filed in 1874 was nearly 1,300, estimated to cost about $15,800,000; number of plans submitted for alteration of old buildings, about 1,400; estimated cost, more than $3,000,000. — The death rate in 1872 was 32.6 per 1,000; in 1873, 29.08; in 1874, 27.59. The number of deaths in the last year was 28,597, of which 9,700 occurred from zymotic, 6,000 from constitutional, 9,900 from local, and 1,766 from developmental diseases, and 1,231 from violence. The chief causes were: smallpox, 466; measles, 317; scarlatina, 895; diphtheria, 1,672; croup, 583; whooping cough, 482; dysentery and diarrhœa, 3,591; cerebro-spinal fever, 151; typhus and typhoid fever, 291; inanition, 301; intemperance, 223; hydrocephalus, 616; consumption, 4,038; tabes mesenterica and marasmus, 579; convulsions, 675; meningitis, 557; bronchitis, 1,039; pneumonia, 2,386; Bright's disease, 814; premature births, 544; accidents and negligence, 996; homicides, 56; suicides, 174. The number of births registered was 25,663; of marriages, 8,397. The actual number of births is at least 35,000 per year, and of marriages probably about 10,500. The number of licenses granted by the board of excise from May 1, 1874, to January, 1875, was 3,827; license fees received, $263,702 61. The whole number of liquor and lager-beer saloons is estimated at 8,000. — There are 12 public markets now in use, most of which are insignificant in appearance. They are under the administration of the finance department, and are placed in charge of a superintendent of markets. Stalls are assigned to marketmen upon the payment of fees. Washington market, occupying the block bounded by Greenwich, West, Fulton, and Vesey streets, is the largest, including West Washington market, which is separated from it by West street. On the E. side of South street, opposite Fulton market, which occupies the block bounded by South, Front, Beekman, and Fulton streets, is the great fish depot of the city. Manhattan market, erected by a company in 1871, occupies the block bounded by 34th and 35th streets and 11th and 12th avenues. It is of iron, stone, and Philadelphia brick, and is 800 ft. long, 200 ft. deep, and 80 ft. high in the interior. Only a small portion of it is in use. — The assessed value of property in 1805 was $25,645,867. The subsequent valuation and taxation at intervals of five years to 1865 were as follows:

 YEARS.   Valuation.   Total tax. 



1810 $25,486,370  ........ 
1815 81,636,042  $361,285 
1820 69,530,753  339,892 
1825 101,160,046  387,449 
1830 125,288,518  509,178 
1835 218,723,703  965,603 
1840  $252,233,515   $1,354,835 
1845 239,995,517  2,096,191 
1850 286,061,816  3,230,085 
1855 486,998,278  5,843,823 
1860 577,230,956  9,758,508 
1865 608,784,355  18,202,858 

The valuation of real and personal estate, the rate of taxation, and the amount of taxation for state and city purposes, for the last six years, are as follows:

 YEARS.   Valuation of 
real estate.
Valuation of
 personal estate. 
Total
valuations.
 Rate of 
tax on
$100.
Total
taxation.
Tax paid to
 state for common 
schools.
 Total taxation for 
state purposes.
 Tax for purposes 
of the city and
county.









1870  $742,103,075   $305,285,374   $1,047,388,449  $2 25   $23,566,240  $1,089,889 16   $2,834,501 22  $20,721,739 
1871 769,306,410  306,947,223  1,076,353,633  2 17  23,361,674  1,160,354 33  4,769,353 82  18,592,320 
1872 797,148,665  306,949,422  1,104,098,087  2 90  32,035,480  1,269,156 70  5,745,049 82  26,290,432 
1873 836,691,980  292,447,643  1,129,139,623  2 50  28,230,996  1,301,567 04  6,117,365 09  22,113,631 
1874 881,547,995  272,481,181  1,154,029,176  2 80  32,312,817  1,380,122 61  7,673,481 70  24,639,335 
1875 881,547,995  272,481,181  1,154,029,176  3 00  34,620,874  1,381,445 86  8,012,386 00  26,608,488 

In addition to the amounts paid to the state from taxation, there were paid also in the years 1870, 1871, and 1874, the following amounts derived from stocks, viz.: in 1870, for redemption of state debt, $2,070,000; in 1871, for the same, $1,972,602 36; in 1874, for state canal fund deficiency, $3,899,494 86. The amounts payable to the state for taxes in 1875 are fixed, as shown above; but the valuations, rate of tax, and total amount of taxes to be levied in that year are only approximate. The real value of property in the city is estimated in the United States census of 1870 at $3,484,268,700. The appropriations for the expenses of the city government during 1875 amount to $36,956,472 23. The principal items are as follows: state taxes, $6,630,940 14; common schools for the state, $1,381,445 86; interest on city debt, $9,300,000; payment of stocks and bonds falling due, &c., $1,454,763 33; Fourth avenue improvement, $1,598,767 50; taxable charities (under acts of legislature), $825,905; police department, $3,387,325, including $3,147,400 for salaries of commissioners and force; fire department, $1,316,000, including $897,600 for salaries of commissioner and force; public schools $3,480,000, including $2,686,500 for salaries; salaries of subordinates of departments, &c. (except police, fire, docks, and schools), $1,462,186; salaries of mayor, aldermen, chamberlain, and heads of departments (excepting commissioners of police, fire, and docks), $229,500; salaries of judiciary, $897,345; supplies for department of charities and correction, including $90,000 for outdoor poor, $841,000; cleaning streets, $800,000; lamps and gas, $750,000; maintenance and government of parks and places (exclusive of salaries), about $284,000; sheriffs', coroners', jurors', and witnesses' fees, $162,000; election expenses, $169,000; college of the city of New York, $150,000; contingencies of departments, $147,750; construction, repairs, supplies, and cleaning public offices, $142,500; printing, stationery, and blank books, $137,500; repairing and maintaining Croton aqueduct, $120,000; school moneys to corporate schools, $103,000; repaving and repairs to stone pavements, $100,000; judgments, $100,000; repairing and renewal of pipes, &c., $80,000; rents, $75,000; repairing and cleaning sewers, $75,000; assessments and taxes on corporation property, $50,000; keeping in order wooden and concrete pavements, $50,000. The city debt on Dec. 81, 1874, was as follows: funded debt, $118,241,557 24; temporary debt, $23,562,200 76; total debt, $141,803,758; net debt (less sinking fund, $26,615,778), $115,187,980. There were also $208,011 in cash and $710,106 in bonds and mortgages applicable in reduction of the debt. In addition to the above amounts, there is a floating debt which has been variously estimated at from $10,000,000 to $20,000,000. Many of the claims constituting this debt are in litigation. The city with Staten island forms the first military division of the state, and has several well drilled regiments of militia. — The New York post office is by far the most important in the country. Besides the general office, there are on Manhattan island 14 stations, designated by the letters of the alphabet, and 895 street letter boxes. The number of employees is 1,044, viz.: officers in charge of divisions and bureaus, 13; superintendents of stations, 14; clerks, 636; carriers, 381. The following are the average quarterly statistics: receipts, $693,759 45; expenditures, $288,229 86; city letters and postal cards delivered, 8,213,064; mail letters and postal cards delivered, 19,846,734; foreign letters received, 1,927,586; foreign letters sent, 2,092,383; domestic mail letters despatched, 25,300,000; newspapers received for delivery and despatch, 27,453,800; registered letters received for delivery, 95,000; registered letters and postage stamp packages forwarded, 125,000; domestic money orders issued, 8,559, amounting to $193,913 32; domestic money orders paid, 174,291, amounting to $1,768,668 26; amount of foreign money orders issued, $592,502 30. In the 23d and 24th wards there are 8 branch offices, under the jurisdiction of the general city post office. — Three commissioners of public charities and correction have charge of paupers and criminals. The institutions under their care, in point of extent and excellence, compare favorably with any in the world. They are situated partly in the city proper, but chiefly on the islands in the East river and on Hart's island. The buildings are substantial and spacious, and the principal ones on Blackwell's island are of granite quarried there by the convicts. In the city are Bellevue hospital, the reception hospitals in the City Hall park (closed) and in 99th street near 10th avenue, the city prison, four district prisons connected with the police courts, the free labor bureau and intelligence office in Clinton place, and the outdoor poor department in the central office of the commissioners, a handsome building on the corner of 3d avenue and llth street. Bellevue hospital is at the foot of E. 26th street, and contains 35 wards, with accommodations for about 1,200 patients. The buildings, erected at different times, with various changes and additions, now form a continuous line of 350 ft., four stories high, the central one being crowned with a lofty observatory. The grounds, several acres in extent, are finely cultivated. In connection with the hospital a building has been erected for the morgue, in which the bodies of the unknown dead are exhibited for identification. The bureau of medical and surgical relief for the outdoor poor affords aid to applicants who do not require continuous treatment in the hospital. Provision is also made for attendance upon the sick poor at their homes by dividing the city into 11 medical districts and assigning a resident physician to each. The ambulance corps affords prompt relief in case of casualties, the telegraph speedily summoning an ambulance with a competent surgeon. The outdoor poor department affords temporary aid to deserving applicants. The city is divided into 11 districts, for each of which a visitor is appointed, whose duty it is to investigate the circumstances of applicants and report to the superintendent of outdoor poor. The free labor bureau has proved of great value in procuring situations for those out of work. The prisons are for the detention of those charged with crimes and offences pending the disposition of their cases by the courts, and in the city prison persons under sentence of death are confined until execution. The county jail in Ludlow street is used for the detention and incarceration of persons arrested upon civil process, and also for the detention of persons charged with crimes and offences under United States law; it is under the control of the sheriff. The institutions on Blackwell's island (all under the care of the commissioners) are the almshouse, epileptic and paralytic hospital, charity, smallpox, and typhus fever hospitals, hospital for incurables, convalescent hospital, penitentiary, workhouse, lunatic asylum (for females), and blind asylum. Admission to the almshouse is restricted to the old and infirm destitute, two wards, constituting the blind asylum, being set apart for the blind. The penitentiary is for the confinement of prisoners convicted of misdemeanors, while the workhouse receives those committed for vagrancy and for drunkenness and disorderly conduct. In winter also able-bodied persons who solicit charity are frequently sent to the workhouse. On Ward's island are the inebriate asylum, the soldiers' retreat, and the insane asylum (for males). The soldiers' retreat is a home for invalid soldiers of the late war who served in regiments raised in the city. On Randall's island are the nursery, the infant hospital, and the idiot asylum. These form the juvenile branch of the almshouse. The nursery receives children over four years old whom their parents have abandoned or whom they are unable to support. The children are apprenticed or placed in families for adoption at the expiration of three months, if not reclaimed by their parents, and no child is retained after he has completed his 16th year. There is a hospital connected with the institution. Provision is made for the instruction of the inmates by the board of education. In the infant hospital provision is made for foundlings, orphans, and children attended by indigent mothers; here they are cared for until old enough to be transferred to the nursery, unless adopted or reclaimed by their parents. The idiot asylum has two classes of inmates, the hopelessly imbecile, and those capable of improvement; for the latter a special school is provided. (See Idiocy, vol. ix., p. 175.) On Hart's island are the industrial school and the city cemetery for the interment of the pauper and unknown dead; the island comprises about 100 acres, and is situated in Long Island sound, 15m. from the city hall and 1 m. from the mainland. All except three acres was purchased by the city in 1868. The industrial school is designed for the reformation of vicious boys, who receive instruction and are trained to subordination and labor. There is also under the control of the commissioners of charities and correction a nautical school, conducted on board the school ship Mercury, to which boys are transferred from the industrial school; they receive practice and instruction to fit them for service in the merchant marine or navy. The following table is taken from the latest annual report of the department (for 1871):

