Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)/Ecclesiastical Abbreviations

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90153Catholic Encyclopedia — Ecclesiastical AbbreviationsThomas Joseph Shahan

Abbreviations, Ecclesiastical.—The words most commonly abbreviated at all times are proper names, titles (official or customary), of persons or corporations, and words of frequent occurrence. A good list of those used in Roman Republican and early Imperial times may be seen in Egbert's "Latin Inscriptions" (New York, 1896), 417–459. The Jewish scribes and Talmudic scholars also had frequent recourse to Abbreviations.

Between the seventh and ninth centuries the ancient Roman system of Abbreviations gave way to a more difficult one that gradually grew up in the monastic houses and in the chanceries of the new Teutonic kingdoms. Merovingian, Lombard, and Anglo-Saxon scripts offer each their own Abbreviations, not to speak of the unique scotica manus or libri scottice scripti (Irish hand, or books written in the medieval Irish hand). Eventually such productive centres of technical manuscripts as the Papal Chancery, the theological schools of Paris and Oxford, and the civil-law school of Bologna set the standards of Abbreviations for all Europe. The medieval manuscripts abound in Abbreviations, owing in part to the abandonment of the uncial, or quasi-uncial, and the almost universal use of the cursive, hand. The medieval writer inherited a few from Christian antiquity; others he invented or adapted, in order to save time and parchment. They are found especially in manuscripts of scholastic theology and canon law, annals and chronicles, the Roman law, and in administrative documents, civil and ecclesiastical (charters, privileges, bulls, rescripts). They multiplied with time, and were never so numerous as on the eve of the discovery of printing; many of the early printed books offer this peculiarity, together with other characteristics of the manuscript page. The development of printing brought about the abandonment of many Abbreviations, while it suggested and introduced new ones—a process also favoured by the growth of ecclesiastical legislation, the creation of new offices, etc. There was less medieval abbreviation in the text of books much used on public occasions, e.g. missals, antiphonaries, bibles; in one way or another the needs of students seem to have been the chief cause of the majority of medieval Abbreviations. The means of abbreviation were usually full points or dots (mostly in Roman antiquity), the semicolon (eventually conventionalized), lines (horizontal, perpendicular, oblong, wavy curves, and commas). Vowel-sounds were frequently written not after, but over, the consonants. Certain letters, like p and q, that occur with extreme frequency, e.g. in prepositions and terminations, became the source of many peculiar abbreviations; similarly, frequently recurring words like et (and), est (is).

Habit and convenience are to-day the principal motives for using abbreviations. Most of those in actual use fall under one or other of the following heads: I. Administrative; II. Liturgical; III. Scholastic; IV. Chronological.

I. The first class of Abbreviations includes those used in the composition of Pontifical documents. They were once very numerous, and lists of them may be seen in the works quoted below (e.g. Quantin, Prou). It may be well to state at once that since 29 December, 1878, by order of Leo XIII, the great papal documents (Litteræ Apostolica) are no longer written in the old Gothic hand known as bollatico; all Abbreviations, with the exception of a few obvious ones, like S.R.E., were abolished by the same authority (Acta S. Sedis, XI, 465–467). In the transaction of ordinary business the Roman Congregations are wont to use certain brief and pithy formulas (e.g. Negative = "No"; Negative et amplius = "No with emphasis"). They are not, correctly speaking, Abbreviations. For a list of these see Canon Law. This class includes also the abbreviations for the names of most sees. The full Latin titles of all existing (Latin) dioceses may be seen in the Roman annual, "Gerarehia Cattolica;" a complete list of the Latin names of all known dioceses (extant or extinct) is found in the large folio work of the Comte de Mas Latrie, "Trésor de chronologie, d'histoire et de géographie" (Paris, 1884). For the same purpose the reader may also consult the episcopal catalogues of the Benedictine Gams, "Series Episcoporum Ecclesiæ Catholica;" (Ratisbon, 1873–86), and the Franciscan Conrad Eubel, "Hierarchia Catholica Medii Ævi" (Münster, 1898–1902). Under this general heading may be included all abbreviated forms of addresses in ordinary intercourse, whether of individuals or of members of religious orders, congregations, institutes, to which may be added the forms of addresses usual for members of Catholic lay societies and the Papal orders of merit. (See Catholic Societies, Orders of Merit.) The Abbreviations of the titles of Roman Congregations, and of the individual canonical ecclesiastical authorities, belong also to this class. II. A second class of Abbreviations includes those used in the description of liturgical acts or the directions for their performance, e.g. the Holy Mass, the Divine Office (Breviary), the ecclesiastical devotions, etc. In the following list the Breviary Abbreviations are marked: Br. Here may also be classed the abbreviated forms for the name of God, Jesus Christ, and the Holy Ghost; also for the names of the Blessed Virgin, the saints, etc.; likewise Abbreviations used in the administration of the Sacraments, mortuary epitaphs, etc. (to which class belong the numerous Catacomb inscriptions); finally some miscellaneous Abbreviations like those used in the publication of documents concerning beatification and canonization. III. In the third class belong scholastic Abbreviations, used to designate honorific titles acquired in the schools, to avoid the repetition of lengthy titles of books and reviews, or to facilitate reference to ecclesiastical and civil legislation. IV. In the fourth class of Abbreviations belong all such as are used to describe the elements of the year, civil or ecclesiastical.

