United States Statutes at Large/Volume 40/65th Congress/1st Session/Chapter 30

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June 15, 1917 [H. R. 291.]
[Public, No. 24.]
Chap. 30.—An Act To punish acts of interference with the foreign relations, the neutrality, and the foreign commerce of the United States, to punish espionage, and better to enforce the criminal laws of the United States, and for other purposes.

National defense, espionage, neutrality, etc.Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled:

TITLE I.

Espionage.

ESPIONAGE.

Section 1. Offenses designated.
Obtaining information for injury to the United States at places connected with national defense.
That (a) whoever, for the purpose of obtaining information respecting the national defense with intent or reason to believe that the information to be obtained is to be used to the injury of the United States, or to the advantage of any foreign nation, goes upon, enters, flies over, or otherwise obtains information concerning any vessel, aircraft, work of defense, navy yard, naval station, submarine base, coaling station, fort, battery, torpedo station, dockyard, canal, railroad, arsenal, camp, factory, mine, telegraph, telephone, wire less, or signal station, building, office, or other place connected with the national defense, owned or constructed, or in progress of construction by the United States or under control of the United States, or any of its officers or agents, or within the exclusive jurisdiction of the United States, Where vessels, munitions, etc., for Government use are made, etc.or any place in which any vessel, aircraft, arms, munitions, or other materials or instruments for use in time of war are being made, prepared, repaired, or stored, under any contract or agreement with the United States, or with any person on behalf of the United States, or, otherwise on behalf of the United States, Other places.
Post, p. 219.
or any prohibited place within the meaning of section six of this title; Obtaining copies etc., of national defense plans, etc.or (b) whoever for the purpose aforesaid, and with like intent or reason to believe, copies, takes, makes, or obtains, or attempts, or induces or aids another to copy, take, make, or obtain, any sketch photograph, photographic negative, blue print, plan, map, model, instrument, appliance, document, writing, or note of anything connected with the national defense; Receiving, etc., prohibited information from others.or (c) whoever, for the purpose aforesaid, receives or obtains or agrees or attempts or induces or aids another to receive or obtain from any person, or from any source whatever, any document, writing, code book, signal book, sketch, photograph, photographic negative, blue print, plan, map, model, instrument, a pliance, or note, of anything connected with the national defense, knowing or having reason to believe, at the time he receives or obtains, or agrees or attempts or induces or aids another to receive or obtain it, that it has been or will be obtained, taken, made or disposed of by any person contrary to the provisions of this title; Willfully communicating plans, etc., to unauthorized persons.or (d) whoever, lawfully or unlawfully having possession of, access to, control over, or being intrusted with any document, writing, code book, signal book, sketch, photograph, photographic negative, blue print, plan, map, model, instrument, appliance, or note relating to the national defense, willfully communicates or transmits or attempts to communicate or transmit the same to any erson not entitle to receive it, Withholding them from officials.or willfully retains the same and fails to deliver it on demand to the officer or employee of the United States entitled to receive it; Negligently permiting their loss, etc.or (e) whoever, being intrusted with or having lawful possession or control of any document, writing, code book, signal book, sketch, photograph, photographic negative, blue print, plan, map, model, note, or information, relating to the national defense, through gross negligence permits the same to be removed from its proper place of custody or delivered to anyone in violation of his trust, or to be lost, stolen, abstracted, or destroyed, Punishment for.shall be punished by a fine of not more than $10,000, or by imprisonment for not more than two years, or both.

Sec. 2. Communicating to foreign governments, etc., plans of defense, etc.(a) Whoever, with intent or reason to believe that it is to be used to the injury of the United States or to the advantage of a foreign nation, communicates, delivers, or transmits, or attempts to, or aids or induces another to, communicate, deliver, or transmit, to any foreign government, or to any faction or party or military or naval force within a foreign country, whether recognized or unrecognized by the United States, or to any representative, officer, agent, employee, subject, or citizen thereof, either directly or indirectly, any document, writing, code book, signal book, sketch, photograph, photographic negative, blue print, plan, map, model, note, instrument, appliance, or information relating to the national defense, Punishment for.shall be punished by imprisonment for not more than twenty years: Proviso. In time of war.Provided, That whoever shall violate the provisions of subsection (a) of this section in time of war shall be punished by death or by imprisonment for not more than thirty years; and (b) Gathering for enemy in time of war, information of armed forces, etc.whoever, in time of war, with intent that the same shall be communicated to the enemy, shall collect, record, publish, or communicate, or attempt to elicit any information with respect to the movement, numbers, description, condition, or disposition of any of the armed forces, ships, aircraft, or war materials of the United States, or with respect to the Plans of public defense, etc.plans or conduct, or supposed plans or conduct of any naval or military operations, or with respect to any works or measures undertaken for or connected with, or intended for the fortification or defense of any place, or any other information relating to the public defense, which might be useful to the enemy, Punishment for.shall be punished by death or by imprisonment for not more than thirty years.

Sec. 3. Making false statements to interfere with operation of national forces, etc.
Post, p. 553.
Whoever, when the United States is at war, shall willfully make or convey false reports or false statements with intent to interfere with the operation or success of the mi litary or naval forces of the United States or to promote the success of its enemies and whoever, when the United States is at war, Inciting disloyalty, etc.shall willfully cause or attempt to cause insubordination, disloyalty, mutiny, or refusal of duty, in the military or naval forces of the United States, or shall willfully Obstructing enlistments.obstruct the recruiting or enlistment service of the United States, to the injury of the service or of the United States, shall be Punishment for.punished by a fine of not more than $10,000 or imprisonment for not more than twenty years, or both.