INSTITUTIONS. Number
 of inmates 
 during the 
year.


Bellevue hospital 7,514
Reception hospital (City Hall park) 1,905
Charity hospital 5,999
Smallpox hospital 2,526
Typhus fever hospt'l 252
Incurable hospital 177
Epileptic and paralytic hospital 297
Lunatic asylum 2,023
Nursery hospital 617
Patients treated at home by department physicians  5,645
Patients treated at bureau for outdoor sick 17,717
Almshouse 3,716
Blind asylum 149
Nursery 2,965
Infant hospital 2,213
Soldiers' retreat 855
Inebriate asylum 1,718
Idiot asylum 181
Relieved by superintendent of outdoor poor 19,157
Nautical school 681
Industrial school 942
Idiot school 115
City prisons 51,466
Workhouse 21,182
Penitentiary 2,368
Free labor bureau (employment obtained for)  43,058

 Total 195,438

The number receiving medical treatment in hospitals or otherwise was 44,672; number of poor relieved in almshouse, asylums, or otherwise, 30,954; number in schools, 1,738; in prisons and reformatories, 75,016. The number of bodies received at the morgue was 214, of which 127 were recognized; number of interments in the city cemetery, 3,502. The current expenses of the various institutions amounted to $1,063,990, viz.: charitable, $820,788; correctional, $243,202. The amount expended in relief to outdoor poor was $42,776 50 in money and about $22,500 in coal. The number of inmates in the various institutions on Nov. 15, 1874, was as follows:

INSTITUTIONS. No. of
 inmates 


City prison 431
Second district prison 82
Third district prison 81
Fourth district prison 76
Fifth district prison 14
Bellevue hospital 695
Reception hospital (park) 31
Reception hospital (99th street)  16
Charity hospital 870
Smallpox hospital 93
Typhus fever hospital 6
Penitentiary 917
Almshouse 959
Incurable hospital 115
Blind asylum 86
Workhouse 1,954
Lunatic asylum 1,215
Epileptic and paralytic hospital  114
Inebriate asylum 8
Soldiers' retreat 246
Insane asylum 834
Nursery 629
Nursery hospital[1] 452
Infant hospital 461
Industrial school 271
Nautical school 249
Convalescent hospital 293

 Total 11,198
  1. Including idiot asylum.