Abbreviations used in Apostolic Rescripts.
Absoluo. Absolutio—Absolution.
Alr. Aliter—Otherwise.
Aplica. Apostolica—Apostolic.
Appatis. Approbatis—Having been approved.
Archiepus. Archiepiscopus—Archbishop.
Aucte. Auctoritate—By the Authority.
Canice. Canonice—Canonically.
Card. Cardinalis—Cardinal.
Cens. Censuris—Censures (abl. or dat. case).
Circumpeone. Circumspectione—Circumspection (abl. case).
Coione. Communione—Communion (abl. case).
Confeone. Confessione—Confession (abl. case).
Consciæ. Conscientiæ—Of [or to] conscience.
Constbus Constitutionibus—Constitutions (abl. or dat. case).
Discreoni. Discretioni—To the Discretion.
Dispensao. Dispensatio—Dispensation.
Dnus. Dominus—Lord, Sir, or Mr.
Ecclæ. Ecclesiæ—Of [or to] the Church
Ecclis. Ecclesiasticis—Ecclesiastical.
Effum. Effectum—Effect.
Epus. Episcopus—Bishop.
Excoe. Excommunicatione—Excommunication (abl. case).
Exit. Existit—Exists.
Fr. Frater—Brother.
Frum. Fratrum—Of the Brothers.
Gnalis. Generalis—General.
Humil. Humiliter—Humbly.
Humoi. Hujusmodi—Of this kind.
Igr. Igitur—Therefore.
Infraptum. Inscriptum—Written below.
Intropta. Introscripta—Written within.
Irregulte. Irregularitate—Irregularity (abl. case).
Lin. Licentia—License.
Litma. Legitima—Lawful.
Lre. Litteræ—Letters.
Lte. Licite—Lawfully, or licitly.
Magro. Magistro—Master (dat. or abl. case).
Mir. Misericorditer—Mercifully.
Mirione. Miseratione—Pity (abl. case).
Mrimonium. Matrimonium—Matrimony.
Nultus. Nullatemus—Nowise.
Ordinaoni. Ordinationi—Ordination (dat. case).
Ordio. Ordinario—Ordinary (dat. or abl. case).
Pbr. Presbyter—Priest.
Penia. Pœnitentia—Penance, or repentance.
Peniaria. Pœnitentiaria—Penitentiary (i.e. Bureau of the Apostolic Penitentiary).
Pntium. Præsentium—Of those present, or, Of this present writing.
Poe. Posse—To be able, or, The ability to do a thing.
Pontus. Pontificatus—Pontificate.
PP. Papa—Pope.
Pr. Pater—Father.
Pror. Procurator.
Ptur. Præfertur—Is preferred, or, Is brought forward.
Ptus. Præfatus—Aforesaid.
Qd. Quod—Because, That, or, Which.
Qmlbt. Quomodolibet—In any manner whatsoever.
Qtnus. Quatenus—In so far as.
Relione. Religione—Religion, or, Religious Order (abl. case).
Rlari. Regulari—Regular.
Roma. Romana—Roman.
Salri. Salutari—Salutary.
Snia. Sententia—Opinion.
Sntæ. Sanctæ—Holy, or, Saints (feminine).
Spealer. Specialiter—Specially.
Spualibus Spiritualibus—In spiritual matters.
Supplioni. Supplicationibus—Supplication (dat. or abl. case).
Thia. Theologia—Theology.
Tli. Tituli—Titles.
Tm. Tantum—So much, or, Only.
Tn. Tamen—Nevertheless.
Venebli. Venerabili—Venerable.
Vræ. Vestræ—Your.
Abbreviations in General Use, Chiefly Ecclesiastical.
A.B. Artium Baccalaureus—Bachelor of Arts
Ab. Abbas—Abbot
Abp. Archbishop
Abs. Absens—Absent
A.C. Auditor Cameræ—Auditor of the Papal Treasury
A.C. Ante Christum—Before Christ
A.C.N. Ante Christum Natum—Before the Birth of Christ
A.D. Anno Domini—Year of Our Lord
a.d. ante diem—The day before
Adm. Rev. Admodum Reverendus—Very Reverend
Adv. Adventus—Advent
Alb. Albus—White (Br.)