Sec. 4. Liability for conspiring to do prohibited acts.If two or more persons conspire to violate the provisions of sections two or three of this title, and one or more of such persons does any act to effect the object of the conspiracy, each of the parties to such conspiracy shall be punished as in said sections provided in the case of the doing of the act the accomplishment of which is the object of such conspiracy. Other punishment. Vol. 35, p. 1096.Except as above provided conspiracies to commit offenses under this title shall be punished as provided by section thirty-seven of the Act to codify, revise, and amend the penal laws of the United States approved March fourth, nineteen hundred and nine.

Sec. 5. Punishment for concealing offenders, etc.Whoever harbors or conceals any person who he knows, or has reasonable grounds to believe or suspect, has committed, or is about to commit, an offense under this title shall be unshed by a fine of not more than $10,000 or by imprisonment for not more than two years, or both.

Sec. 6. Designation of other prohibited places.The President in time of war or in case of national emergency may by proclamation designate any place other than those set forth in subsection (a) of section one Ante, p. 218.hereof in which anything for the use of the Army or Navy is being prepared or constructed or stored as a prohibited place for the purposes of this title: Proviso.
Condition determining.
Provided, That he shall determine that information with respect thereto would be prejudicial to the national defense.

Sec. 7. Courts-martial, etc., jurisdiction not affected.
R.S., secs. 1342, 1343, 1624; pp. 230, 242, 275.
Vol. 39, p. 650; Vol. 35, p. 621.
Nothing contained in this title shall be deemed to limit the jurisdiction of the general courts-martial, military commissions, or naval courts-martial under sections thirteen hunded and forty-two, thirteen hundred and forty-three, and sixteen hundred and twenty-four of the Revised Statutes as amended.

Sec. 8. All possessions of the United States included.The provisions of this title shall extend to all Territories, possessions, and places subject to the jurisdiction of the United States whether or not contiguous thereto, Offenses on high seas, etc.and offenses under this title when committed upon the high seas or elsewhere within the admiralty and maritime jurisdiction of the United States and outside the territorial limits thereof shall be punishable hereunder.

Sec. 9. Former act repealed.
Vol. 36, p. 1084.
The Act entitled "An Act to prevent the disclosure of national defense secrets," approved March third, nineteen hundred and eleven, is hereby repealed.

TITLE II.

Vessels in United States ports, etc.

VESSELS IN PORTS OF THE UNITED STATES.

Section 1. Control, etc., over, in time of war, by Secretary of the Treasury.Whenever the President by proclamation or Executive order declares a national emergency to exist by reason of actual or threatened war, insurrection, or invasion, or disturbance or threatened disturbance of the international relations of the United States, the Secretary of the Treasury may make, subject to the approval of the President, rules and regulations governing the anchorage and movement of any vessel, foreign or domestic, in the territorial waters of the United States, may inspect such vessel at any time, place guards thereon, and, Possession to prevent injury, etc.if necessary in his opinion in order to secure such vessels from damage or injury, or to prevent damage or injury to any harbor or waters of the United States, or to secure the observance of the rights and obligations of the United States, may take, by and with the consent of the President, for such purposes, full possession and control of such vessel and Removal of crew, etc.remove therefrom the officers and crew thereof and all other persons not specially authorized by him to go or remain on board thereof.

Control in Canal Zone waters.Within the territory and waters of the Canal Zone the Governor of the Panama Canal, with the approval of the President, shall exercise all the powers conferred by this section on the Secretary of the Treasury.

Sec. 2. Forfeiture of vessel if owner refuses to obey rules, etc.If any owner, agent, master, officer, or person in charge, or any member of the crew of any such vessel fails to comply with any regulation or rule issued or order given by the Secretary of the Treasury or the Governor of the Panama Canal under the provisions of this title, or obstructs or interferes with the exercise of any power conferred by this title, the vessel, together with her tackle, apparel, furniture, and equipment, shall be subject to seizure and forfeiture to the United States in the same manner as merchandise is forfeited for violation of the customs revenue laws; Personal punishment.and the person guilty of such failure, obstruction, or interference shall be fined not more than $10,000, or Imrisoned not more than two years, or both.

Sec. 3. Injury, etc., of vessel by owner, etc., unlawful.It shall be unlawful for the owner or master or any other person in charge or command of any private vessel, foreign or domestic, or for any member of the crew or other person, within the territorial waters of the United States, willfully to cause or Permitting use for conspiracy, etc.permit the destruction or injury of such vessel or knowingly to permit said vessel to be used as a place of resort for any person conspiring with another or preparing to commit any offense against thnited States, or in violation of the treaties of the United States or of the obligations of the United States under the law of nations, or to defraud the United States, or knowingly to permit such vessels to be used in violation of the rights and obligations of the United States under the law of nations; Seizure and forfeiture of vessel, etc.and in case such vessel shall be so used, with the knowledge of the owner or master or other person in charge or command thereof, the vessel, together with her tackle, apparel, furniture, and equipment, shall be subject to seizure and forfeiture to the United States in the same manner as merchandise is forfeited for violation of the customs revenue laws; Personal punishment.and whoever violates this section shall be fined not more than $10,000 or imprisoned not more than two years, or both.

Sec. 4. Enforcement by the President.The President may employ such part of the land or naval forces of the United States as he may deem necessary to carry out the purpose of this title.

TITLE III.

Vessels in foreign commerce.

INJURING VESSELS ENGAGED IN FOREIGN COMMERCE.