Besides the city institutions, there are numerous important and well directed charities managed by associations or corporations, some of which receive aid from the city or state. Among them are 21 associations for the relief of the poor; 25 hospitals, of which 15 have commodious buildings; 30 dispensaries, furnishing medicine and medical aid; 13 orphan asylums; more than 50 daily industrial schools, with an average attendance of from 7,000 to 10,000; and more than 100 asylums, homes, lodging houses, and institutions of various kinds. The organized local charitable societies and institutions receive and disburse about $2,500,000 a year. The New York association for improving the condition of the poor was organized in 1843. Its operations embrace the entire island of Manhattan, which is divided into 371 districts, for each of which a visitor is appointed, these being assisted by an advisory committee of five for each ward. Relief is granted only through the visitor of the district. Articles of food and clothing only are given, and efforts are made to encourage in the recipients industry and virtuous habits. In 1874 the number of families relieved was 24,091, comprising 89,845 persons, at a cost of $96,431. The whole number of families relieved from the organization of the association was 226,446, comprising 952,868 persons, at a cost of $1,468,071. The children's aid society (office in E. 4th street) was formed in 1853, to “improve the condition of the poor and destitute children of the city,” particularly the newsboys, bootblacks, and other street children. It has established lodging houses, furnished with reading rooms, music, and meals, and industrial schools, in which the children are instructed in the rudiments of learning and in useful occupations. The homeless, after some instruction, are provided with good situations in the west. There are five lodging houses, of which the most noteworthy are the newsboys' lodging house on the corner of Duane and New Chambers streets, and the girls' lodging house in St. Mark's place. The number of industrial schools supported in 1874 was 34 (21 day and 13 night schools); number of pupils enrolled, 10,288 (5,335 boys and 4,953 girls); average attendance, 3,556. The number provided with homes and employment in that year was 3,985; entire number since the organization of the society, 36,363. The American female guardian society and home for the friendless furnishes a temporary asylum for friendless children and destitute young women. The aim of the society is to procure homes for the children, who seldom remain many months in the institution. It supports 11 industrial schools in various parts of the city, with an average attendance of about 1,200 children, and expends annuaUy about $70,000 in carrying on its operations. The home is a three-story brick building on E. 30th street, with accommodations for about 150 inmates, erected in 1848. In 29th street, immediately opposite the home and connected with it by a bridge, is a four-story brick edifice in the Romanesque style, erected in 1856, containing the chapel, the school for the inmates of the home, an industrial school, and the offices of the society. The society itself was organized more than 40 years ago. The society for the reformation of juvenile delinquents was incorporated in 1824. The house of refuge under its control is situated on the S. portion of Randall's island, and has 30 acres of land connected with it. The buildings are of brick in the Italian style, the two principal structures presenting a graceful façade nearly 1,000 ft. long. They contain 886 dormitories, school rooms, hospital departments, dining halls, &c., offices, and a chapel capable of seating 1,000 persons. In the rear are the workshops, each 30 by 150 ft. and three stories high. The society receives for instruction, discipline, and reformation youth who are brought before the courts for petty offences. The boys and girls are kept in separate buildings, and the older of the latter who have been guilty of social crime are carefully separated from the more youthful. They are required to work from six to eight hours a day, and to study from four to five hours. The period of detention depends upon their conduct, and upon their discharge situations are procured for the deserving. The number of inmates received to the close of 1872 was 14,675. The number in the institution during 1874 was 1,367; remaining at the close of the year, 789 (677 boys and 112 girls). The Bloomingdale asylum for the insane, in 117th street, between 10th and 11th avenues, was opened in 1821. The grounds embrace 45 acres, partly devoted to gardening and containing a great variety of trees and ornamental shrubbery. The asylum buildings, three in number, are capable of accommodating about 170 patients, and are always full. Patients are received from any part of the state, and are required to pay from $8 to $30 a week according to their circumstances. About 300 acres of land have recently been purchased at White Plains, Westchester co., with a view of removing the institution to that place at some future day. The Bloomingdale asylum is a branch of the New York hospital, and is chiefly managed by a committee of its board of governors. The hospital was chartered in 1771, and for many years the buildings in Broadway, between Duane and Worth streets, were open for the care of the sick and injured. The site was leased in 1869, and the following year the institution was closed. It has a fine library and pathological cabinet at No. 8 W. 16th street, open for consultation and examination without charge. A new hospital is soon to be erected in 15th street, in the rear of the library. The woman's hospital of the state of New York was opened in 1855 for the purpose of putting ia practice the discoveries of Dr. J. M. Sims (made public in 1852) in the treatment of the diseases of women. The building now occupied, on 4th avenue and 50th street, was opened in 1867. It'is a handsome structure, the basement being of polished stone and the four additional stories of brick, with angles and pilasters ornamented with finely wrought vermiculated blocks. It contains 75 beds, and cost with furniture $200,000. The upper floor is devoted to charity patients, the others to pay patients. The New York asylum for lying-in women, in Marion street, was erected in 1830, though the society which established it was organized in 1822. It is entirely free. Only virtuous, indigent women are admitted, but physicians are appointed by the society to attend such as apply and are not admitted. Since the opening of the asylum about 4,000 inmates have been received, and more than 13,000 outdoor patients have been treated. The New York institution for the instruction of the deaf and dumb was incorporated in 1816. It was originally situated in 50th street, but was removed in 1856 to Washington Heights, 9 m. N. of the city hall, where it has 28 acres of land overlooking the Hudson. The buildings, which are the largest and finest of the kind in the world, cover about two acres, and are of brick, with basement, copings, and trimmings of granite. The front walls, which are panelled, are faced with yellow Milwaukee brick. The main edifice, which contains the offices, library, &c., is flanked by two wings, one devoted to the male and the other to the female pupils. Another building contains the chapel, dining room, &c., and a brick structure has recently been erected for the accommodation of the mechanical department. More than 500 pupils can be accommodated, and about 2,300 have been educated since the opening of the institution. The library contains 2,860 volumes, some of which are rare books on deaf-mute instruction. Deaf mutes are received at the charge of the state or counties, and also as pay pupils. The institution for the improved instruction of deaf mutes, in 7th avenue near 44th street, was organized in 1867. It has received some aid from the state, and in 1870 a grant of land on the W. side of Lexington avenue, between 67th and 68th streets, was made to it by the city, where buildings are to be erected. Instruction is imparted by the method of articulation. The New York institution for the blind was incorporated in 1831, and the school was opened at No. 47 Mercer street the next year. The present site was purchased a few years subsequently, and comprises a plot 200 by 800 ft. fronting on 9th avenue between 33d and 34th streets. The building is of marble, three stories high with Mansard roof, presenting a façade of 175 ft. with a north and a south wing of 125 ft. each. Indigent blind from the city and from Long and Staten islands are educated at the expense of the state, and pay pupils are also received at $300 a year. About 94 per cent. of those instructed have been state pupils. The number under instruction in 1874 was 193; remaining at the close of the year, 173. The New York juvenile asylum was incorporated in 1851. The buildings now occupied are on a plot of 25 acres, in 176th street, near the High bridge, and consist of a central five-story structure, skirted by two wings of four stories each, with rear extensions and appropriate outbuildings. They are of stone quarried on the premises, and were opened in 1856. A three-story brick edifice, 42 by 108 ft., has recently been erected to accommodate the class rooms, gymnasium, swimming bath, and industrial department. The grounds occupy a lofty eminence, and are laid out in gardens and shaded walks, drives, and play grounds. The libraries contain about 2,000 volumes. The inmates are between 5 and 14 years old, and consist of truant and disobedient children placed in the institution by their parents for discipline or committed by the magistrates for reformation, and of the friendless and neglected committed as vagrants. They are required to work a portion of the day, and also receive literary instruction. But few remain more than six months, the plan of the institution contemplating the early return of the inmates to their parents, or their indenture to families in the west. The number of children received to the close of 1874 was 17,772. There is a house of reception in W. 13th street, with accommodations for 130 children, and the greater part are retained here a few weeks before being admitted to the asylum. The New York orphan asylum, on the bank of the Hudson between 73d and 74th streets, is a fine Gothic building 120 by 60 ft., with two spacious wings and about nine acres of land. The society was organized in 1806 by ladies, and is supported by private donations. It has purchased 37 acres of land at Hastings on the Hudson, and contemplates moving the asylum thither. The Leake and Watts orphan house, near 112th street and 10th avenue, is a large and handsome edifice, delightfully situated in a plot of 120 acres. It has a permanent income, and supports an average of about 120 orphans. The colored orphan asylum was incorporated in 1838. The present beautiful building, occupying a fine plot of ground at 143d street and 10th avenue, was completed in 1868. It is of brick, three stories high with basement, with a frontage of 234 ft. and a depth of 125 ft., surmounted by three unique octagonal towers, and has accommodations for more than 300 children. The colored home was organized about 1840. The grounds on 1st avenue, between 64th and 65th streets, were purchased in 1848. The buildings form a hollow square, with a fine flower garden in the centre. The institution consists of four departments, the home for the aged