al. alii, alibi, alias—others, elsewhere, otherwise
A.M. Anno Mundi—Year of the World
A.M. Artium Magister—Master of Arts
A.M.D.G. Ad Majorem Dei Gloriam—For the greater glory of God
An. Annus—Year
Ann. Anni—Years
Ana Antiphon
Apost. Apostolus—Apostle
Ap. Sed. Apostolica Sedes—Apostolic See
Ap. Sed. Leg. Apostolicae Sedis Legatus—Legate of the Apostolic See
Archiep. Archiepiscopus—Archbishop
Archid. Archidiaconus—Archdeacon
Archiprb. Archipresbyter—Archpriest
A.R.S. Anno Reparatæ Salutis—In the year of Our Redemption
A.U. Alma Urbs—Beloved City (Rome)
Authen. Authentica—Authentic (e.g. letters)
Aux. Auxilium, Auxilio—Help, With the help of
B.A. Baccalaureus Artium—Bachelor of Arts
B., BB. Beatus, Beati—Blessed
B.C. Before Christ
B.C.L. Baccalaureus Civilis [or Canonicæ Legis—Bachelor of Civil [or Canon] Law
B.D. Bachelor of Divinity
B.F. Bonâ Fide—In Good Faith
Ben. Benedictio—Blessing
Benevol. Benevolentia—Benevolence
Bon. Mem. Bonæ Memoriæ—Of Happy Memory
B.P. Beatissime Pater—Most Holy Father
Bro. Brother
B. Se. Baccalaureus Scientiarum—Bachelor of Sciences
B.U.J. Baccalaureus Utriusque Juris—Bachelor of Both Laws (civil and canon).
B.T. Baccalaureus Theologiæ—Bachelor of Theology
B.V. Beatitudo Vestra—Your Holiness
B.V. Beata Virgo—Blessed Virgin
B.V.M. Beata Virgo Maria—Blessed Virgin Mary
Cam. Camera—Papal Treasury
Cam. Ap. Camera Apostolica—Apostolic Camera (Papal Treasury)
Can. Canonicus
Canc. Cancellarius—Chancellor
Cap. Capitulum—Little Chapter (Br).
Cap. de seq. Capitulum de Sequenti—Little chapter of the following feast (Br.).
Capel. Capella—Chapel
Caus. Causa—Cause
C.C. Curatus—Curate (used chiefly in Ireland)
CC. VV. Clarissimi Viri—Illustrious Men
Cen. Eccl. Censura Ecclesiastica—Ecclesiastical Censure
Cla. Clausula—Clause
Cl., Clico. Clericus, Clerico—Cleric
Clun. Cluniacenses—Monks of Cluny
C.M. Causâ Mortis—On occasion of death
Cod. Codex—Manuscript
Cog. Leg. Cognatio Legalis—Legal Cognation.
Cog. Spir. Cognatio Spiritualis—Spiritual Cognation.
Coll. Conc. Collectio Conciliorum—Collection of the Councils.
Comm. Prec. Commemoratio Praecedentis—Commemoration of the preceding feast (Br.).
Comm. Seq. Commemoratio Sequentis—Commemoration of the following feast (Br.).
Compl. Completorium—Compline (Br.).
Con. Contra—against.
Cone. Concilium—Council.
Conf. Confessor.
Conf. Doct. Confessor et Doctor (Br.).
Conf. Pont. Confessor Pontifex—Confessor and Bishop (Br.).
Cons. Consecratio—Consecration.
Consecr. Consecratus—Consecrated.
Const. Ap. Constitutio Apostolica—Apostolic Constitution.
Cr. Credo—Creed (Br.).
D. Dominus—Lord.
d. dies—day.
D.C.L. Doctor Civilis [or Canonicæ] Legis—Doctor of Civil [or Canon] Law.
D.D. Doctores—Doctors.
D.D. Donum dedit; Dedicavit—Gave, dedicated.
D.D. Doctor Divinitatis—Doctor of Divinity (i.e. Theology)
Dec. Decanus—Dean.
Def. Defunctus—Deceased.
D.G. Dei Gratiâ—By the Grace of God.
D.N. Dominus Noster—Our Lord.
D.N.J.C. Dominus Noster Jesus Christus—Our Lord Jesus Christ.
DN, DNS, DNUS Dominus—Lord.
Doct. Doctor (Br.).
Dom. Dominica—Sunday.
D.O.M. Deo Optimo Maximo—To God, the Best and Greatest.
Doxol. Doxologia—Doxology (Br.).
D.R. Decanus Ruralis—Rural Dean.
DS Deus—God.
D.Sc. Doctor Scientiarum—Doctor of Sciences.
D.V. Deo Volente—God willing.
Dupl. Duplex—Double feast (Br.).
Dupl. Maj. Duplex Major—Double Major feast (Br.)
Dupl. I. Cl. Duplex Primæ Classis—Double First Class feast (Br.).
Dupl. II. Cl. Duplex Secundæ Classis—Double Second Class feast (Br.).
Eccl. Ecclesiasticus—Ecclesiastic.
E., Eccl. Ecclesia—The Church.
El. Electio, Electus—Election, Elect.
Emus Eminentissimus—Most Eminent.
EPS Episcopus—Bishop.
Et. Etiam—Also, Even.
Evang. Evangelium—Gospel (Br.).
Ex. Extra—Outside of.
Exe. Excommunicatus, Excommunicatio—Excommunicated, Excommunication.
Fel. Mem. Felicis Memoriae—Of Happy Memory.