Section 1. Punishment for setting fire, etc., to, or cargo, in United States jurisdiction.
Vol. 35, p. 1148.
Whoever shall set fire to an vessel of foreign registry, or an vessel of American registry entitled to engage in commerce with foreign nations, or to any vessel of the United States as defined in section three hundred and ten of the Act of March fourth, nineteen hundred and nine, entitled "An Act to codify, revise, and amend the penal laws of the United States," or to the cargo of the same, or shall tamper with the motive power or instrumentalities of navigation of such vessel, Placing bombs, etc., on board.or shall place bombs or explosives in or upon such vessel, or shall do any other act to or upon such vessel while within the jurisdiction of the United States, or, Endangering American vessel, etc., on high seas.if such vessel is of American registry, while she is on the high sea, with intent to injure or endanger the safety of the vessel or of her cargo, or of persons on board, whether the injury or danger is so intended to take place within the jurisdiction of the United States, or after the vessel shall have departed therefrom; Attempts or conspiracies.or whoever shall attempt or conspire to do any such acts with such intent, shall be fined not more than $10,000 or imprisoned not more than twenty years, or both.

TITLE IV.

Interfering with foreign commerce.

INTERFERENCE WITH FOREIGN COMMERCE BY VIOLENT MEANS.

Section 1. Punishment for destroying, etc., articles for export.Whoever, with intent to prevent, interfere with, or obstruct or attempt to prevent, interfere with, or obstruct the exportation to foreign countries of articles from the United States shall injure or destroy, by fire or explosives, such articles or the places where they may be while in such foreign commerce, shall be fined not more than $10,000, or imprisoned not more than ten years, or both.

TITLE V.

Maintenance of neutrality.

ENFORCEMENT OF NEUTRALITY.

Section 1. Clearance or departure withheld from vessel carrying arms, etc., to a belligerent when United States is neutral.
Vol. 38, p. 1226.
During a war in which the United States is a neutral nation, the President, or any person thereunto authorized by him, may withhold clearance from or to any vessel, domestic or foreign, which is required by law to secure clearance before departing from port or from the jurisdiction of the United States, or, by service of formal notice upon the owner, master, or person in command or having charge of any domestic vessel not required by law to secure clearances before so departing, to forbid its departure from port or from the jurisdiction of the United States, whenever there is reasonable cause to believe that any such vessel, domestic or foreign, whether requiring clearance or not, is about to carry fuel, arms, ammunition, men, supplies, dispatches, or information to any warship, tender, or supply ship of a foreign belligerent nation in violation of the laws, treaties, or obligations of the United States under the law of nations; and it shall thereupon be unlawful for such vessel to depart.

Sec. 2. Detention of private warlike vessel to prevent use against friendly nation.During a war in which the United States is a neutral nation, the President, or any person thereunto authorized by him, may detain any armed vessel owned wholly or in part by American citizens, or any vessel, domestic or foreign (other than one which has entered the ports of the United States as a public vessel), which is manifestly built for warlike purposes or has been converted or adapted from a private vessel to one suitable for warlike use, until the owner or Release if owner furnish proof of no illegal intent.master, or person having charge of such vessel shall furnish proof satisfactory to the President, or to the person duly authorized by him, that the vessel will not be employed by the said owners, or master, or person having charge thereof, to cruise against or commit or attempt to commit hostilities upon the subjects, citizens, or property of any foreign prince or state, or of any colony, district, or people with which the United States is at peace, and that the said vessel will not be sold or delivered to any belligerent nation, or to an agent, officer, or citizen of such nation, by them or any of them, within the jurisdiction of the United States, or, having left that jurisdiction, upon the high seas.

Sec. 3. Sending out armed vessel for delivery to belligerent nation at peace with the United States, unlawful.During a war in which the United States is a neutral nation, it shall be unlawful to send out of the jurisdiction of the United States an vessel built, armed, or equipped as a vessel of war, or converted from a private vessel into a vessel of war, with any intent or under any agreement or contract, written or oral, that such vessel shall be delivered to a belligerent nation, or to an agent, officer, or citizen of such nation, or with reasonable cause to believe that the said vessel shall or will be employed in the service of any such belligerent nation after its departure from the jurisdiction of the United States.

Sec. 4. Clearances, etc.
Manifests to be delivered before departure of vessels.
R.S., secs. 4197, 4198, 4200, pp. 809, 810.
During a war in which the United States is a neutral nation, in addition to the facts required by sections forty-one hundred and ninety-seven, forty-one hundred and ninety-eight, and forty-two hundred of the Revised Statutes to be set out in the masters' and shippers' manifests before clearance will be issued to vessels bound to foreign ports, each of which sections of the Revised Statutes is hereby declared to be and is continued in full force and effect, Additional statements during war when United States is neutral.
Post, p. 424.
every master or person having charge or command of any vessel, domestic or foreign, whether requiring clearance or not, before departure of such vessel from port shall deliver to the collector of customs for the district wherein such vessel is then located a statement duly verified by oath, that the cargo or any part of the cargo is or is not to be delivered to From master as to transshipments.other vessels in port or to be transshipped on the high seas and, if it is to be so delivered or transshipped, stating the kind and quantities and the value of the total quantity of each kind of article so to be delivered or transshipped, and the name of the person, corporation, vessel, or government, to whom the delivery or transshipment is to From shipper, etc.be made; and the owners, shippers, or consignors of the cargo of such vessel shall in the same manner and under the same conditions deliver to the collector like statements under oath as to the cargo or the parts thereof laden or shipped by them, respectively.

Sec. 5. Refusal of clearance, etc., if statements believed to be false, etc.Whenever it appears that the vessel is not entitled to clearance or whenever there is reasonable cause to believe that the additional statements under oath required in the foregoing section are false, the collector of customs for the district in which the vessel is located may, subject to review by the Secretary of Commerce, refuse clearance to any vessel, domestic or foreign, and by formal notice served upon the owners, master, or person or persons in command or charge of any domestic vessel for which clearance is not required by law, forbid the departure of the vessel from the Departure unlawful.port or from the jurisdiction of the United States; and it shall thereupon be unlawful for the vessel to depart.

