Goodman, Christopher (DNB00)

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GOODMAN, CHRISTOPHER (1520?–1603), puritan divine, member of an old Cheshire family, was probably born (1520) in Chester. When about eighteen he entered Brasenose College, Oxford, graduating as B.A. 4 Feb. 1541, and M.A. 13 June 1544. In 1547 he became a senior student at Christ Church, and was proctor in 1549 (Oxf. Univ. Reg., Oxf. Hist. Soc., i. 217). He proceeded B.D. in 1551, and is said to have become Lady Margaret professor of divinity about 1548 (Le Neve, Fasti, iii. 518; Wood, Athenae, ed. Bliss, i. 721 ; Wood, Fasti, i. 120, 132 ; Oxf. Univ. Reg. i. 199, 217). At Oxford Goodman made friends with Bartlet Green [q. v.], who had sought him out ' for his learning and godly and sober behaviour' (Foxe, Acts and Monuments, ed. Townsend, vii. 732-4, 738). Goodman left England in 1554, and on 23 Nov. his name appears among the signatures to a letter from the exiles at Strasburg. He afterwards joined the schism among the reformers at Frankfort, and withdrew with Whittingham [q. v.] and other leading exiles to Geneva, whence they united in writing a letter to the Frankfort congregation to defend their departure. The brethren at Geneva chose Knox and Goodman in September 1555 for their pastors, and the two formed a lifelong friendship. During his exile Goodman took part in Coverdale's translation of the Bible, helped Knox in the 'book of common order,' and wrote some very acrimonious tracts. The most famous was entitled 'How superior Powers ought to be obeyed of their subjects, and wherein they may lawfully be by God's word disobeyed and resisted . . .' Geneva, 1558. The book, in favour of Wyatt's rebellion, bitterly attacked Mary and the government of women in general, a fact which afterwards drew down Elizabeth's displeasure upon the author. Knox's 'First Blast of the Trumpet' was published in the same year, and the tracts were secretly circulated in England. Their violence was generally disapproved, even by their own party. Goodman also published while abroad a 'Commentary upon Amos,' in which he likens Mary to Proserpine, queen of Hades. So bitter was the feeling about his book that Goodman did not dare to return to England on Elizabeth's accession. In June 1559 Knox earnestly begged Goodman, 'whose presence I thirst for more than she that is my own flesh,' to join him at Edinburgh, and after repeated entreaties Goodman went to Scotland early in September, acting as escort to Knox's wife and family from Geneva. In October he was made one of the council appointed by the lords of the congregation to treat of religion, he and Knox preaching daily in 'the Scots camp' (Zurich Letters, Parker Soc. 1558-79, p. 60, 1 Dec. 1559). In November he became minister of Ayr. In the following July Goodman was appointed to St. Andrews. He also went about Scotland preaching, and in August 1560 spent ten days in the Isle of Man, where he preached twice (State Papers, Scotch Ser. ' 1509-1603, p. 161, and For. Ser. 1560-1, p. 259). Two years later he and Knox went together to visit some of the reformed churches in Scotland. Intercessions were meanwhile made for his return to England, though Calvin exhorted him to finish his work in Scotland. Cecil, to whom he wrote with indiscreet zeal, told Sadler in 1559 that, next to Knox, Goodman's name was the most odious of his party to Elizabeth. The Earl of Mar favoured his views, and in 1562 asked leave to bring him in his train to a projected meeting between Elizabeth and Mary. Warwick from Havre begged (in December) Dudley and Cecil to give 'so worthy an instrument' employment with his army in Normandy. At last by Randolph's advice he ventured into England in the winter of 1565. He went to Ireland (January 1566) as chaplain to Sir Henry Sidney, the new lord deputy, who in the spring of 1567 recommended him to be bishop of Dublin, and promised him the deanery of St. Patrick's (State Papers, Ireland, Elizabeth, 1556-7, pp. 325, 327). Goodman, however, received neither of these offices. It was probably when Sidney returned to England in 1570 that he was appointed to the living of Alford, near Chester, and made archdeacon of Richmond. In the next year he was deprived by Bishop Vaughan for nonconformity, and in April 1571 brought before the ecclesiastical commissioners at Lambeth. He was obliged to make a full recantation of his published opinions, and a protest in writing of his dutiful obedience to the queen's person and her lawful government (see Strype, Annals, n. i. 140). In June he was again examined before Archbishop Parker, 'beaten with three rods,' and forbidden to preach. He complained (26 July) to Leicester of his hard treatment (Addit. MS. 32091, f. 246). In August he returned to Chester. On 21 Nov. 1580 Randolph writes to Leicester, soliciting leave for Goodman to revisit Scotland (Lemon, Cal. State Papers, 1547-80, p. 688). In 1584 Goodman refused to subscribe to the articles and the service book, and Archbishop Whitgift complained of his perversity to the lord treasurer. Having no living he was not however again examined, but allowed to spend the rest of his days peacefully at Chester. When Ussher came to England to collect books for the Dublin Library, he visited Goodman (4 June 1603), then 'very ancient,' and lying on his deathbed. In after days the archbishop would often repeat the 'grave wise speeches ' he heard from the old man, who must have died shortly after his visit (Ussher, Life, ed. Elrington, i. 23). Goodman was buried at Chester, in St. Bride's Church. Wood gives a Latin epigram written upon him by his 'sometime friend,' John Parkhurst, containing a play upon his name, 'Gudmane.' He is said by Wood to have written a commentary on Amos. [State Papers, Scotch Ser. 1509-1603 pp. 119, 181, 183, 226; Foreign Ser. 1558-9 p. 335, 1559-60 pp. 49, 52, 73, 125, 1562 pp. 51, 233, 273, 562, 602, 1565 pp. 514, 534; Wood's Athenae (Bliss), i. 721; Strype's Memorials, ed. 1822, vol. iii. pt. ii. pp. 131, 187; Annals, vol. i. pt. i. pp. 152, 182, 187, 343, &c., vol. ii. pt. i. p. 140 ; Life of Parker, ii. 66 ; Troubles at Frankfort (Phenix), ii. 44; Original Letters (Parker Soc.) 2nd ser., Goodman to Peter Martyr; Sadler, i. 510; McCrie's Life of Knox, i. 284, 300, 328, 510, 532, 561, ii. 138, 270, 328, 384, 442; Maitland's Essays on the Reformation, pp. 103, 112, 116, 126, 171, 177. 196; Heylyn's Hist. of the Reformation, ii. 182, 297; Ormerod's Cheshire, ii. 727; Fuller's Church Hist. bk. ix. p. 77.]

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