and indigent, the hospital, the nursery, and the lying-in department, and annually cares for about 1,000 persons. The union home and school for the maintenance and instruction of the children of volunteer soldiers and sailors, incorporated in 1862, is finely situated at 151st street and the Boulevard. The Five Points mission in Park street, and the Five Points house of industry in Worth street, have been instrumental in reforming that locality (so called from the converging of three streets), which 25 years ago was the worst in the city, crowded with the degraded and criminal. The mission was established in 1850, and the building was opened in 1853. It supports a day school, with an average attendance of from 400 to 500, a Sunday school, and a free library and reading room. The scholars are clothed by the society, and receive a daily lunch. More than 2,000 children have been placed in good homes, and many thousand adults have been furnished with situations. The house of industry had its origin soon after the establishment of the mission, and was designed to furnish employment to women desirous of escaping from an abandoned life. It was incorporated in 1854. The buildings now occupied were partly erected in 1856 and partly in 1870. The school rooms have accommodations for 500 scholars, and the dormitories for more than 300 beds. Meals are furnished to the poor, and other forms of charity administered in the neighborhood. The New York Catholic protectory, incorporated in 1863, receives children of Roman Catholic parents committed by the magistrates for reformation. It is situated at West Chester just across the city line, and has extensive grounds and fine buildings. The number of inmates on Sept. 30, 1874, was 1,842; whole number in the institution during the year ending on that date, 2,877; entire number since its opening, 8,771. The Howard mission and home for little wanderers, in New Bowery, in the midst of one of the most wretched quarters of the city, was established in 1861. It supports day and Sunday schools, and a home for needy children, and distributes food, clothing, and fuel to the deserving poor. The prison association of New York was organized in 1844, for the purpose of aiding discharged convicts to reform and obtain employment, of befriending persons charged with crime, and of studying the subject of prison discipline. The women's prison association of New York, an outgrowth of this, maintains a home at No. 110 Second avenue. Other institutions, most of which own spacious and handsome buildings, are the Chapin home for the aged and infirm, in E. 66th street; Baptist home for the aged and infirm, in E. 68th street; home for aged Hebrews, in Lexington avenue and 63d street; young women's home, in Washington square; home for women and mission, in Water street; Wilson industrial school, at Avenue A and 8th street; Catholic home for the aged poor, in W. 32d street; Sheltering Arms, for destitute and helpless children, in 129th street and 10th avenue; St. Luke's hospital (Episcopal), in 5th avenue and 54th street; German hospital, in 4th avenue and 77th street; Mt. Sinai hospital (Jewish), in Lexington avenue and 66th street; nursery and child's hospital, with lying-in asylum, in Lexington avenue and 51st street; New York eye and ear infirmary, in 2d avenue and 13th street; institution for the relief of the ruptured and crippled, in Lexington avenue and 42d street; house of rest for consumptives, at Tremont; New York infirmary for women and children, in 2d avenue near 8th street, to be removed to Livingston place; New York ophthalmic hospital, in 23d street and 3d avenue; New York ophthalmic and aural hospital, in E. 12th street; Manhattan eye and ear hospital, in E. 34th street; old ladies' home of the Methodist Episcopal church, in W. 42d street near 8th avenue; home for incurables, at West Farms; Presbyterian home for aged women, in E. 73d street; St. Francis's hospital (Roman Catholic), in 5th street; Episcopal orphan home and asylum, in E. 49th street; Roman Catholic orphan asylums, in Prince street and 5th and Madison avenues; asylum of the New York Magdalen benevolent society, in 5th avenue and 88th street; half orphan asylum, in W. 10th street; house of mercy, for the reformation of fallen women, in 86th street near the Hudson; Hebrew orphan asylum, in 77th street and 3d avenue; orphan asylum of St. Vincent de Paul (Roman Catholic), in 39th street near 7th avenue; Catholic foundling asylum, in 68th street near Lexington avenue; Roosevelt hospital, in 59th street and 10th avenue; Presbyterian hospital, in 70th street and Madison avenue; home for aged and infirm deaf mutes, in E. 13th street; home for the blind, in W. 14th street; asylum for female deaf mutes (Roman Catholic), at Fordham; association for the relief of respectable aged indigent females, in E. 20th street; St. Luke's home for indigent Christian females, in Madison avenue and 89th street; St. Vincent's hospital (Roman Catholic), in 11th street and 7th avenue; St. John's guild, in Varick street; seamen's fund and retreat, with a hospital for seamen on Staten island, and connected with it an asylum for destitute, sick, and infirm families of seamen; sailors' snug harbor, a retreat for superannuated seamen, also on Staten island; marine society; and ladies' home missionary society. There are about 25 Roman Catholic convents and associations of a similar class. The most prominent are the convent of the Redemptorists or congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer, in 3d street; the congregation of the missionary priests of St. Paul the Apostle (Paulists), in 9th avenue and 59th street; the mother house of the sisters of charity, at Mt. St. Vincent, on the Hudson, near the border of Yonkers; the convent and academy of the ladies of the Sacred Heart, at Manhattanville; St. Catharine's convent of the sisters of mercy, in E. Houston street, which has a house of mercy (refuge for young females) connected with it, an industrial school in Madison avenue and 81st street, and three academies; and the convent of the sisters of the Good Shepherd, in 90th street near the East river, with a house for the reformation of fallen women. — The New York city mission and tract society was established in 1827, and reorganized and incorporated in 1866. It employs 30 missionaries, has six mission stations, ten mission chapels, and five mission Sabbath schools, and distributes considerable aid to the poor. Since 1835 it has expended $850,000 in regular missionary work, besides more than $100,000 in building mission stations and chapels, and has distributed 41,295,893 tracts in English and some ten other languages. The total expenditures in 1874 were $49,452. The young men's Christian association was formed in 1852. The elegant building in 23d street and 4th avenue was erected in 1868-'9, at a cost of $345,000, the cost of the lots having been $142,000. It is 87 by 175 ft., and five stories high, with a central and three angular towers, and is constructed chiefly of Ohio freestone and New Jersey brown stone. This edifice contains a hall capable of seating 1,500 persons, a lecture room with seats for 400, a gymnasium, a bath room, a free reading room supplied with the principal American and foreign newspapers and periodicals, a library, and rooms for evening classes in modern languages, penmanship, bookkeeping, &c. The association has several branches in different parts of the city. The American Bible society, next to the British and foreign the largest in the world, was founded in 1816. It has printed the Bible in 29 languages and dialects, besides assisting in publishing and circulating many of the 185 versions of the British and foreign Bible society. It employs 500 hands, and carries on every branch of its business in the Bible house, erected by the society in 1853 at a cost including ground of more than $300,000. This edifice is of brick, six stories high, and occupies the entire block bounded by 3d and 4th avenues and Stuyvesant and 9th streets, covering with the area in the centre three fourths of an acre. It contains the offices of the American board of commissioners for foreign missions, the New York association for improving the condition of the poor, the New York city mission and tract society, and many other benevolent and religious organizations. Reading rooms for seamen and working men have been established in various parts of the city by the different missionary organizations. There are numerous temperance societies and lodges of freemasons, odd fellows, and many similar orders. — The public schools are under the general management of the board of education, consisting of 21 commissioners of common schools appointed by the mayor for a term of three years (seven retiring annually). There are also three inspectors of common schools for each of the eight school districts into which the city is divided, appointed by the mayor for three years (one retiring annually), and five trustees for each ward chosen by the board of education for five years (one retiring annually). These officers receive no salary. The board of education appoints a city superintendent of schools and several assistants for a term of two years, a superintendent of school buildings, an engineer, and other officers. The schools are free to all between the ages of 4 and 21 years. The common schools are divided into primary schools with six grades, and grammar schools with eight grades. Besides the ordinary English branches, drawing is taught in all the grades of the grammar schools, and instruction in French may be given in the two higher grades upon the application of the trustees of the ward. German is taught as a part of the regular course in all the grades of the grammar schools in any ward, when in the opinion of the trustees a sufficient number of parents or guardians desire it. Instruction in vocal music is given in the primary grades. Evening schools are opened during the autumn and winter for those whose ages or avocations prevent them from attending the day schools. There is also an evening high school for males, in which Latin, modern languages, and the higher English branches are taught. The normal college is intended especially for the training of teachers for the common schools, and only pupils of the female grammar schools who have completed the studies of the first grade are admitted. The faculty consists of five professors, viz.: of intellectual philosophy, Latin and English, physics and chemistry, French and German, and natural science. Each professor has the requisite number of assistants, and there are also a lady superintendent and teachers of music, drawing, mathematics, history, methods of teaching, calisthenics, and penmanship. The course comprises six grades, occupying three years. A model school is connected with the college. Saturday sessions are held for those employed in the common schools. The separate colored normal school has been discontinued. At the close of 1874 the United States sloop of war St. Mary's was placed at the disposal of the board of education by the government for the establishment of a nautical school. Boys in the public schools who manifest a desire to follow a seafaring life are to be admitted. A number of corporate schools connected with asylums and charitable institutions have, under various acts of the legislature, been entitled to a share of the school moneys, and subject to the supervision of the board of education. The following table is for the year 1873:

GRADE.  Number of 
schools.
 Number of 
teachers.
Pupils
 enrolled. 
Average
 attendance. 





Normal college 38  1,468  816 
Model primary school 412  256 
Saturday normal school [1]  483  344 
Colored normal school 14 
Grammar schools 95  1,014  61,631  32,822 
Primary schools and departments 93  1,193  129,569  56,395 
Colored schools (5 grammar and 4 primary)  43  2,134  813 




 Total day schools 201  2,296  195,711  91,455 








Evening schools 27  350  17,723  8,128 
Evening high school 25  1,406  902 
Colored evening schools 421  130 




 Total evening schools 31  383  19,550  9,160 








 Total public schools 223  2,679  215,261  100,615 








Corporate schools 17  ....  21,192  8,780 








 Aggregate 249  2,679   236,543  109,395 
  1. Included with those of the normal college.

Besides those enumerated there were 192 teachers of special branches. The teachers in the evening schools are nearly all taken from among those of the day schools. The total expenditures during the year named amounted to $3,479,011, of which $2,392,829 35 was for salaries of teachers and janitors, $79,562 20 for salaries of employees of the board of education, superintendents, &c., $44,847 72 for rent of school premises, $181,645 96 for supplies for the schools (books, stationery, &c.), $100,261 58 for fuel, $26,558 65 for gas, $96,285 27 for apportionment for corporate schools, $271,589 65 for erecting and furnishing new buildings, and the rest for miscellaneous purposes. The value of school buildings belonging to the city was $5,647,000; of lots, $3,045,000. The number of schools, attendance, &c., in 1874, including the new wards, were as follows:

GRADE. No. of
 schools. 
No. of
male
 teachers. 
No. of
female
 teachers. 
No. of
pupils
 enrolled. 
Average
 attendance. 
No. of
school
 buildings. 
 Accommodations. 








Day schools 224  263  2,574   208,313  97,625  124  128,759 
Evening schools 37  163  227  21,358  9,170  ...  ...... 







 Total public schools  261  426  2,801  229,671  106,795  124  128,759 
Corporate schools 43  74  22,689  8,612  43  13,883 







 Aggregate 304  429  2,875  252,360  115,407  167  142,642 

Fifteen of the public school buildings were rented. The evening schools are held in the day school buildings. Many of the buildings are lofty and elegant structures, finely arranged for school purposes.

AmCyc New York (city) - Normal College.jpg
Normal College.

The normal college, at 69th street and 4th avenue, completed in 1873, is unsurpassed in its accommodations and appliances by any similar edifice in the country. It is in the secular Gothic style, with a lofty and massive Victoria tower; is 300 ft. long, 125 ft. wide on 4th avenue, 78 ft. wide in the rear, and 70 ft. high. It contains 30 recitation rooms, three large lecture rooms, a calisthenium, a library, six retiring rooms for instructors, president's offices, and a main hall capable of seating 1,600. Each recitation room contains seats for 48, and each lecture room for 144 persons. The entire cost of the building was $350,000, and of the furniture and other appliances about $40,000. The model school in the rear, fronting Lexington avenue, accommodates 900 pupils. The college of the city of New York occupies a handsome edifice at 23d street and Lexington avenue, 125 by 80 ft. and four stories high. It was organized as the free academy in 1848, empowered to confer degrees in 1854, and incorporated as a college in 1866. It is under the control of a board of trustees, consisting of its president and the members of the board of education ex officiis, and is supported by the city. Students are admitted who have passed the highest grade of the grammar schools. The full course comprises five years, the first year being introductory. Students may choose between the ancient course, with Latin, Greek, and a modern language, and the modern course, with French, German, and Spanish, or Latin instead of German or Spanish. The other studies are the same in both courses and similar to those of other colleges. In the introductory class there is a commercial course for students intending to remain but one year. The degree of bachelor of arts is conferred upon those who complete the ancient course, and that of bachelor of science upon those who complete the modern course. There are professorships of philosophy; of English, Latin, Greek, French, German, and Spanish language and literature respectively; of history and belles-lettres; of mathematics; of mechanics, astronomy, and engineering; of chemistry and physics; of natural history, physiology, and hygiene; and of descriptive geometry and drawing. The library contains 22,000 volumes, and the repository 9,500 text books. In 1874-'5 there were 14 professors, 20 other instructors, and 824 students, viz.: introductory class, 479 (collegiate course 238, commercial course 241); freshmen, 145; sophomores, 102; juniors, 63; seniors, 35. Of the 345 students in the collegiate classes, 197 were pursuing the ancient and 148 the modern course. The expenditures in 1874 amounted to $162,116 47, of which $128,815 86 was for salaries of instructors and janitors, and $6,548 31 for books and supplies for students. — Of the institutions of learning not connected with the city government, Columbia college (Episcopal), the oldest college in the state, situated on Madison avenue and 50th street, is the most prominent. (See Columbia College.) Connected with it are a school of mines, a law school, and the college of physicians and surgeons. The law school is in Great Jones street and Lafayette place. The college of physicians and surgeons has a valuable physiological museum. It was founded in 1791, chartered in 1807, and became connected with Columbia college in 1860. The building, in 4th avenue and 23d street, is of brick and rather plain in appearance. The university of the city of New York, a Gothic white freestone structure in Washington square, 180 by 100 ft., four stories high, with octangular five-story turrets at the angles, was founded in 1831. It has a department of arts and a department of science, in which instruction is free. A school of art is connected with the scientific department. There are also law and medical departments; the latter is conducted in E. 26th street, opposite Bellevue hospital. Graduates of the law department as well as of the Columbia college law school are admitted to the New York bar without examination. The number of students in all departments of the university in 1873-'4 was 426, of whom 122 were matriculated students in the departments of arts and science, and 15 were art students. The faculty of instruction consisted of 33 professors, 4 adjunct professors, and 6 assistants, besides the chancellor. St. John's college, at Fordham, has been described in the article Fordham. The college of St. Francis Xavier, in W. 15th street, has besides the usual curriculum postgraduate, grammar, commercial, and preparatory departments. It was organized in 1847 and chartered as a college in 1861. Manhattan college, near 131st street and the Boulevard, embraces collegiate, commercial, and preparatory courses. These three are Roman Catholic institutions, Manhattan college being under the direction of the Christian Brothers, and St. John's and St. Francis Xavier of the Jesuits. Rutgers female college occupies a handsome edifice in 5th avenue, opposite the distributing reservoir. It has collegiate, academic, and primary departments. It was established in 1838 and chartered as a college in 1867. St. Louis college (Roman Catholic) occupies a fine building in W. 42d street, and is under the direction of the fathers of mercy. It affords various grades of instruction from the kindergarten to the collegiate. The classics hold a secondary place in its curriculum, special attention being paid to modern languages. There are two extensive theological seminaries in the city. The first, known as the general theological seminary of the Protestant Episcopal church in the United States, was established in 1819 at New Haven, Conn., soon after removed to New York, and chartered by the legislature in 1822. It occupies two substantial stone buildings, 50 by 110 ft., in 9th avenue and 20th street. The Union theological seminary (Presbyterian) was founded in 1836, chartered in 1839, and is open for students from every denomination of Christians; but the applicant must be a member in good standing of an evangelical church, and a graduate from college, or able to pass an examination in the usual college branches. The course of study occupies three years. The edifice, of plain brick, is in University place, near Washington square; it contains a chapel, four lecture rooms, a library, and private rooms for about 80 students. A new site was purchased some years since in the upper part of the island, but the directors, desiring a more central situation, have appointed a committee to secure another, which has not yet reported. Besides those already named, there are six medical colleges, a dental college, and a college of pharmacy, viz.: Bellevue hospital medical college; the homœopathic medical college of the state of New York, 3d avenue and 23d street; the New York medical college and hospital for women, 2d avenue and 12th street; the woman's medical college of the New York infirmary for women and children; Eclectic medical college, admitting both sexes, 26th street between 2d and 3d avenues, with a medical dispensary; New York free medical college for women, in St. Mark's place, with a free dispensary; New York college of dentistry, in 2d avenue near 23d street, with a museum and an infirmary for the treatment of the indigent; and the college of pharmacy of the city of New York, in the university building. The New York college of veterinary surgeons, in Lexington avenue, is the only institution in the United States specially devoted to veterinary education. It was incorporated in 1857, but did not go into operation till 1864. It has a hospital connected with it, and a museum containing more than 1,500 valuable specimens. The following table embraces the latest statistics of the different collegiate and professional institutions:

INSTITUTIONS. Date of
 incorporation. 
 Number of 
 instructors. 
 Number of 
students.
 Volumes in 
libraries.