Sec. 6. Punishment for unlawful departure, etc.Whoever, in violation of any of the provisions of this title, shall take, or attempt or conspire to take, or authorize the taking of any such vessel, out of port or from the jurisdiction of the United States, shall be fined not more than $10,000 or imprisoned not more Forfeiture of vessel, etc.than five years, or both; and, in addition, such vessel, her tackle, apparel, furniture, equipment, and her cargo shall be forfeited to the United States. Sec. 7. Interned belligerent aliens.
Leaving limits, etc., without permission, to be arrested, etc.
Whoever, being a person belonging to the armed land or naval forces of a belligerent nation or belligerent faction of any nation and being interned in the United States, in accordance with the law of nations, shall leave or attempt to leave said jurisdiction, or shall leave or attempt to leave the limits of internment in which freedom of movement has been allowed, without permission from the proper official of the United States in charge, or shall willfully overstay a leave of absence granted by such official, shall be subject to arrest by any marshal or deputy marshal of the United States, or by the military or naval authorities thereof, and shall be returned to the place of internment and there confined and safely kept for such period of time as the official of the United States in charge shall direct; Punishment for aiding, etc., escapes.and whoever, within the jurisdiction of the United States and subject thereto, shall aid or entice any interned person to escape or attempt to escape from the jurisdiction of the United States, or from the limits of internment prescribed, shall be fined not more than $1,000 or imprisoned not more than one year, or both.

Sec. 8. Organizing expeditions against friendly powers.
Vol. 35, p. 1090, amended.
Section thirteen of the Act entitled "An Act to codify, revise, and amend the penal laws of the United States," approved March fourth, nineteen hundred and nine, is hereby amended so as to read as follows:

"Sec. 13. Offenses designated.Whoever, within the territory or jurisdiction of the United States or of any of its possessions, knowingly begins or sets on foot or provides or prepares a means for or Furnishing money, etc., added.furnishes the money for, or who takes part in, any military or naval expedition or enterprise to be carried on from thence against the territory or dominion of any foreign prince or state, or of any colony, district, or people with whom the United States is at peace, Punishment for.shall be fined not more than $3,000 or imprisoned not more than three years, or both."

Sec. 9. Enforcement by the President.That the President may employ such part of the land or naval forces of the United States as he may deem necessary to carry out the purposes of this title.

Sec. 10. Compelling foreign vessels to depart.
Vol. 35, p. 1091, amended.
Section fifteen of the Act entitled "An Act to codify, revise, and amend the penal laws of the United States," approved March fourth, nineteen hundred and nine, is hereby amended so as to read as follows:

"Sec. 15. Enforcement by Army, Navy, or militia.It shall be lawful for the President to employ such part of the land or naval forces of the United States, or of the militia thereof, as he may deem necessary to compel any foreign vessel to depart from the nited States or any of its possessions in all cases in which, by the law of nations or the treaties of the United States, it ought not to remain, and to detain or prevent any foreign vessel from so departing in all cases in which, by the law of nations or the treaties of the United States, it is not entitled to depart."

Sec. 10. Former Resolution and conflicting laws repealed.
Vol. 38, p. 1226, repealed.
The joint resolution approved March fourth, nineteen hundred and fifteen, "To empower the President to better enforce and maintain the neutrality of the United States," and any Act or parts of Acts in conflict with the provisions of this title are hereby repealed.

TITLE VI.

Seizure of arms, etc., for export.

SEIZURE OF ARMS AND OTHER ARTICLES INTENDED FOR EXPORT.

Section 1. Authority for, if unlawful exportation attempted.Whenever an attempt is made to export or ship from or take out of the United States, any arms or munitions of war, or other articles, in violation of law, or whenever there shall be known or probable cause to believe that any such arms or munitions of war, or other articles, are being or are intended to be exported, or shipped from, or taken out of the United States, in violation of law, Officers authorized to seize.the several collectors, naval officers, surveyors, inspectors of customs, and marshals, and deputy marshals of the United States, and every other person duly authorized for the purpose by the President, may seize and detain any articles or munitions of war about to be exported or shipped from, or taken out of the United States, in violation of law, and the vessels or vehicles containing the same, and retain possession thereof until released or disposed of as hereinafter directed. Forfeiture if violation proved.If upon due inquiry as hereinafter provided, the property seized shall appear to have been about to be so unlawfully exported, shipped from, or taken out of the United States, the same shall be forfeited to the United States.

Sec. 2. Further detention, etc.
Application to court for warrant for.
It shall be the duty of the person making any seizure under this title to a ply, with due diligence, to the judge of the district court of the Unite States, or to the judge of the United States district court of the Canal Zone, or to the judge of a court of first instance in the Philippine Islands, having jurisdiction over the place within which the seizure is made, for a warrant to justify the further detention of the property so seized, which warrant shall be granted only on oath or affirmation showing that there is known or probable cause to believe that the Restoration, if warrant refused, etc.property seized is being or is intended to be exported or shipped from or taken out of the United States in violation of law; and if the judge refuses to issue the warrant, or application therefor is not made by the person making the seizure within a reasonable time, not exceeding ten days after the seizure, the property shall forthwith be restored to the owner or person from whom seized. Detention on issue of warrant.If the judge is satisfied that the seizure was justified under the provisions of this title and issues his warrant accordingly, Action of the President.then the property shall be detained by the person seizing it until the President, who is hereby expressly authorized so to do, orders it to be restored to the owner or claimant, or until it is discharged in due course of law on petition of the claimant, or on trial of condemnation proceedings, as hereinafter provided.

