Anglo Saxon Chronicle (E)

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Bríttene ígland[1] is ehta hund mila lang. twa hund brad. her sínd on þis iglande fif ge þeode. Englisc. Brittisc. Wilsc. Scyttisc. Pyhtisc. Boc Leden[2]. Erest weron bugend þises landes Bríttes. þa coman of Armenia. ge sætan suðeweard Bryttene ærost. Ƿa ge lamp hit OE thaet.png Pyhtas coman suþan of Scithian. mid langum scipum na mangeum. þa coman ærost on norþ Ybernian up. þær bædo[n] Scottas OE thaet.png hi ðer moston wunían. Ac hi noldan heom lyfan. forðan hi [cwædon þæt hi ne mihton ealle æt gǽdere ge wúnian þær. þa[3]] cwædon þa Scottas. we eow magon þeah hwaðere ræd ge læron. We witan oþer egland her be easton. þer ge magon eardian gif ge willað. and gif hwa eow wiðstent. we eow fultumiað. OE thaet.png ge hit magon ge gangan. Ða ferdon þa Pyhtas. and geferdon þis land norþan weard. and suþan weard hit hefdon Brittas. swa we ær cwedon. And þa Pyhtas heom abædon wif æt Scottum. on þa ge rad OE thaet.png hi gecuraon heora kyne ciñ áá on þa wif healfa. OE thaet.png hi heoldon swa lange syððan. And þa gelamp hit imbe geara rina. OE thaet.png Scotta sum dæl ge wat of Ybernian on Brittene. and þes landes sum dæl ge eodon. and wes heora heratoga Reoda gehaten. from þam heo sind ge nemnode Dæl Reodi :

Sixtigum wintrum ær þam þe Crist were acenned. Gaius Julius Romana Kasere mid hund ehtatigum scipum[4] gesohte Brytene. Ƿer he wes ærost ge swenced mid grimmum ge feohte. and micelne dæl his heres forlædde[5]. And þa he forlet his here abidan mid Scottum[6]. and gewat into Galwalum. and þer ge gadorode six hund scipa. mid þam he ge wat eft in to Brytene. And þa hi ærost to gedore ge ræsdon. þa man of sloh ðes Caseres ge refan. se wes Labienus[7] ge haten. Ða ge namon þa Walas. and adrifon sumre éa ford ealne mid scearpum pilum[8] greatum innan þam wetere. sy éa hatte Temese. þa OE thaet.png on fundon ða Romani. þa noldon hi faron ofer þone[9] ford. Ƿa flugon þa Bryt Walas to þam wudu færstenum[10]. and se Kasere ge eode wel manega heh burh mid mycelum ge winne. and eft ge wat into Galwalum :


