1922 Encyclopædia Britannica/Tisza, Stephen, Count

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TISZA, STEPHEN, Count (1861-1918), Hungarian statesman (see 26.1017). During the Coalition Ministry (1906) Tisza retired into private life on his estate of Geszt. It was only in the House of Magnates that he expressed his views against the extension of the franchise. When Count Khuen-Hedervary took office in 1910, Tisza was his most earnest and effective opponent in the country. His return to the political arena took place during a period of obstruction. In 1912 he became president of the House of Deputies, and on July 10 1913 again returned to power as prime minister. When the World War broke out a truce was arranged between Tisza and the Opposition, but it did not last long, and in 1917 he was compelled to resign. Though hitherto he had been the most zealous adherent of Dualism and the partnership with Austria, he declared for the scheme of personal union after the manifesto of King Charles on Oct. 17 1918, the Pragmatic Sanction to hold good on the question of national defence, but with a separate Hungarian army and separate diplomatic representation abroad. When he saw no prospect of winning the war he pleaded for a peace in common with Germany on the basis of President Wilson's Fourteen Points. On Oct. 31 he was assassinated in his villa by men in military uniform, said to have been worn as a disguise.

Tisza had a power over Austria and Hungary such as had hardly ever been exercised before by an adviser of the Crown. He was distinguished by his determination and inflexible convictions, and was opposed to any policy involving weak concessions. In the newspapers Magyar Figyelö (Hungarian Observer) and Ignazmondó (Truth), he published articles on many subjects; in addition he published the historical study Von Sadowa bis Sedan (in Hungarian and German).

See the biography by Karl Szaz (Hungarian); and David Angyal, In Memory of Stephen Tisza (Hungarian).

(E. v. W.)