Sec. 3. Petition of owner for restoration.The owner or claimant of any property seized under, this title may, at any time before condemnation proceedings have been instituted, as hereinafter provided, file his petition for its restoration in the district court of the United States, or the district court of the Canal Zone, or the court of first instance in the Philippine Islands, having jurisdiction over the place in which the seizure was made, Expedited hearing, etc.whereupon the court shall advance the cause for hearing and determination with all possible dispatch, and, after causing notice to be given to the United States attorney for the district and to the person making the seizure, shall proceed to hear and decide whether the roperty seized shall be restored to the petitioner or forfeited to the United States.

Sec. 4. Libel proceedings for condemnation and sale of seized property.Whenever the person making any seizure under this title applies for and obtains a warrant for the detention of the property, and (a) upon the hearing and determination of the petition of the owner or claimant restoration is denied, or (b) the owner or claimant fails to file a petition for restoration within thirty days after the seizure, the United States attorney for the district wherein it was seized, upon direction of the Attorney General, Jurisdiction of courts.shall institute libel proceedings in the United States district court or the district court of the Canal Zone or the court of first instance of the Philippine Islands having jurisdiction over the place wherein the seizure was made, against the property for condemnation; Proceeds of sale.and if, after trial and hearing of the issues involved, the property is condemned, it shall be disposed of by sale, and the proceeds thereof, less the legal costs and charges, paid into the Treasury.

Sec. 5. Admiralty procedure to govern trials.The proceedings in such summary trials upon the petition of the owner or claimant of the property seized, as well as in the libel cases herein provided for, shall conform, as near as may be, to the proceedings in admiralty, Jury trial of facts.except that either party may demand trial by jury of any issue of fact joined in such libel cases, and all such proceedings shall be at the suit of and in the name of the United States: Proviso.
Delivery to owner on giving bond not to export illegally, etc.
Provided, That upon the payment of the costs and legal expenses of both the summary trials and the libel proceedings herein provided for, and the execution and delivery of a good and sufficient bond in an amount double the value of the property seized, conditioned that it will not be exported or used or employed contrary to the provisions of this title, the court, in its discretion, may direct that it be delivered to the owners thereof or to the claimants thereof.

Sec. 6. Lawful export trade not interfered with.Except in those cases in which the exportation of arms and munitions of war or other articles is forbidden by proclamation or otherwise by the President, as provided in section one of this title, nothing herein contained shall be construed to extend to, or interfere with any trade in such commodities, conducted with any foreign port or place wheresoever, or with any other trade which might have been lawfully carried on before the passage of this title, under the law of nations, or under the treaties or conventions entered into by the United States, or under the laws thereof.

Sec. 7. Discretionary release of property.Upon payment of the costs and legal expenses incurred in any such summary trial for possession or libel proceedings, the President is hereby authorized, in his discretion, to order the release and restoration to the owner or claimant, as the case may be, of any property seized or condemned under the provisions of this title.

Sec. 8. Enforcement by the President.The President may employ such part of the land or naval forces of the United States as he may deem necessary to carry out the purposes of this title.

TITLE VII.

Unlawful exports in time of war.

CERTAIN EXPORTS IN TIME OF WAR UNLAWFUL.

Section 1. Exporting articles prohibited in proclamation of the President, unlawful.
Post, pp. 1383, 1391, 1394.
Whenever during the present war the President shall find that the public safety shall so require, and shall make proclamation thereof, it shall be unlawful to export from or ship from or take out of the United States to any country named in such proclamation any article or articles mentioned in such proclamation, except at such time or times, and under such regulations and orders, and subject to such limitations and exceptions as the President shall prescribe, until otherwise ordered by the resident or by Congress: Proviso.
Port preferences forbidden.
Provided, however, That no preference shall be given to the ports of one State over those of another.

Sec. 2. Punishment for violations.Any person who shall export, ship, or take out, or deliver or attempt to deliver for export, shipment, or taking out, any article in violation of this title, or of any regulation or order made hereunder, shall be fined not more than $10,000, or, if a natural person, imprisoned for not more than two years, or both; Seizure and forfeiture of articles.and any article so delivered or exported, shipped, taken out, or so attempted to be delivered or exported, shipped, or taken out, shall be seized and forfeited to the United States; Liability of corporations.and any officer, director, or agent of a corporation who participates in any such violation shall be liable to like fine or imprisonment, or both.

Sec. 3. Clearance refused vessel carrying prohibited articles.Whenever there is reasonable cause to believe that any vessel, domestic or foreign, is about to carry out of the United States any article or articles in violation of the provisions of this title, the collector of customs for the district in which such vessel is located is hereby authorized and empowered, subject to review by the Secretary of Commerce, Departure of domestic vessel forbidden.to refuse clearance to any such vessel, domestic or foreign, for which clearance is required by law, and by formal notice served upon the owners, master, or person or persons in command or charge of any domestic vessel for which clearance is not required by law, to forbid the departure of such vessel from the port, and it shall thereupon be unlawful for such vessel to depart. Punishment for violations.Whoever, in violation of any of the provisions of this section shall take, or attempt to take, or authorize the taking of any such vessel, out of port or from the jurisdiction of the United States, shall be fined not more than $10,000 or imprisoned not more than two years, or both; Forfeiture of vessel, etc.and, in addition, such vessel, her tackle, apparel, furniture, equipment, and her forbidden cargo shall be forfeited to the United States.

TITLE VIII.

Disturbance of foreign relations.

DISTURBANCE OF FOREIGN RELATIONS.

Section 1. Punishment for false statements made in interest of foreign government to injure the United States.Whoever, in relation to any dispute or controversy between a foreign government and the United States, shall willfully and knowingly make any untrue statement, either orally or in writing, under oath before any person authorized and empowered to administer oaths, which the affiant has knowledge or reason to believe will, or may be used to influence the measures or conduct of any foreign government, By agent of foreign government.or of any officer or agent of any foreign government, to the injury of the United States, or with a view or intent to influence any measure of or action by the Government of the United States, or any branch thereof, to the injury of the United States, shall be fined not more than $5,000 or imprisoned not more than five years, or both.