Fel. Rec. Felicis Recordationis—Of Happy Memory.
Fer. Feria—Weekday.
Fr., F. Frater, Frère—Brother.
Fund. Fundatio—Foundation.
Gen. Generalis—General.
Gl. Gloria—Glory to God, etc.
Gr. Gratia—Grace.
Grad. Gradus—Grade.
Grat. Gratias—Thanks; or Gratis—Without expense.
hebd. Hebdomada—Week.
Hom. Homilia—Homily (Br.).
hor. hora—hour.
IC Jesus—first and third letters of His name in Greek.
Id. Idus—Ides.
Igr. Igitur—Therefore.
I.H.S. (I)Jesus Hominum Salvator (usual interpretation), Jesus Saviour of Men. Really a faulty Latin transliteration of the first three letters of JESUS in Greek (IHS for IHC).
Ind. Indictio—Indiction.
Ind. Index.
Inq. Inquisitio—Inquisition.
i.p.i. in partibus infidelium—among the infidels.
Is. Idus—Ides.
J.C. Jesus Christus—Jesus Christ.
J.C.D. Juris Canonici Doctor, Juris Civilis Doctor—Doctor of Canon Law, Doctor of Civil Law.
J.D. Juris Doctor—Doctor of Law.
J.M.J. Jesus, Maria, Joseph—Jesus, Mary, Joseph.
Jo., Joann. Joannes—John.
J.U.D. Juris Utriusque Doctor—Doctor of Both Laws (Sc. Civil and Canon).
Jud. Judicium—Judgment.
J.U.L. Juris Utriusque Licentiatus—Licentiate of Both Laws.
Jur. Juris—Of Law.
Kal. Kalendæ—Calends.
Laic. Laicus—Layman.
Laud. Laudes—Lauds (Br.).
L.C.D. Legis Civilis Doctor—Doctor of Civil Law.
l.c.; loc. cit. Loco citato—at the place already cited.
Lect. Lectio—Lesson.
Legit. Legitime, Legitimus—Legally, legitimate.
L.H.D. Litterarum Humaniorum Doctor—Doctor of Literature.
Lib., Lo. Liber, Libro—Book, In the book.
Lic. Licentia, Licentiatus—License, Licentiate.
Litt. Littera—Letter.
LL.B. Legum Baccalaureus—Bachelor of Laws.
LL.D. Legum Doctor—Doctor of Laws.
LL.M. Legum Magister—Master of Laws.
Loc. Locus—Place.
Lov. Lovanium—Louvain.
Lovan. Lovanienses—Theologians of Louvain.
L.S. Loco Sigilli—Place of the Seal.
Lud. Ludovicus.
M. Maria—Mary.
M.A. Magister Artium—Master of Arts.
Mag. Magister—Master.
Mand. Mandamus—We command.
Mand. Ap. Mandatum Apostolicum—Apostolic Mandate, e.g. for a bishop's consecration
Mart., M., MM. Martyr, Martyres—Martyr, Martyrs (Br.).
Mat. Matutinum—Matins (Br.).
Matr. Matrimonum—Marriage.
Mgr. Monseigneur, Monsignore—My Lord.
Miss. Missa—Mass (Br.).; Missionarius—Missionary.
Miss. Apost., M.A. Missionarius Apostolicus—Missionary Apostolic.
M.R. Missionarius Rector—Missionary Rector.
m.t.v. mutatur terminatio versiculi—the termination of the little verse is changed (Br.).
Nativ. D.N.J.C. Nativitas Domini Nostri Jesu Christi—Nativity of Our Lord Jesus Christ.
N. D. Nostra Domina, Notre Dame—Our Lady.
Nigr. Niger—Black (Br.).
No. Nobis—to us, for us.
Nob. Nobilis, Nobiles—Noble, Nobles.
Noct. Nocturnum—Nocturn.
Non. Nonæ—Nones.
Nostr. Noster, nostri—Our, of our.
Not. Notitia—Knowledge.
N.S. Nôtre Seigneur, Nostro Signore—Our Lord.
N.S. New Style.
N.T. Novum Testamentum—New Testament.
Ntri. Nostri—Of our.
Nup. Nuptiæ—Nuptials.
Ob. Obiit—Died.
Oct. Octava—Octave (Br.).
Omn. Omnes, Omnibus—All, to all.
Op. Cit. Opere Citato—In the work cited.
Or. Oratio—Prayer (Br.).
Ord. Ordo, Ordinatio, Ordinarius—Order, Ordination, Ordinary.
Or. Orat. Orator, Oratorium—Petitioner, Oratory.
O.S. Old Style.
O.T. Old Testament.
Oxon. Oxonium, Oxonienses—Oxford, Theologians or Scholars of Oxford
P. Pater, Pere—Father.
Pa. Papa—Pope.
Pact. Pactum—Agreement.
Pasch. Pascha—Easter (Br.).
Patr. Patriarcha—Patriarch.
Pent. Pentecostes—Pentecost (Br.).
Ph.B. Philosophiæ Baccalaureus—Bachelor of Philosophy.