Columbia college[1] 1754 15  151  17,500 
Columbia college[2] 1864 24  201  4,600 
University of the city of New York[3] 1831 15  137  4,500 
St. John's college 1846 26  186  17,000 
College of St. Francis Xavier 1861 27  479  16,000 
Manhattan college 1863 48  694  10,000 
Rutgers female college 1867 13  100  6,000 
St. Louis college .... 15  115  1,500 
General theological seminary 1822 73  15,000 
Union theological seminary 1839 11  117  33,000 
Columbia college law school 1858 438  4,000 
University of the city of New York[4] 1859 32  2,500 
College of physicians and surgeons[5] 1807 26  421  1,200 
University of the city of New York[6] 1837 22  257  ...... 
Bellevue hospital medical college 1861 29  472  ...... 
Homœopathic medical college of the state of New York  1860 19  102  ...... 
New York medical college and hospital for women 1863 16  25  ...... 
Woman's medical college[7] 1864 20  37  ...... 
Eclectic medical college 1865 11  33  ...... 
New York free medical college for women 1871 14  62  ...... 
New York college of dentistry 1865 68  ...... 
College of pharmacy of the city of New York 1831 135  1,000 
New York college of veterinary surgeons 1857 ...  ...... 
  1. Academic department.
  2. School of mines.
  3. Departments of arts and science.
  4. Law department.
  5. Medical department of Columbia college.
  6. Medical department.
  7. Of the New York infirmary for women and children.

The Catholics have about 30 select schools and academies, with from 2,500 to 3,000 pupils, and 56 parochial schools, with about 28,000 pupils. There are numerous other denominational and private schools. The oldest school in the city is that of the Reformed (Dutch) church, in W. 29th street, founded in 1633. Trinity school (Episcopal), in 7th avenue, was founded in 1709. The Cooper union for the advancement of science and art (see Cooper, Peter) occupies a fine edifice of six stories, 195 ft. on 4th avenue, 143 on 8th street, 155 on 3d avenue, and 86 on 7th street, costing $650,000. In the basement is a large lecture room 125 ft. by 82, and 21 ft. high, in which many political and other public meetings are held. The building contains a free library; a free reading room, with more than 300 American and foreign newspapers and periodicals; free schools of art, wood engraving, photography, and telegraphy for women; a free night school of art for men; and a free night school of science for both sexes. Free lectures are given by distinguished scientific men in the large hall every Saturday evening during the winter. The professors of science may be consulted without cost by inventors or manufacturers of new processes. The number of instructors connected with the institution in 1873-'4 was 19; number of pupils admitted to the art school for women, 201; school of wood engraving, 39; school of telegraphy, 120; night school of science, 1,160; night school of art, 1,505. The Cooper union, or Cooper institute as it is commonly called, was opened in 1859, and the amount expended in carrying on its various departments to the beginning of 1874 was $529,394 72, the greater portion of which was raised by renting parts of the building. There are a number of commercial colleges and musical conservatories and schools. — The American institute was incorporated in 1829, and is designed for the promotion of agriculture, commerce, manufactures, science, and the arts. It has a valuable library in the Cooper institute, where its meetings are held. Fairs are held annually in October under its auspices in the capacious building in 3d avenue and 63d street, which attract great numbers of visitors. At the close, premiums and medals are awarded to exhibitors. The American geographical society, also in the Cooper institute, was organized in 1852. It has a valuable library of works devoted to geographical science and a collection of 2,000 maps and charts. The New York historical society, in 2d avenue and 11th street, founded in 1804, has a library particularly rich in American history, and possesses the Abbott collection of Egyptian antiquities, the Lenox collection of Nineveh sculptures, a fine gallery of paintings, &c. The lyceum of natural history, in Madison avenue, besides a good library, has a collection of 3,000 specimens of plants. The American museum of natural history, in Central park, was incorporated in 1869. Its collections embrace Indian antiquities, minerals, shells, and stuffed and mounted specimens of animals, birds, fishes, insects, &c. It has a library comprising 1,000 volumes of rare conchological and scientific works. It is open to the public, except on Mondays and Tuesdays, which are reserved for special students and the teachers and pupils of the public schools. The metropolitan museum of art, in W. 14th street, besides a gallery of paintings by the old masters, contains the Cesnola collection of Cypriote antiquities, and collections loaned by wealthy citizens, embracing modern pictures and statuary, pottery and porcelain, arms and armor, mediæval manuscripts, antique and mediæval curiosities, and various articles of vertu. Admission is free on Mondays; on other days a small fee is charged.

AmCyc New York (city) - Academy of Design.jpg
Academy of Design.

The national academy of design, founded in 1826, occupies a unique building of gray and white marble and blue stone in 23d street and 4th avenue. It has a collection of paintings, and in spring and summer gives exhibitions of recent works of American artists. It also maintains free schools for advanced students in art.

AmCyc New York (city) - Booth's Theatre.jpg
Booth's Theatre.

—Booth's theatre, in 23d street and 6th avenue, is a fine capacious edifice, built of Concord granite in the renaissance style, 149 ft. long and 99 ft. high, including the Mansard roof of 24 ft. The Grand opera house, in 8th avenue and 23d street, is a handsome white marble structure in the Italian order, 113 by 98 ft., and 80 ft. high from base to cornice. The Lyceum theatre, in 14th street near 6th avenue, has a handsome front and portico in the classical style. In all of these general dramatic representations are given. The other theatres have little architectural attraction, but many of them are capacious and elegantly furnished. The leading comedy theatres are Wallack's, in Broadway and 13th street; the Union Square, near it; and the Fifth Avenue, in 28th street near Broadway. Niblo's theatre, in Broadway near Prince street, has been devoted in recent years chiefly to spectacular pieces. Miscellaneous dramas are represented at Wood's museum, Broadway near 30th street, the Park theatre, Broadway near 22d street, and the Bowery, in the Bowery near Canal street; German plays in the Stadt and Germania theatres, the former in the Bowery near Canal street, and the latter in 14th street near 3d avenue; varieties in Tony Pastor's opera house, Bowery near Spring street, and Theatre Comique, Metropolitan, Olympic, and Globe theatres, all in Broadway between Broome street and Astor place; and minstrelsy in Bryant's opera house, 23d street near 6th avenue, and San Francisco minstrel hall, Broadway near 29th street. The academy of music, in 14th street and Irving place, is devoted chiefly to grand opera; and Steinway hall, nearly adjoining it, is used for concerts and lectures. The square bounded by 4th and Madison avenues and 26th and 27th streets is occupied by the hippodrome, erected and opened by P. T. Barnum. In the Central Park garden, 7th avenue and 59th street, concerts are nightly given during the summer, to audiences of from 1,000 to 2,500 persons, by Theodore Thomas's orchestra of 50 performers. In the Bowery are numerous German gardens, the largest and most popular of which is the Atlantic, near Canal street, where from 1,000 to 1,500 Germans nightly listen to orchestral music and drink beer. The Tivoli, in 8th street near 3d avenue, and Terrace garden, in 58th street near 3d avenue, are also places of popular resort, chiefly for Germans. The leading clubs are the Union (founded in 1836), the Travellers' (1865), and the Knickerbocker in 5th avenue, the Army and Navy (1871) in W. 27th street, and the New York at the junction of Broadway, 5th avenue, and 25th street, chiefly social; the Century (1847) in E. 15th street near Union square, the Lotos (1870) in Irving place, the Arcadian (1871) in Union place, literary; the Palette (1869) in E. 22d street, composed of artists; the Union League (1863), occupying a fine building in Madison avenue and 26th street, and the Manhattan (1864) in 5th avenue, political, the former republican and the latter democratic; and the New York Yacht club (1844) and the American Jockey club, in Madison avenue and 27th street, sporting, the latter having a house at Fordham. The Union League club was organized during the civil war, and was active in aiding the federal cause. — The Astor library, in Lafayette place, was founded by a legacy from John Jacob Astor in 1848; it is for study and reference, no books being taken away. (See Astor Library.) The mercantile library in Astor place, and the apprentices' library in Broadway, both established in 1820, and the society library in University place, organized in 1754, are lending libraries, and have reading rooms supplied with the principal American and foreign magazines and newspapers. The privileges of the mercantile library are obtained by the payment of small annual dues. The society library occupies a building 70 by 100 ft. It belongs to shareholders, but others are entitled to its privileges upon the payment of periodical dues. The apprentices' library belongs to the “General Society of Mechanics and Tradesmen of the City of New York.” It is free to apprentices; other persons are required to pay small annual dues. The principal law libraries are that of the New York law institute in Chambers street, accessible to members of the bar on payment of an initiation fee and annual dues, and that of the “Association of the Bar of the City of New York” in W. 27th street, incorporated in 1871. The city library in the city hall, free to all, is a collection consisting chiefly of the city documents and the laws and ordinances of other cities. The Mott memorial free medical and surgical library, in Madison avenue, was founded by the widow of Dr. Valentine Mott, and comprises his medical library of 2,000 volumes, 800 volumes contributed by Dr. Alexander B. Mott, and other donations and purchases. The other principal libraries of a public character are the eclectic (circulating), in 17th street near Irving place; the printers' free library, in Chambers street; the woman's library, in Bleecker street, belonging to the working women's protective union; that of the “New York Medical Library and Journal Association,” in E. 28th street; the Harlem library; and the Washington Heights library. There are also a number of circulating libraries, consisting chiefly of novels. The number of volumes in the various libraries not connected with institutions of learning is as follows:

LIBRARIES.  Volumes. 