Sec. 2. Punishment for falsely assuming to be foreign official.Whoever within the jurisdiction of the United States shall falsely assume or pretend to be a diplomatic or consular, or other official of a foreign government duly accredited as such to the Government of the United States with intent to defraud such foreign government or any person, and shall take upon himself to act as such, or in such pretended character shall demand or obtain, or attempt to obtain from any person or from said foreign government, or from any officer thereof, any money, paper, document, or other thing of value, shall be fined not more than $5,000, or imprisoned not more than five years, or both.

Sec. 3. Punishment for acting for foreign government without recognition.Whoever, other than a diplomatic or consular officer or attaché, shall act in the United States as an agent of a foreign government without prior notification to the Secretary of State shall be fined not more than $5,000, or imprisoned not more than five years, or both.

Sec. 4. "Foreign government."
Use of term construed.
Vol. 35, pp. 1117, 1118, 1120, 1132.
The words "foreign government," as used in this Act and in sections one hundred and fifty six, one hundred and fifty-seven, one hundred and sixty-one, one hundred and seventy, one hundred and seventy-one, one hundred and seventy-two, one hundred and seventy-three, and two hundred and twenty of the Act of March fourth, nineteen hundred and nine, entitled "An Act to codify, revise, and amend the penal laws of the United States," De facto governments, etc., included.shall be deemed to include any Government, faction, or body of insurgents within a country with which the United States is at peace, which Government, faction, or body of insurgents may or may not have been recognized by the United States as a Government.

Sec. 5. Punishment for conspiracy in United States to injure property in foreign country at peace therewith.If two or more persons within the jurisdiction of the United States conspire to injure or destroy specific property situated within a foreign country and belonging to a foreign Government or to any political subdivision thereof with which the United States is at peace, or any railroad, canal, bridge, or other public utility so situated, and if one or more of such persons commits an act within the jurisdiction of the United States to effect the object of the conspiracy, each of the parties to the conspiracy shall be fined not more than $5,000, or imprisoned not more than three years, or both. Specific description of property required.Any indictment or information under this section shall describe the specific property which it was the object of the conspiracy to injure or destroy.

TITLE IX.

Passports.

PASSPORTS.

Section 1. Application requirements.Before a passport is issued to any person by or under authority of the United States such person shall subscribe to and submit a written application duly verified by his oath before a person authorized and empowered to administer oaths, which said application shall contain a true recital of each and every matter of fact which may be required by law or by any rules authorized by law to be stated as a prerequisite to the issuance of any such passport. Clerks of United States courts, agents of the Department of State, or other Federal officials authorized, or who may be authorized, to take assport applications and administer oaths thereon, shall collect, for all services in connection therewith, a fee of $1, Fee limited.and no more, in lieu of all fees prescribed by any statute of the United States, whether the application is executed singly, in duplicate, or in triplicate.

Sec. 2. Punishment for false statements in applications.Whoever shall willfully and knowingly make any false statement in an application for passport with intent to induce or secure the issuance of a passport under the authority of the United States, either for his own use or the use of another, contrary to the laws regulating the issuance of passports or the rules prescribed pursuant to such laws, Using passports so obtained.or whoever shall willfully and knowingly use or attempt to use, or furnish to another for use, any passport the issue of which was secured in any way by reason of any false statement, shall be fined not more than $2,000 or imprisoned not more than five years or both.

Sec. 3. Illegally using passport of another.Whoever shall willfully and knowingly use, or attempt to use, any passport issued or designed for the use of another than himself, Violating restrictions.or whoever shall willfully and knowingly use or attempt to use any passport in violation of the conditions or restrictions therein contained, or of the rules prescribed pursuant to the laws regulating the issuance of passports, which said rules shall be printed on the passport; Delivery to unauthorzed person.or whoever shall willfully and knowingly furnish, dispose of, or deliver a passport to any person, for use by another than the person for whose use it was originally issued and designed, shall be fined not more than $2,000 or imprisoned not more than five years, or both.

Sec. 4. Punishment for counterfeiting, forging, etc., passports.Whoever shall falsely make, forge, counterfeit, mutilate, or alter, or cause or procure to be falsely made, forged, counterfeited, mutilated, or altered any passport or instrument purporting to be a passport, with intent to use the same, or with intent that the same may be used by another; Using forged, etc., passports.or whoever shall willfully or knowingly use, or attempt to use, or furnish to another for use any such false, forged, counterfeited, mutilated, or altered passport or instrument purporting to be a passport, Void passports.or any passport validly issued which has become void by the occurrence of any condition therein prescribed invalidating the same, shall be fined not more than $2,000 or imprisoned not more than five years, or both.

TITLE X.

Official seals.

COUNTERFEITING GOVERNMENT SEAL.

Section 1. Punishment for fraudulently affixing, etc.Whoever shall fraudulently or wrongfully affix or impress the seal of any executive department, or of any bureau, commission, or office of the United States, to or upon any certificate, instrument, commission, document, or paper of any description; Using such paper.or whoever, with knowledge of its fraudulent character, shall with wrongful or fraudulent intent use, buy, procure, sell, or transfer to another any such certificate, instrument, commission, document, or paper, to which or upon which said seal has been so fraudulently affixed or impressed, shall be fined not more than $5,000 or imprisoned not more than five years, or both.

