Encyclopædia Britannica, Ninth Edition/Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna

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SANTA ANNA, Antonio Lopez de (1798-1876), for many years a prominent figure in the troubled politics of Mexico, was born at Jálapa on February 21, 1798, Having entered the army, he joined the party of Iturbide (q.v.) in 1821, and gained distinction and promotion by the part he took in the surprise and capture of Vera Cruz. In the following year he quarrelled with his chief and himself became leader of a party, but without in the first instance achieving success. In 1828, however, he sided with Guerrero, who made him war minister, and also commander-in-chief after a successful operation against the Spaniards in 1829. He successively accomplished the overthrow of Guerrero in favour of Bustamante and of Bustamante in favour of Pedraza, and finally in March 1833 was himself elected president. In 1836 he was defeated and taken by the Texan revolutionists, but returned to Mexico the following year. In 1844, after considerable vicissitudes, he was deposed and banished, but he was brought back once more to the presidential chair in 1846. This second term of office lasted till the fall of Mexico in 1847, when he resigned. He was made president again in 1853, but finally abdicated in 1855. In 1867 he took part in “pronunciamientos” which led to his banishment. In 1874 he was permitted to return to his native soil, where he died two years afterwards.