Astor 148,000
Mercantile 148,000
Society 64,000
Apprentices' 50,000
Historical society 40,000
Eclectic 30,000
Law institute 17,500
Cooper union 12,600
Geographical society 11,000
American institute 10,704
Young men's Christian association 10,000
New York hospital 9,720
Bar association 8,000
Harlem 6,090
Lyceum of natural history 5,000
City 4,000
Mott memorial 4,000
Medical library and journal association  3,545
Printers' 3,500
Woman's 3,000
Washington Heights 2,565
AmCyc New York (city) - Lenox Library.jpg
Lenox Library.

The Lenox library (free), founded by James Lenox, a wealthy citizen, was chartered in 1870. A splendid building of Lockport limestone has been erected by Mr. Lenox, occupying the entire 5th avenue front between 70th and 71st streets, facing Central park; but the library has not yet been opened. It is to receive the “collection of manuscripts, printed books, engravings and maps, statuary, paintings, drawings, and other works of art” made by the founder, and particularly rich in early American history, Biblical bibliography, and Elizabethan literature. Other donations have been made to the trustees, of which the most important is that of Felix Astoin, comprising about 5,000 French works. — The latest statistics of churches are contained in the table below, besides which there are 25 or 30 in the new wards:

DENOMINATIONS. Number of
 organizations. 
 Number of 
missions.
 Number of 
edifices.
 Number of 
sittings.
 Value of 
edifices.






Baptist[1] 33  13  30  28,000   $1,705,000
Congregational 2,500  450,000
Disciples 600  26,000
Evangelical 750  37,000
Friends 2,000  375,000
German Evangelical Reformed  700  32,500
Jewish 27  17  13,650  1,545,000
Lutheran 14  12  15,000  425,000
Methodist Episcopal 40  18  44  40,000  2,161,500
Methodist Episcopal, African  3,000  120,000
Methodist Protestant 750  35,000
Methodist, Welsh Calvinistic  750  28,000
Methodist, Free 800  47,000
Moravian 1,500  84,000
Presbyterian 43  27  53  55,000  4,550,000
Presbyterian, Reformed 2,500  105,000
Presbyterian, United 4,500  275,000
Protestant Episcopal 66  26  80  60,000  7,500,000
Reformed 18  21  20,000  2,320,000
Roman Catholic 40  40  56,000  5,400,000
Swedenborgian 750  100,000
Unitarian 3,500  400,000
Universalist 3,500  435,000
Union 13  7,800  625,000
Miscellaneous 18  700  30,000





 Total 332  138  344  224,250  $28,811,000
  1. Including one Freewill Baptist.