Ph.D. Philosophiæ Doctor—Doctor of Philosophy.
Phil. Philosophia—Philosophy.
Ph.M. Philosophiæ Magister—Master of Philosophy.
P.K. Pridie Kalendas—The day before the Calends.
Pœnit. Pœnitentia—Penance.
Pœnit. Ap. Pœnitentiaria Apostolica—Office of the Apostolic Penitentiary.
Pont. Pontifex—Pontiff, Bishop (Br.).
Pont. Pontificatus—Pontificate.
Pont. Max. Pontifex Maximus—Supreme Pontiff.
Poss. Possessor, Possessio—Possessor, Possession.
PP. Papa—Pope; Pontificum—Of the popes.
P.P. Parochus—Parish Priest (used mostly in Ireland).
PP. AA. Patres Amplissimi—Cardinals
P.P.P. Propria Pecunia Posuit—Erected at his own expense.
P.R. Permanens Rector—Permanent Rector.
Praef. Praefatio—Preface of the Mass (Br.).
Prb. Presbyter, Priest
Prof. Professus, Professio, Professor—Professed, Profession, Professor.
Prop. Fid. Propaganda Fide—Congregation of the Propaganda, Rome
Propr. Proprium—Proper (Br.).
Prov. Provisio, Provisum—Provision, Provided.
Ps. Psalmus—Psalm.
Pub., Publ. Publicus, Publice—Public, Publicly.
Purg. Can. Purgatio Canonica—Canonical Disculpation
Quadrag. Quadragesima—Lent, also the Fortieth day before Easter (Br.)
Quinquag. Quinquagesima—The Fiftieth day before Easter (Br.).
R. Responsorium—Responsory (Br.).
R. Roma.
Rescr. Rescriptum—Rescript.
R.D. Rural Dean.
Req. Requiescat—May he [or she] rest, i.e. in peace
Resp. Responsum—Reply
R.I.P. Requiescat In Pace—May he or she rest in peace
Rit. Ritus—Rite, Rites
Rom. Romanus, Romana—Roman
R. P. Reverendus Pater, Révérend Père—Reverend Father
RR. Rerum—Of Things, Subjects (e.g. SS. RR. Ital., Writers on Italian [historical] subjects).
Rt. Rev. Right Reverend.
Rub. Ruber—Red (Br.).
Rubr. Rubrica—Rubric.
S., Sacr. Sacrum—Sacred.
Sab., Sabb. Sabbatum—Sabbath, Saturday.
Saec. Sæculum—Century.
Sal. Salus, Salutis—Salvation, of Salvation.
Salmant. Salmanticenses—Theologians of Salamanca.
S.C. Sacra Congregatio—Sacred Congregation.
S.C.C. Sacra Congregatio Concilii—Sacred Congregation of the Council, i.e. of Trent.
S.C.EE.RR. Sacra Congregatio Episcoporum et Regularium—Sacred Congregation of Bishops and Regulars.
S.C.I. Sacra Congregatio Indicis—Sacred Congregation of the Index.
S.C.P.F. Sacra Congregatio de Propaganda Fide—Sacred Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith.
SCS Sanctus—Saint.
s.d. sine datâ—undated book
S.D. Servus Dei—Servant of God
Semid. Semiduplex—Semidouble feast (Br.).
Septuag Septuagesima—Seventieth day (always a Sunday) before Easter (Br.).
Sexag. Sexagesima—Sixtieth day before Easter (Br.).
Sig. Sigillum—Seal.
Simpl. Simplex—Simple feast (Br.).
Sine Com. Sine Commemoratione—Without commemoration of other feast, or feasts (Br.).
s.l. sine loco—without indication of place of printing.
s.l.n.d. sine loco nec datâ—without indication of place or date of printing.
S.M. Sanctæ Memoriæ—Of Holy Memory.
Soc. Socius, Socii—Companion, Companions (Br.).
S. Off. Sanctum Officium—Congregation of the Holy Office, (Inquisition).
S.P. Sanctissime Pater—Most Holy Father.
S.P., S. Petr. Sanctus Petrus—St. Peter.
S.P. Summus Pontifex—Supreme Pontiff, Pope.
S.P.A. Sacrum Palatium Apostolicum—Sacred Apostolic Palace, Vatican, Quirinal.
Sr. Sister.
S.R.C. Sacra Rituum Congregatio—Sacred Congregation of Rites.
S.R.E. Sancta Romana Ecclesia, Sanctæ Romanæ Ecclesia—Most Holy Roman Church; or, of the Most Holy Roman Church.
SS. Scriptores—Writers.
SS.D.N. Sanctissimus Dominus Noster—Our Most Holy Lord (Jesus Christ), also a title of the Pope.
S., SS. Sanctus, Sancti—Saint, Saints.
S.T.B. Sacræ Theologiæ Baccalaureus—Bachelor of Sacred Theology.
S.T.D. Sacræ Theologiæ Doctor—Doctor of Sacred Theology.
S.T.L. Sacræ Theologiæ Licentiatus—Licentiate of Sacred Theology.