Sec. 2. Punishment for forging, etc., any Government seal.Whoever shall falsely make, forge, counterfeit, mutilate, or alter, or cause or procure to be made, forged, counterfeited, mutilated, or altered, or shall willingly assist in falsely making, forging, counterfeiting, mutilating, or altering, the seal of any executive department, or any bureau, commission, or office of the United States, Affixing such to certificate, etc.or whoever shall knowingly use, affix, or impress any such fraudulently made, forged, counterfeited, mutilated, or altered seal to or upon any certificate, instrument, commission, document, or paper, of any description, Having possession thereof, etc.or whoever with wrongful or fraudulent intent shall have possession of any such falsely made, forged, counterfeited, mutilated, or altered seal, knowing the same to have been so falsely made, forged, counterfeited, mutilated, or altered, shall be fined not more than $5,000 or imprisoned not more than ten years, or both.

Sec. 3. Punishment for forging, etc., naval, military, or official passes or permits.Whoever shall falsely make, forge, counterfeit, alter, or tamper with any naval, military, or official pass or permit, issued by or under the authority of the United States, or with wrongful or fraudulent intent shall use or have in his possession any such pass or permit, or shall personate or falsely represent himself to be or not to be a person to whom such pass or permit has been duly issued, or shall willfully allow any other person to have or use any such pass or permit, issued for his use alone, shall be fined not more than $2,000 or imprisoned not more than five years, or both.

TITLE XI.

Search warrants.

SEARCH WARRANTS.

Section 1. Officials authorized to issue.A search warrant authorized by this title may be issued by a judge of a United States district court, or by a judge of a State or Territorial court of record, or by a United States commissioner for the district wherein the property sought is located.

Sec. 2. Grounds for, designated.A search warrant may be issued under this title upon either of the following grounds:

1. For property stolen or embezzled.When the property was stolen or embezzled in violation of a law of the United States; in which case it may be taken on the warrant from any house or other place in which it is concealed, or from the possession of the person by whom it was stolen or embezzled, or from any person in whose possession it may be.

2. Used to commit a felony.When the property was used as the means of committing a felony; in which case it may be taken on the warrant from any house or other place in which it is concealed, or from the possession of the person by whom it was used in the commission of the offense, or from any person in whose possession it may be.

3. To unlawfully aid a foreign government.
Post, p. 230.
When the property, or any paper, is possessed, controlled, or used in violation of section twenty-two of this title; in which case it may be taken on the warrant from the person violating said section, or from any person in whose possession it may be, or from any house or other place in which it is concealed.

Sec. 3. Descriptive affidavit required.A search warrant can not be issued but upon probable cause, supported by affidavit, naming or describing the person and particularly describing the property and the place to be searched.

Sec. 4. Examination before issue.The judge or commissioner must, before issuing the warrant, examine on oath the complainant and any witness he may produce, and require their affidavits or take their depositions in writing and cause them to be subscribed by the parties making them.

Sec. 5. Facts to be established.The affidavits or depositions must set, forth the facts tending to establish the grounds of the application or probable cause for believing that they exist. Sec. 6. Issue to qualified officer.If the judge or commissioner is thereupon satisfied of the existence of the grounds of the application or that there is probable cause to believe their existence, he must issue a search warrant, signed by him with his name of office, to a civil officer of the United States duly authorized to enforce or assist in enforcing any law thereof, or to a person so duly authorized by the Presicent of the United States, Statement of grounds.stating the particular grounds or probable cause for its issue and the names of the persons whose affidavits have been taken in support thereof, and commanding him forthwith to search the person or place named, for the property specified, and to bring it before the judge or commissioner.

Sec. 7. Service restricted to designated officer.A search warrant may in all cases be served by any of the officers mentioned in its direction, but by no other person, except in aid of the officer on his requiring it, he being present and acting in its execution.

Sec. 8. Forcing entrance to execute.The officer may break open any outer or inner door or window of a house, or any part of a house, or anything therein, to execute the warrant, if, after notice of his authority and purpose, he is refused admittance.

Sec. 9. Use of force to liberate server, etc.He may break open any outer or inner door or window of a house for the purpose o liberating a person who, having entered to aid him in the execution of the warrant, is detained therein, or when necessary for his own liberation.

Sec. 10. Time of service restricted.The judge or commissioner must insert a direction in the warrant that it be served in the daytime, unless the affidavits are positive that the property is on the person or in the place to be searched, in which case he may insert a direction that it be served at any time of the day or night.

Sec. 11. Limit for execution and return.A search warrant must be executed and returned to the judge or commissioner who issued it within ten days after its date; after the expiration of this time the warrant, unless executed, is void.

Sec. 12. Receipt for property taken.When the officer takes property under the warrant, he must give a copy of the warrant together with a receipt for the property taken (specifying it in detail) to the person from whom it was taken by him, or in whose possession it was found; or, in the absence of any person, he must leave it in the place where he found the property.

Sec. 13. Return of warrant and delivery of property to judge, etc.The officer must forthwith return the warrant to the judge or commissioner and deliver to him a written inventory of the property taken, made publicly or in the presence of the person from whose possession it was taken, and of the applicant for the warrant, if they are present, verified by the affidavit of the officer at the foot of the inventory and taken before the judge or commissioner at the time, to the following effect: "I, R. S., the officer by whom this warrant was executed, do swear that the above inventory contains a true and detailed account of all the property taken by me on the warrant."

Sec. 14. Copies of inventory.The judge or commissioner must thereupon, if required, deliver a copy of the inventory to the person from whose possession the property was taken and to the applicant for the warrant.

Sec. 15. Proceedings if issue controverted.If the grounds on which he warrant was issued be controverted, the judge or commissioner must proceed to take testimony in relation thereto, and the testimony of each witness must be reduced to writing and subscribed by each witness.