The miscellaneous churches and missions include one Catholic Apostolic (Irvingite), one Christian Israelite, one Congregational Methodist, one German Swedenborgian, one Greek, one Seventh-day Baptist, and one True Reformed Dutch. There are also four societies of Second Adventists and four of Spiritualists. There are 356 Protestant (evangelical) Sabbath schools, with 88,237 scholars enrolled, and an average attendance of 56,167, and 62 Catholic, Jewish, &c., Sabbath schools, with 27,589 scholars enrolled, and an average attendance of 18,274. — The press of New York in numbers and influence takes the lead in the United States. The number of newspapers and periodicals, according to Rowell's “American Newspaper Directory” for 1874, was 398, besides 10 semi-weekly and 20 weekly editions of daily papers, viz.: daily, 28 (including 6 German, 2 French, and 1 Swedish), of which 18 were morning and 10 evening papers; semi-weekly, 7 (1 Italian and 1 Spanish); weekly, 156 (13 German, 2 Spanish, 1 French, and 1 Swedish); tri-monthly, 1 (Spanish); bi-weekly, 2 (1 German); semi-monthly, 20 (2 German and 2 Spanish); monthly, 168 (3 German, 1 Portuguese, and 1 Spanish); bi-monthly, 1; quarterly, 15 (1 German). The whole number printed in foreign languages was 40, viz.: German, 26; Spanish, 7; French, 3; Swedish, 2; and Italian and Portuguese, 1 each. There are 7 special Sunday papers and 7 Sunday editions of daily papers. — Henry Hudson discovered Manhattan island in September, 1609, anchoring in New York harbor on the 11th, and sailing up the Hudson on the 12th. The Dutch, in whose service Hudson sailed, despatched vessels in the following years to this region to trade with the Indians for furs, but the first settlement on the island appears to have been made in 1623. In 1624 Cornells Jacobsen May was formally installed as the first director or governor, and was succeeded the next year by William Verhulst. In 1626 Peter Minuit arrived as director general, with more ample powers for the organization of a regular government. The same year Fort Amsterdam on the S. point of the island, now the Battery, was commenced. Minuit purchased Manhattan island of the Indians for goods worth $24. Wouter van Twiller became governor in 1633, and William Kieft in 1638. In 1644 a fence was built nearly on the line of the present Wall street, and in 1653 the city was enclosed along this line from the East to the North river by a ditch and palisades with breastworks. Peter Stuyvesant, the last of the Dutch governors, arrived in 1647, and ruled for 17 years. Charles II., having come to the English throne, assumed the Dutch occupancy in North America to be a usurpation, and on March 12, 1664, granted the entire territory to his brother the duke of York. A small fleet arrived in August, and the city surrendered without resistance, Col. Richard Nicolls assuming the office of governor. The name (New Amsterdam) was changed to New York, and an English form of government was established, which lasted nine years. In July, 1673, the Dutch recaptured the city, named it New Orange, made Anthony Colve governor, and drove out the English. Their triumph was short, for by the peace between England and the states general the city was restored to the British crown, and once more called New York, and the Dutch power was finally ended, Nov. 10, 1674. For the remainder of the 17th century the progress of the city was rapid. The only untoward event of the period was the unsuccessful rebellion of Jacob Leisler in 1689. (See Leisler.) The first Trinity church was built in 1696. In 1702 a malignant epidemic prevailed. The “New York Gazette,” the fifth newspaper in the colonies, was begun in 1725, and Zenger's “New York Weekly Journal” in 1733. In 1735 occurred the first great libel suit in the city, regarded as an attack upon the freedom of the press. It grew out of the claim of Gov. Cosby to half the salary of his acting predecessor. The people took up the quarrel, the “Gazette” supporting Cosby and the “Journal” violently opposing him. Zenger was imprisoned for libel, and Cosby's party strained every nerve to convict him, but the jury acquitted him. The year 1741 was remarkable for the supposed discovery of a plot on the part of the negroes (slavery having been introduced at an early period) to burn the city and murder the whites, which derived some support from the burning of a part of the public buildings in that year and the breaking out of fires in other places about the same time. Mainly upon the testimony of a single servant girl more than 150 negroes and about 20 whites were imprisoned. About 20 of the negroes were hanged, a smaller number burned at the stake, and more than 75 transported. In 1765 a congress of delegates from nine colonies met in the city, and adopted a bill of rights, in which they asserted that the sole power of taxation resided in the colonies. In the same year the “Sons of Liberty” were organized to oppose the stamp act. In 1770 a meeting of 3,000 citizens was held, who resolved not to submit to oppression, and a slight collision with the troops occurred. In 1773 the vigilance committee agreed to resist the landing of tea, and in 1774 a ship thus laden was sent back to England, and 18 chests found in another vessel were thrown overboard. On April 3, 1775, the colonial assembly finally adjourned; on July 25 delegates were elected to the continental congress; and on Aug. 23 congress ordered Capt. Lamb to remove the cannon from the city forts to the Highlands. Resistance was offered from the Asia man-of-war, but 21 pieces, all that were mounted, were secured. On Sept. 15, 1776, by the result of the battle of Long Island, the city fell into the hands of the British, and so remained until the close of the war. On Sept. 21, 1776, an extensive fire occurred, all the west side of Broadway from Whitehall to Barclay street being laid in ashes. On Aug. 7, 1778, a fire destroyed 300 buildings around Cruger's wharf, on the East river. The winter of 1780 was very cold; ice covered the bay, and heavy teams and artillery crossed to Staten island. On Nov. 25, 1783, the British finally evacuated the city, and Gen. Washington marched in; the day is still annually celebrated under the name of evacuation day. During the war tbe British had nearly destroyed all the churches except the Episcopal, making prisons, riding schools, and stables of them; the college and schools had been closed. The city was the seat of the colonial government until the revolution. From 1784 to 1797 it was the state capital, though two sessions of the legislature were held at Poughkeepsie and three at Albany during the period. From 1785 to 1790 it was the seat of government of the United States. The adoption of the federal constitution was grandly celebrated in 1788; and the inauguration of President Washington took place at the city hall, April 30, 1789. In 1788 a serious riot occurred at the hospital, in consequence of the careless exposure of dissected bodies. The doctors were mobbed, and their houses invaded; some of them fled from the city, and others took refuge in the jail. In 1791 yellow fever carried off 200 victims. The city, now just reaching the lower corner of the present City Hall park, began to extend along the Boston road (Bowery) and Broadway. In 1795 732, and in 1798 2,086 persons died from yellow fever, which returned at intervals till 1805, but with diminishing virulence. On Sept. 20, 1803, the corner stone of the city hall was laid by Mayor Livingston; the hall was finished in 1812, when the old one in Wall street was sold. In the winter of 1804, 40 stores in Wall, Front, and Water streets were burned. The free school society, the germ of the present board of education, was incorporated in 1805. The streets were now extending across the Canal street marsh, while the collect or swamp where the city prison now stands was being filled up. The spread of population was stimulated by the yellow fever, which drove a third of the people from their dwellings below the park to the woods and fields north of the fresh water. In 1807 Robert Fulton navigated the first steamboat from near New York to Albany. A great fire in Chatham street in 1811 consumed nearly 100 houses. The war of 1812 with Great Britain temporarily checked the city's growth. In 1821 the survey and laying out of the island north of Houston street was completed after 10 years' labor. In the winter of this year the bay was frozen over for the first time in 41 years. Yellow fever reappeared in 1819, and again in 1822 and 1823, occasioning a great panic; the city south of the park was fenced off and nearly deserted, families, merchants, hanks, and even the city government, removing to Greenwich (now the 9th ward) and upper Broadway. This panic materially improved property north of Canal street, and correspondingly expanded the city. Gas first came into general use in 1825. The city now had 12 wards, and was growing at the rate of 1,000 to 1,500 houses a year a growth occasioned by the completion of the Erie canal, the first boat from which arrived Nov. 4, 1825. The canal celebration was the grandest affair ever known in the country. In the next decade New York received some severe blows from pestilence, fire, and financial disaster. The cholera appeared in 1832, carrying off 3,513 persons, and again in 1834, taking 971. On Dec. 16, 1835, the most disastrous fire known to the city swept the 1st ward east of Broadway and below Wall street, destroying 648 of the most valuable stores, the merchants' exchange and the South Dutch church, and property valued at more than $18,000,000. With almost miraculous energy the city was rising from these ashes, when the financial explosion of 1837 came, with suspension of specie payments, failures, and bankruptcy throughout the country. Even this, however, but momentarily checked the progress of the city. In 1842 the Croton water was introduced. On July 19, 1845, a great fire occurred between Broadway, Exchange place, Broad, and Stone streets, destroying over $5,000,000 worth of property. Several lives were lost in the Astor place riot in May, 1849, growing out of the assumed hostility of two prominent actors. (See Macready.) Cholera came again in the summer of 1849 and carried off 5,071 persons; again in 1855, when 374 died; and lastly in 1866, when it carried off 1,212. The first city railroad (except the Harlem) was built through 6th avenue in 1852, in anticipation of the projected industrial exhibition, which opened with great ceremony (the president of the United States officiating) July 14, 1853, in a magnificent crystal palace in the form of a Greek cross, built of iron and glass, 365½ ft. in diameter each way, with galleries, and a dome 123 ft. high and 100 wide, the flooring covering 5¾ acres. This building was burned in 1858. In 1857 occurred another financial panic. In the same year the radical change in the control of the police made by the legislature, and the resistance to the act by Mayor Wood, resulted in popular disturbances in June and July. Upon the outbreak of the civil war the citizens of New York responded heartily in behalf of the Union, and during the continuance of the struggle the city furnished 116,382 men (equivalent to 89,183 for three years) to the federal armies, at a net cost of $14,577,214 65. The only serious disturbance during this period was the riot that broke out on Monday, July 13, 1863, in opposition to the draft. The mob, composed of the poorer class of the people, held practical possession of the city for several days, and it was not until the 17th that the mayor issued a proclamation declaring the riot suppressed. The offices of the provost marshals where the draft was going on were demolished; stores and dwellings were rifled; many buildings were burned, including the colored orphan asylum, then in 5th avenue; and several negroes, against whom the fury of the mob was particularly directed, were murdered. Collisions took place between the rioters and the troops, who were several times compelled to fire. The number of persons killed during the riot is estimated at more than 1,000, and the city subsequently paid about $1,500,000 by way of indemnity for losses sustained at the hands of the mob. The draft was resumed in August and completed without resistance. Another riot occurred on July 12, 1871, in which 62 persons were killed, growing out of a procession of Orangemen in commemoration of the battle of the Boyne. Threats having been made by their enemies to break up the procession, the Orangemen were provided with an escort of militia. They were attacked soon after the procession began its march, when the militia fired and dispersed the mob. In the summer of 1871 proofs were furnished that enormous frauds had been perpetrated by the existing officials upon the city treasury, raising the city debt in 2½ years from $50,000,000 to $113,000,000, with outstanding claims to an unknown amount still unadjusted (1875). One of the chief instruments of peculation was the court house, large sums appropriated for its construction finding their way into the pockets of the “ring.” The amount ostensibly expended in its erection exceeds $12,000,000. The people were immediately aroused, and assembled in mass meeting in the Cooper institute on Sept. 4, when a committee of 70 members was appointed, to take the necessary measures to ascertain the true state of the treasury, to recover any abstracted moneys, and to secure good government and honest officers. At the ensuing November election the candidates favorable to the accused parties were defeated by large majorities. The latter were subsequently prosecuted and some of them convicted and sentenced, while others fled the country. Several of the judges were impeached, and resigned or were removed from office. The annexation of a portion of Westchester county in 1873 has already been referred to. — The original charter of New York city, known as the Dongan charter, was granted by James II. in 1686. In 1730 the Montgomerie charter was granted by George II., and in 1732 it was confirmed by the general assembly of the province. This charter was of the most liberal nature; it made New York practically a free government, established an elective council, and gave unusual privileges to the people. The most important property grants were the exclusive possession and control of the waters to low-water mark on all the shores opposite Manhattan island, with the ownership of the ferries for all time, and the proprietorship of all waste and unoccupied lands on the island. The “mayor, aldermen, and commonalty” were made a perpetual corporation. No direct changes were made in this charter for 100 years. In 1829 the people in city convention prepared, and the legislature adopted, the amended charter of 1830. The next amendments were in 1849, when important changes were made. Other changes were made in 1851 and 1853, and in 1857 the charter was materially changed. It was again amended in 1863, and in 1870 the local government was substantially reorganized. The charter of 1870, amended in 1871, was superseded by the present charter in 1873, and this was itself slightly amended in 1874. All these enactments recognize the Dongan and Montgomerie charters as the source of municipal rights, and upon their provisions rest the vast public and private interests of the city. — See “History of the City of New York,” by D. T. Valentine (1853); “History of New York City,” by Mary L. Booth (2 vols., 1867); “History of New York City,” by William L. Stone (1872); and “New York and its Institutions, 1609-1873: the Bright Side of New York,” by the Rev. J. F. Richmond (1873).