Suffr. Suffragia—Suffrages (Br.); prayers of the saints.
S.V. Sanctitas Vestra—Your Holiness.
Syn. Synodus—Synod.
Temp. Tempus, Tempore—Time, in time.
Test. Testes, Testimonium—Witnesses, Testimony.
Theol. Theologia—Theology.
Tit. Titulus, Tituli—Title, Titles.
Ult. Ultimo—Last (day, month, year).
Usq. Usque—As far as.
Ux. Uxor—Wife.
V., Ven., VV. Venerabilis, Venerabiles—Venerable.
V., Vest. Vester—Your.
Vac. Vacat, Vacans—Vacant.
Val. Valor—Value.
Vat. Vaticanus—Vatican.
Vba. Verba—Words.
V. Versiculus—Versicle (Br.).
Vesp. Vesperæ—Vespers (Br.).
V.F., Vic. For. Vicarius Foraneus—Vicar-Forane.
V.G. Vicarius Generalis—Vicar-General.
Vid. Vidua—Widow (Br.).
Vid., Videl. Videlicet—Namely.
Vig. Vigilia—Vigil of a feast (Br.).
Viol. Violaceus—Violet (Br.).
Virg. Virgo—Virgin (Br.).
Virid. Viridis—Green (Br.).
V.M. Vir Magnificus—Great Man.
V. Rev. Very Reverend.
V.T. Vetus Testamentum.
XC., XCS. Christus—Christ (first, middle, and last letters of the Greek name)
Abbreviations in Catacomb Inscriptions.
A.D. Ante Diem—e.g. in the phrase, "Ante Diem VI [or Sextum] Kal. Apriles", is equivalent to the sixth day before the Calends of April, counting both the Calends and the day intended to be indicated; or Anima Dulcis—Sweet Soul.
A.Q.I.C. Anima Quiescat In Christo—May his [or her] Soul Repose in Christ.
B., BMT. Bene Merenti—To the Well-Deserving.
B.M. Bonæ Memoriæ—Of Happy Memory.
B.F. Bonæ Feminæ—To the Good Woman.
B.I.C. Bibas [for Vivas] In Christo—Mayest thou Live In Christ.
B.M.F. Bene Merenti Fecit—He erected this to the Well-Deserving.
B.Q. Bene Quiescat—May he [or she] Rest Well.
C. Consul.
CC. Consules—Consuls.
C.F. Clarissima Femina—Most Illustrious Woman.
Cl. V. Clarissimus Vir—Most Illustrious Man.
C.O. Conjugi Optimo—To my Excellent Husband.
C.O.B.Q. Cum Omnibus Bonis Quiescat—May he [or she] Repose With All Good souls.
COI. Conjugi—To my Husband [or Wife].
CS., COS. Consul.
COSS. Consules—Consuls.
C.P. Clarissima Puella—Most Illustrious Maiden.
D. Depositus—Laid to rest; or Dulcis—Dear One.
D.D. Dedit, Dedicavit—Gave, Dedicated.
DEP. Depositus—Laid to rest.
D.I.P. Dormit In Pace—Sleeps in Peace.
D.M. Diis Manibus—To the Manes [of].
D.M.S. Diis Manibus Sacrum—Sacred to the Manes [of].
D.N. Domino Nostro—To Our Lord.
DD. NN. Dominis Nostris—To Our Lords.
E.V. Ex Voto—In Fulfilment of a Vow.
EX. TM. Ex Testamento—In accordance with the Testament of.
E VIV. DISC. E Vivis Discessit—Departed from Life.
F. Fecit—Did; or Filius—Son; or Feliciter—Happily
F.C. Fieri Curavit—Caused to be made.
F.F. Fieri Fecit—Caused to be made.
FF. Fratres—Brothers.
FS. Fossor—Digger
H. Hæres—Heir
H.L.S. Hoc Loco Situs—Laid [or Put] in This Place.
H.M.F.F. Hoc Monumentum Fieri Fecit—Caused This Monument to be Made.
H.S. Hic Situs—Laid Here.
ID. Idibus—On the Ides.
IDNE. Indictione—In the Indiction [a chronological term].
I.L.H. Jus Liberorum Habens—Possessing the Right of Children [i.e., eligibility to public office under age].
INB. In Bono—In Good [odour].
IND. Same as IDNE.
INP In Pace—In Peace.
I.X. In Christo—In Christ.
K. Kalendas—Calends; or Care, Carus, Cara—Dear One; or Carissimus (-a)—Dearest.
K.B.M. Karissimo Bene Merenti—To the Most Dear and Well-deserving.
L. Locus—Place.
L.M. Locus Monumenti—Place of the Monument.
L.S. Locus Sepulchri—Place of the Sepulchre.
M. Martyr, or Memoria—Memory; or Monumentum—Monument.
MM. Martyres—Martyrs.
M.P. Monumentum Posuit—Erected a Monument.
MRT. Merenti—To the Deserving.
N. Nonas—Nones; or Numero—Number.
NN. Nostris—To Our [with a plural]; or Numeri—Numbers.