Anno 1 Octavianus rixade lvi wintra. and on þam xlii geare his rices. Crist wæs acenned.
2. Ða tungel witegan of east dæle coman to þan OE thaet.png hi Crist wurðoden. And þa cild on Bethleem of slagene wæron for ehtnesse fram Herode. and he swealt of sticod fram him sylfum. and Archelaus his sune feng to rice.
11. Fram frymðe middan eardes oþ þis gear wæron agan v þusend wintra. and cc wintra[11].
12. Philippus and Herodes to dældon Iudeam. iiii ricu to dældon.
16. Her feng Tiberius to rice.
26. Her on feng Pilatus gymene ofer þa Iudeas.
30. Her wæs Crist gefullod. and Petrus and Andreas ge hwyrfede and Iacobus and Ioh’s and þa xii apl’s.
33. Hær wes Crost ahangen. fram fruman middan eardes ymb v þusend wintra. and cc. and xxvi.
34. Her wæs sc̃s Paulus ge hwyrfed and sc̃s Stephanus of torfod.
35. Her se eadiga apostol Petrus ge set biscop setl on Antiochia ceastre.
39. Her on feng Gaius to rice.
45. Her se eadiga Petrus se apostol ge set biscop setl on Rome.
46. Her Erodes swealt se ðe Iacobum of sloh. anum geare ær his agenum deaðe.
47. Her Claudius Romana cining ge wat mid here on Brytene. and OE thaet.png igland ge éode. and ealle Pyhtas. and Walas under þeodde Romana rice. Ðis ge feoht he ge fremede þam feorðan geare his rices. Ƿam geare gewearð se mycla hunger on Siria. þe wes fore witegad on Actib; Apl’orum þurh Agabum þone witegan.Ƿa feng Nero to rice æfter Claudie. se æt nextan forlet Brytene igland for his uncafscipe[12].
62. Her Iacobus fr Dñi þrowade.
63. Her Marcus se godspellere forð ferde.
69. Her Petrus and Paulus þrowodon.
70. Her Vespasianus onfeng rice.
71. Her Titus Uespasiauus in Jerusalem of sloh Iudea cxi þusend.
81. Her feng Titus to rice, se ðe sede OE thaet.png he þone dæg forlure ðe he naht to gode ón né dyde.
84. Her Domitianus Tites broðor feng to rice.
87. Her Iohannes se godspellere in Pathma þam iglande wrat þa bóc apocalypsin.
100. Her Simon se apostol wæs ahangen. and Iohannes se godspellere hine ge reste in Effesia.
101. Her Clemens papa forðferde.
110. Her Ignatius biscop ðrowade.
114. Alexander hic constituit aquam benedictam fieri.
124. Syxtus papa hic constituit ymnum decantare. Sc̃s. Sc̃s. Sc̃s. in officio misse.
134. Telesphorus papa hie constituit ymnum angelicum cantari gloria in excelsis deo diebus festis.
155. Her Marcus Antonius. and Aurelius his broðer fengon to rice.
167. Her Eleutherius on Rome onfeng biscop dom. and þone wurþlice xv wiñt geheold. To ðam Lucius Brytwalana cing sende men. and bead fulluhtes. and he him sona sende. and heo siððan wunodon on rihtan gelefan. oððe Dioclitianus rice.
189. Her Severus feng to rice, and ferde mid here on Brytene. and mid ge feohte ge eode þes iglandes mycelne dæl and þa ge wrohte he weall mid turfum. and bred 3 weall ðær on ufon. fram sæ to sæ. Britwalum to gebeorge. He rixade. xvii gear, and þa ge endode on Eoferwic. Bassianus his sunu feng to rice. oðer his sunu wes gehaten Geza. se for wearð.
202. Victor papa hic constituit ut Pascha die dominico celebretur. sicut predecessor ejus Eleutherius.
254. Cornelius papa hic de catacumbis levavit per noctem corpora apostolorum. and posuit Pauli quidem via Ostensi ubi decollatus est. Petri autem juxta locum ubi crucifixus est.
286. Her þrowade Sc̃s Albanus m̃r.
311. Sc̃s Silvester papa xxiii. Hujus tempore celebratur Nicenum c̃cilium. Arelatense quoque primum, in quo fuit Avitianus Rotomagi archiepc̃.
379. Her Gratianus feng to rice.
379. Hoc tempore celebratur Constantinopolitanum concilium cl patrum adversus Macedonum et Eunomium sub Damaso.
380. Her Maximus feng to rice, he wees on Bryten lande ge boren. and þanon he for in Galwalas. and he ðær of sloh þone kasere Gratianum. and his broðer adraf of eðele. se wæs ge haten Valentinianus. and se Valentinianus eft ge samnode weorod and ofsloh Maximum, and feng to rice. On þam tidum árás Pelaies gedwild geond middan geard.
403. Innocentius papa hic misit decretalem epistolam Victricio Rotomagensi archiepo. Hic constituit sabbato jejunare quia eo die Dñs jacuit in sepulchro.
409. Her wæs to brocen Romana burh fram Gotum ymb xi hund wintra and x wintra. þæs þe heo ge timbred wæs. Siððan ofer OE thaet.png ne rixodan leng Romana cinigas on Brytene. Ealles hi ðær rixodan iiii hund wintra. and hund seofenti wintra. siððtan Gaius Iulius OE thaet.png land erost ge sohte.
418. Her Romane gesamnodan ealle þa gold hord ðe on Brytene wæron. and sume on eoriðan be hyddan. OE thaet.png heo nan man syððan findon ne mihton. and sume mid heom on Gallia læddon.
423. Her Ðeodosius se gingra feng to rice.
425. Hujus temporis ætate extitit exordium regum Francorum : primus Faramundus.
430. Her Patricius wæs asend fram Celestine þam papan to bodianne Scottum fulluht.
431. Hoc tempore diabolus in Creta Judeis in specie Moysi apparens ad terram repromissionis per mare pede sicco perducere promittit ; sicque plurimis necatis reliqui ad Xp̄ī gratiam convertuntur.
433. Celestinus papa. Hujus tempore aggregate est Ephesina synodus ducentorum episcoporum cui profuit CirillusAlexandrinus presul adversus Nestorium Constantinopolitanum episcopum.
439. Leo papa. Hie sancivit Calcedonensem sinodum.
443. Her sendon Brytwalas ofer sæ to Rome, and heom fultumes bædon wið Peohtas. ac hi þær nefdon nænne. forþan ðe hi feordodan wið Ætlan Huna cininge. and þa sendon hi to Anglum. and Angel cynnes æðelingas þes ilcan bædon.
449. Hujus tempore celebratur Calcedonense concilium dcxxx episcoporum adversus Euticem abbatem et Dioscorum. Her Martianus and Valentinus onfengon rice, and rixadon vii wiñt. and on þeora dagum gelaðode Wyrtgeorn Angel cin hider. and hi þa coman on þrim ceolum hider to Brytene. on þam stede Heopwines fleot. Se cyning Wyrt georn gef heom land on suðan eastan ðissum lande. wiððan þe hi sceoldon feohton wið Pyhtas. Heo þa fuhton wið Pyhtas. and heofdon sige swa hwer swa heo comon. Hy ða sendon to Angle heton sendon mara fultum. and heton heom secgan Brytwalana nahtscipe. and þes landes cysta. Hy ða sona sendon hider mare weored þam oðrum to fultume. Ða comon þa men of þrim megðum Germanie. Of Ald Seaxum. of Anglum. of Iotum. Of Iotum comon Cantwara. and Wihtwara. OE thaet.png is seo megð þe nu eardaþ on Wiht. and OE thaet.png cyn on West Sexum þe man nu git hæt Iutna cynn. Of Eald Seaxum coman East Seaxa. and Suð Sexa. and West Sexa. Of Angle comon se á syððan stod westig. be twix Iutum and Seaxum. East Angla. Middel Angla. Mearca. and ealla Norþhymbra, Heora heretogan wseron twegen gebroiSra. Hengest. and Horsa. OE thaet.png wæron Wiht gilses suna. Wiht gils wæs Witting. Witta Wecting. Wecta Wodning. fram þan Wodne awoc call ure cyne cynn. and Suðan hymbra eac.
455. Her Hengest and Horsa fuhton wið Wyrtgerne þam cininge on þære stowe þe is cweden .Ægeles þrep. and his broðor Horsan man of sloh. and æfter þonn feng to rice Hengest. and Æsc his sunu.
456. Her Hengest and Æsc gefuhton wið Bryttas on þere stow þe is ge cweden Crecgan ford, and þer of slogon iiii werad. and þa Bryttas forleton þa Kentland. and mid mycclum ege flugon to Lunden byrig.
465. Her Hengest and Æsc gefuhton wið Walas neh Wippedes fleote. and ðær of slogon xii Wilsce ealdor men. and heora an þegn wearð þær of slegen. þam wæs nama Wipped.
473. Her Hengest and Æsc ge fuhton wið Walas. and genamon unarimenlicu here reaf. and þa Walas flugon þa Englan swiðe þaearle.
477. Her com Ælle on Brytenland. and his iii suna. Cymen. and Wlencing. and Cissa. mid iii scipum on ða stowe þe is genemnad Cymenesora. and þær of slogon manige Walas. and sume on fleame be drifon. on þone wudu þe is nemned Andredes lege.

