Campbell, James (1667-1745) (DNB00)

From Wikisource
Jump to: navigation, search

CAMPBELL, Sir JAMES (1667–1745), of Lawers, general, third son of James Campbell, second earl of Loudoun, by Lady Margaret Montgomery, second daughter of the seventh earl of Eglintoun, was, according to the obituary notice in the ‘Gentleman's Magazine,’ born in 1667, although in Douglas's ‘Peerage of Scotland’ it is pointed out that this date is probably some years too early. He entered the army as lieutenant-colonel of the 2nd dragoons or Scots Greys in 1708, through the influence of his brother, Hugh Campbell, third earl of Loudoun [q. v.], who was a commissioner for accomplishing the union between England and Scotland, and one of the first sixteen representative peers for Scotland, and he greatly distinguished himself at the hard-fought battle of Malplaquet on 11 Sept. 1709. In this battle the Scots Greys were stationed in front of the right of the allied line under the command of Prince Eugène, and when the obstinate resistance of the French made the issue of the battle doubtful, Campbell, though he had been ordered not to move, suddenly charged with his dragoons right through the enemies' line and back again. The success of this charge determined the battle in that quarter, and on the following day Prince Eugène publicly thanked Campbell before the whole army for exceeding his orders. He continued to serve at the head of the Scots Greys until the peace of Utrecht, and then threw himself, with his brother, Lord Loudoun, ardently into politics as a warm supporter of the Hanoverian succession. He was made colonel of the 9th foot, 1715–7, and of the Scots Greys in 1717. When George II came to the throne, he showed his appreciation of military gallantry by appointing Campbell groom of his bed-chamber, and in 1738 he was made governor and constable of Edinburgh Castle. He was promoted brigadier-general 1735, and major-general 1739. He was M.P. for Stirlingshire in 1734–41, and Ayrshire 1741. The long period of peace maintained by Walpole prevented Campbell from seeing service for twenty-eight years, but in 1742, when war was again declared against France, he was promoted lieutenant-general and accompanied the king to Germany as general commanding the cavalry. At its head he charged the maison du roi, or household troops of France, at the battle of Dettingen on 16 June 1743, and was invested a knight of the Bath before the whole army on the field of battle by George II. He continued to command the cavalry after the king returned to England until the battle of Fontenoy on 30 April 1745, at which battle he headed many unsuccessful charges against the army of Marshal Saxe, but towards the close of the day his leg was carried off by a cannon-ball, and he died while being put into a litter, and was buried at Brussels. Campbell married Lady Jean Boyle, eldest daughter of the first earl of Glasgow, and his only son, James Mure Campbell, succeeded as fifth earl of Loudoun, and was the father of Flora, countess of Loudoun and marchioness of Hastings.

[Historical Record of the Scots Greys; Douglas's Peerage of Scotland; Foster's Scotch M.P.'s, p. 55.]

H. M. S.