O. Hora—Hour; Obiit—Died.
OB. IN XTO. Obiit In Christo—Died In Christ.
OMS. Omnes—All
OP. Optimus—Excellent, or Supremely Good.
P. Pax—Peace; or Pius—Dutiful; or Ponendum—To be Placed; or Pridie—The Day Before; or Plus—More
P.C. Poni Curavit—Caused to be Placed.
P.C. |Post Consulatum—After the Consulate.
P.I. Poni Jussit—Ordered to be Placed.
P.M. Plus Minus—More or Less; or Piæ Memoriæ—Of Pious Memory; or Post Mortem—After Death.
PP. Præpositus—Placed over.
PR.K. Pridie Kalendas—The Day Before the Calends.
PRB. Presbyter—Priest.
PR.N. Pridie Nonas—The Day Before the Nones.
P.T.C.S. Pax Tibi Cum Sanctis—Peace to Thee With the Saints.
PZ. Pie Zeses—(Gr.) Mayest thou Live Piously.
Q., Qui. Quiescit—He Rests.
Q.B.AN. Qui Bixit [for Vixit] Annos—Who lived —— years
Q.I.P. Quiescat In Pace—May he [or she] Rest in Peace.
Q.V. Qui Vixit—Who Lived.
R. Requiescit—He Rests; or Refrigerio—In [a place of] Refreshment.
Reg. Regionis—Of the Region.
S. Suus—His; or Situs—Placed; or Sepulchrum—Sepulchre.
SC. M. Sanctæ Memoriæ—Of Holy Memory.
SD. Sedit—He sat.
SSA. Subscripta—Subscribed.
S.I.D. Spiritus In Deo—Spirit [rests] in God.
S.P. Sepultus—Buried; or Sepulchrum—Sepulchre.
SS. Sanctorum—Of the Saints.
S.V. Sacra Virgo—Holy Virgin.
T., TT. Titulus, Tituli—Title, Titles
TM. Testamentum—Testament.
V. Vixit—He Lived; or Vixisti—Thou didst—Live
VB. Vir Bonus—A Good Man.
V.C. Vir Clarissimus—A Most Illustrious Man.
VV. CC. Viri Clarissimi—Most Illustrious Men.
V.H. Vir Honestus—A Worthy Man.
V. X. Vivas, Care [or Cara]—Mayest thou Live, Dear One; or Uxor Carissima—Most Dear Wife
X. Christus—Christ
Abbreviations of Titles of the Principal Religious Orders and Congregations of Priests
A.A. Augustiniani Assumptionis—Assumptionists
A.B.A. Antoniani Benedictini Armeni—Mechitarists
C.J.M. Congregation Jesu et Mariae—Eudist Fathers
C.M. Congregatio Missionis—Lazarists
C.M. Congregatio Mariæ—Fathers of the Company of Mary
C.P. Congregatio Passionis—Passionists
C.PP.S. Congregatio Pretiosissimi Sanguinis—Fathers of the Most Precious Blood
C.R. Congregatio Resurrectionis—Resurrectionist Fathers
C.R.C.S. Clerici Regulares Congregationis Somaschæ—Somaschi Fathers
C.R.I.C. Canonici Regulares Immaculate Conceptionis—Canons Regular of the Immaculate Conception
C.R.L. Canonici Regulares Lateranenses—Canons Regular of the Lateran
C.R.M. Clerici Regulares Minores—Clerks Regular Minor, Mariani
C.R.M.D. Clerici Regulares Matris Dei—Clerks Regular of the Mother of God
C.R.M.I. Clerici Regulares Ministrantes Infirmis—Clerks Regular Attendant on the Sick, Camillini, Camilliani
C.R.P. Congregatio Reformatorum Præmonstratensium—Premonstratensians
C.R.S.P. Clerici Regulares Sancti Pauli—Barnabites
C.R.S.P. Clerici Regulares Pauperum Matris Dei Scholarum Piarum—Clerks Regular of the Poor Men of the Mother of God for Pious Schools, Piarists
C.R.T. Clerici Regulares Theatini—Theatines
C.S.B. Congregatio Sancti Basilii—Basilians
C.S.C. Congregatio Sanctae Crucis—Fathers and Brothers of the Holy Cross
C.S.P. Congregatio Sancti Pauli—Paulists
C.S.Sp. Congregatio Sancti Spiritus—Fathers of the Holy Ghost
C.S.V. Clerici Sancti Viatoris—Clerks, or Clerics, of St. Viateur
C.SS.CC. Congregatio Sacratissimorum Cordium—Missionaries of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary
C. SS. R. Congregatio Sanctissimi Redemptoris—Redemptorists
Inst. Char. Institutum Charitatis—Rosminians
M.S. Missionaries of La Salette [France]
M.S.C. Missionarii Sancti Caroli—Missionaries of St. Charles
M.S.C. Missionarii Sacratissimi Cordis—Missionaries of the Most Sacred Heart
O.C. Ordo Charitatis—Fathers of the Order of Charity
O. Camald. Ordo Camaldulensium—Camaldolese
O. Cart. Ordo Cartusiensis—Carthusians
O. Cist. Ordo Cisterciensium—Cistercians
O.C.C. Ordo Carmelitarum Calceatorum—Carmelites
O.C.D. Ordo Carmelitarum Discalceatorum—Discalced, or Barefoot, Carmelites
O.C.R. Ordo Reformatorum Cisterciensium—Cistercians, Trappists
O.F.M. Ordo Fratrum Minorum—Observant Franciscans
O.M. Ordo [Fratrum] Minimorum—Minims of St. Francis of Paul
O. Merced. Ordo Beatæ Mariæ Virginis de Redemptione Captivorum—Mercedarians, Nolaschi
O.M.C. Ordo Minorum Conventualium—Conventual Franciscans O.M. Cap. Ordo Minorum Cappucinorum—Capuchins
O.M.I. Oblati Mariæ Immaculatæ—Oblate Fathers of Mary Immaculate
O.P. Ordo Prædicatorum—Dominicans
Ord Fratr. Præd.