Sec. 16. Restoration if erroneously taken.If it appears that the property or paper taken is not the same as that described in the warrant or that there is no probable cause for believing the existence of the grounds on which the warrant was issued, Retention, etc., if probable cause shown.the judge or commissioner must cause it to be restored to the person from whom it was taken ; but if it appears that the property or paper taken is the same as that described in the warrant and that there is probable cause for believing the existence of the grounds on which the warrant was issued, then the judge or commissioner shall order the same retained in the custody of the person seizing it or to be otherwise disposed of according to law.

Sec. 17. Final disposition.The judge or commissioner must annex the affidavits, search warrant, return, inventory, and evidence, and if he has not power to inquire into the offense in respect to which the warrant was issued he must at once file the same, together with a copy of the record of his proceedings, with the clerk of the court having power to so inquire.

Sec. 18. Punishment for obstructing, etc., service.Whoever shall knowingly and willfully obstruct, resist, or oppose any such officer or person in serving or attempting to serve or execute any such search warrant, or shall assault, beat, or wound any such officer or person, knowing him to be an officer or person so authorized, shall be fined not more than $1,000 or imprisoned not more than two years.

Sec. 19. Punishment for perjury.
Vol. 35, p. 1111.
Sections one hundred and twenty-five and one hundred and twenty-six of the Criminal Code of the United States shall apply to and embrace all persons making oath or affirmation or procuring the same under the provisions of this title, and such persons shall be subject to all the pains and penalties of said sections.

Sec. 20. Punishment for maliciously procuring warrant.A person who maliciously and without probable cause procures a search warrant to be issued and execute shall be fined not more than $1,000 or imprisoned not more than one year.

Sec. 21. Punishment for exceeding authority, etc., in executing.An officer who in executing a search warrant willfully exceeds his authority, or exercises it with unnecessary severity, shall be fined not more than $1,000 or imprisoned not more than one year.

Sec. 22. Punishment for illegally possessing papers, etc., in aid of foreign Government.Whoever, in, aid of any foreign Government, shall knowingly and willfully have possession of or control over any property or papers designed or intended for use or which is used as the means of violating any penal statute, or any of the rights or obligations of the United States under any treaty or the law of nations, shall be fined not more than $1,000 or imprisoned not more than two years, or both.

Sec. 23. Existing laws not impaired.Nothing contained in this title shall be held to repeal or impair any existing provisions of law regulating search and the issue of search warrants.

TITLE XII.

Use of mails.

USE OF MAILS.

Section 1. Matter violating provisions of this Act nonmailable.
Post, p. 426.
Every letter, writing, circular, postal card, picture, print, engraving, photograph, newspaper, pamphlet, book, or other publication, matter, or thinh, of any kind, in violation of any of the provisions of this Act is hereby declared to be nonmailable matter and shall not be conveyed in the mails or delivered from any post office or by any letter carrier: Proviso.
Authority to open letters restricted.
Provided, That nothing in this Act shall be so construed as to authorize any person other than an employe of the Dead Letter Office, duly authorized thereto, or other person upon a search warrant authorized by law, to open any letter not addressed to himself.

Sec. 2. Letters, etc., advocating treason, resistance to the law, etc., nonmailable.Every letter, writing, circular, postal card, picture, print, engraving, photograph, newspaper, pamphlet, book, or other publication, matter or thing, of any kind, containing any matter advocating or urging treason, insurrection, or forcible resistance to any law of the United States, is hereby declared to be nonmailable.

Sec. 3. Punishment for violations.Whoever shall use or attempt to use the mails or Postal Service of the United States for the transmission of any matter declared by this title to be nonmailable, shall be fined not more than $5,000 or imprisoned not more than five years, or both. Venue of actions.Any person violating any provision of this title may be tried and punished either in the district in which the unlawful matter or publication was mailed, or to which it was carried by mail for delivery according to the direction thereon, Post, p. 554.or in which it was caused to be delivered by mail to the person to whom it was addressed.

TITLE XIII.

General provisions.

GENERAL PROVISIONS.

Section 1. "United States."
Territory included in term.
The term "United States" as used in this Act includes the Canal Zone and all territory and waters, continental or insular, subject to the jurisdiction of the United States .

Sec. 2. Philippine Islands and Canal Zone.
Jurisdiction of courts in.
The several courts of first instance in the Philippine Islands and the district court of the Canal Zone shall have jurisdiction of offenses under this Act committed within their respective districts, and concurrent jurisdiction with the district courts of the United States of offenses under this Act committed u on the high seas, and of Conspiracies.
Vol. 35, p. 1096.
conspiracies to commit such offenses, as defined by section thirty-seven of the Act entitled "An Act to codify, revise, and amend the penal laws of the United States," approved March fourth, nineteen hundred and nine, and the provisions of said section, for the purpose of this Act, are hereby extended to the Philippine Islands, and to the Canal Zone. Duties of district attorneys.In such cases the district attorneys of the Philippine Islands and of the Canal Zone shall have the powers and perform the duties provided in this Act for United States attorneys.

Sec. 3. Prior offenses, etc., subject to former laws.Offenses committed and penalties, forfeitures, or liabilities incurred prior to the taking effect hereof under any law embraced in or changed, modified, or repealed by any chapter of this Act may be prosecuted and punished, and suits and proceedings for causes arising or acts done or committed prior to the taking effect hereof may be commenced and prosecuted, in the same manner and with the same effect as if this Act had not been passed.

Sec. 4. Invalidity of any clause, etc., not to affect remainder of Act.If any clause, sentence, paragraph, or part of this Act shall for any reason be adjudged by any court of competent jurisdiction to be invalid, such judgment shall not affect, impair, or invalidate the remainder thereof but shall be confined in its operation to the clause, sentence, paragraph, or part thereof directly involved in the controversy in which such judgment shall have been rendered.

Approved, June 15, 1917.