Notes[edit]

  1. This preface is in D. E. F.; C. has a metrical preface.
  2. Ænglisc. Bryt Wylsc. Scottysc. Piht tisc. Bóc læden. D.; F. follows E., but omits Boc Leden. Angli, Britoni, Waloni, Scithi et Picti. F. Lat.
  3. From D. The omission in E. is merely due to the recurrence of the word cwædon.
  4. céolum D.
  5. forlædde] disperdidit. Beda. This word puzzled Bp. Gibson, and he proposed to read forlæt (forlet). But forlædan is quite appropriate here, as Beowulf 4084 (Ed. Thorpe) will bear out. The usual meaning of forlædan is to mislead, lead into mischied; or as Kemble has it, Gl. Beow., "in perniciem ducere," which suits this place.
  6. forlet his here abidan mid Scottum] legiones in hiberna dimisit. Beda. An odd mistake, but quite explained by the fact that many copies had hibernia or (the difference being in MS. little or none) hiberniam. Smith's Ed. first restored the true reading.
  7. gerefan. se wes Labienus] Labienus tribunus occisus est. Beda. It was really Q. Laberius Durus. Cæsar, Bell. Gal. V 15.
  8. stængum D. acutissimis sudibus. Beda, I 2.
  9. þone is demonstrative. They forded at another place. Quod ubi a Romanis deprehensum ac vitatum est. Beda, I 2.
  10. An error of the scribe for fæstenum. Cf. mor festenum. 878. D. has westenum, wastes, wildernesses.
  11. This is the Chronology of Eusebius, founded on the numbers in tthe patriarchal genealogies according to the Septuagint. For once, the teaching of the great masters is rejected. Beda preferred the authority of the Hebrew text, as Jerome had done, but so far from gaining followers, he was almost called a heretic for questioning the established opinion. Eusebii Chronicon, (Venice, 1818) pp. 66; 149. Browne's Ordo Sæclorum, p. 334.
  12. uncafscipe, ignavia, neglect, sloth. The simple adjective caf is very rare in Anglo-Saxon, and in the other Gothic dialects almost if not quite lost. In the A. S. poets it is found once, Helen 56, cafe to cease alacres ad pugnam, where see Grimm's note. Diefenbach (Gothisches Wörterbuch) would give it a distant connection with the widely branched root cwic, vivus, quick.