Ord. Præm. Ordo Præmonstratensium—Premonstratensians, Norbertines
O.S.A. Ordo (Eremitarum) Sancti Augustini—Augustinians
O.S.B. Ordo Sancti Benedicti—Benedictines
O.S.C. Oblati Sancti Caroli—Oblate Fathers of St. Charles
O.S.F.C. Ordinis Sancti Francisci Capuccini—Franciscan Capuchins
O.S.F.S. Oblati Sancti Francisci Salesii—Oblate Fathers of St. Francis of Sales
O.S.H. Ordo (Eremitarum) Sancti Hieronymi—Hieronymites
O.S.M. Ordo Servorum Mariæ—Servites
O.SS.C. Oblati Sacratissimi Cordis—Oblate Fathers of the Sacred Heart
O. Trinit. Ordo Sanctissimæ Trinitatis—Trinitarians
P.O. Prêtres de l'Oratoire, Presbyteri Oratorii—Oratorians
P.S.M. Pia Societas Missionum—Fathers of the Pious Society of Missions, Pallottini
P.S.S. Presbyteri Sancti Sulpicii, Prêtres de S. Sulpice—Sulpicians
S.C. Salesianorum Congregatio (Congregation of St. Francis of Sales)—Salesian Fathers
S.D.S. Societas Divini Salvatoris—Society of the Divine Saviour
S.D.V. Societas Divini Verbi—Fathers of the Divine Word
S.J. Societas Jesu—Jesuits
S.M. Societas Mariæ—Marists
S.P.M. Societas Patrum Misericordiæ—Fathers of Mercy
S.S.S. Societas Sanctissimi Sacramenti—Fathers of the Blessed Sacrament

Most manuals of palæography (Greek and Latin) contain lists of Abbreviations (ancient and medieval), some of which are yet of ecclesiastical interest, while others have long since become obsolete or rare, and concern only the reader of manuscripts. Some manuals of diplomatics, likewise, have useful lists of pontifical chancery Abbreviations, e.g. Quantin, Dict. de diplomatique chrêtienne (Paris, 1846), 26–42, and Prou (Paris, 1902). In the latter work may be seen the original script-forms of these Abbreviations. Facsimiles of abbreviated pontifical documents may be seen, e. g. in Denifile, Specimina Palæographica ab Innoc. III ad Urban. V, (Rome, 1888). The Abbreviations in Greek manuscripts were first scientifically studied by the Benedictine Montfaucon, in his famous Palæographia Græca (Paris, 1708); see the Introductions to Greek Palæographs of Gardthausen and Wattenbach.—The little work, Modus leqendi abreviaturas in jure tam civili quam pontificio occurrentes (Venice, 1590), is one of the earliest attempts at a dictionary of medieval abbreviations. A very useful work for all Latin abbreviations is that of Capelli, Dizionario delle abbreviature latine ed italiane (Milan, 1900); it is written mostly in Latin and describes all the abbreviations ordinarily used in Latin and Italian documents, civil or ecclesiastical. Other valuable works dealing specifically with abbreviations in pontifical documents are De la Brana, Signos y Abbreviaturas que se uman en los documentos pontificus (Leon, 1884); Rodenberg, Epistolæ saec. XIII e regestis RR.PP. selectæ (Berlin, 1883), I, 323.—For an extensive list of the abbreviations in the epitaphs of the Catacombs see Kraus, Real-Encycl. der christi. Alterth. (Freiburg, 1886), I. 47–51. The chapters on abbreviations of medieval manuscripts in the palæographical manuals of De Wailly (Paris, 1843), Chassant (Paris. 1885), Paoli (Florence, 1891), Reubens (Louvain, 1899), Carini (Rome, 1889), and Thompson (London, 1903) are recommended, also the excellent Latrinische Palæographie of Steffens (Freiburg, Switzerland, 1903, 3 vols. fol. with many plates). See Battandier, Abbréviations, in Ann. Pont. Cath. (Paris 1900), 527–538.