Gospel of Barnabas
- 1 Prologue
- 2 1 - In this first chapter is contained the annunciation of the angel Gabriel to the Virgin Mary concerning the birth of Jesus
- 3 2 - The warning of the angel Gabriel given to Joseph concerning the conception of the Virgin Mary
- 4 3 - Wonderful birth of Jesus and appearance of angels praising God
- 5 4 - Angels announce to the shepherds the birth of Jesus, and they, after having found him, announce him
- 6 5 - Circumcision of Jesus
- 7 6 - Three magi are led by a star in the east to Judaea, and, finding Jesus, make obeisance to him and gifts
- 8 7 - The visitation of Jesus by magi, and their return to their own country, with the warning of Jesus given to them in a dream
- 9 8 - Jesus is carried in flight to Egypt, and Herod massacres the innocent children
- 10 9 - Jesus, having returned to Judaea, holds a wondrous disputation with the doctors, having come to the age of twelve years
- 11 10 - Jesus, at the age of thirty years, on Mount Olives, miraculously receiveth the gospel from the angel Gabriel
- 12 11 - Jesus miraculously healeth a leper, and goeth into Jerusalem
- 13 12 - First sermon of Jesus delivered to the people: wonderful in doctrine concerning the name of God
- 14 13 - The remarkable fear of Jesus and his prayer, and the wonderful comfort of the angel Gabriel
- 15 14 - After the fast of forty days, Jesus chooseth twelve apostles
- 16 15 - Miracle wrought by Jesus at the marriage, turning the water into wine
- 17 16 - Wonderful teaching given by Jesus to his apostles concerning conversion from the evil life
- 18 17 - In this chapter is clearly perceived the unbelief of Christians, and the true faith of Mumin
- 19 18 - Here is shown forth the persecution of the servants of God by the world, and God's protection saving them
- 20 19 - Jesus foretelleth his betrayal, and, descending from the mountain, healeth ten lepers
- 21 20 - Miracle on the sea wrought by Jesus, and Jesus declares where the prophet is received
- 22 21 - Jesus healeth a demoniac, and the swine are cast into the sea - Afterwards he healeth the daughter of the Canaanites
- 23 22 - Miserable condition of the uncircumcised in that a dog is better than they
- 24 23 - Origin of circumcision, and covenant of God with Abraham, and damnation of the uncircumcised
- 25 24 - Notable example how one ought to flee from banqueting and feasting
- 26 25 - How one ought to despise the flesh, and how one ought to live in the world
- 27 26 - How one ought to love God - And in this chapter is contained the wonderful contention of Abraham with his father
- 28 27 - In this chapter is clearly seen how improper is laughter in men: also the prudence of Abraham
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Barnabas, apostle of Jesus the Nazarene, called Christ, to all them that dwell upon the earth desireth peace and consolation.
Dearly beloved, the great and wonderful God hath during these past days visited us by his prophet Jesus Christ in great mercy of teaching and miracles, by reason whereof many, being deceived of Satan, under pretence of piety, are preaching most impious doctrine, calling Jesus son of God, repudiating the circumcision ordained of God for ever, and permitting every unclean meat: among whom also Paul hath been deceived, whereof I speak not without grief; for which cause I am writing that truth which I have seen and heard, in the intercourse that I have had with Jesus, in order that ye may be saved, and not be deceived of Satan and perish in the judgement of God. Therefore beware of every one that preacheth unto you new doctrine contrary to that which I write, that ye may be saved eternally.
The great God be with you and guard you from Satan and from every evil. Amen.
1 - In this first chapter is contained the annunciation of the angel Gabriel to the Virgin Mary concerning the birth of Jesus
In these last years a virgin called Mary, of the lineage of David, of the tribe of Judah, was visited by the angel Gabriel from God. This virgin, living in all holiness without any offence, being blameless and abiding in prayer with fastings, being one day alone, there entered into her chamber the angel Gabriel, and he saluted her, saying: 'God be with thee, O Mary'.
The virgin was affrighted at the appearance of the angel; but the angel comforted her saying: 'Fear not, Mary, for thou hast found favour with God, who hath chosen thee to be mother of a prophet, whom he will send to the people of Israel in order that they may walk in his laws with truth of heart'. The virgin answered: 'Now how shall I bring forth sons, seeing I know not a man?' The angel answered: 'O Mary, God who made man without a man is able to generate in thee man without a man, because with him nothing is impossible.' Mary answered: 'I know that God is almighty, therefore his will be done.' The angel answered: 'Now be conceived in thee the prophet, whom thou shalt name Jesus: and thou shalt keep him from wine and from strong drink and from every unclean meat, because the child is an holy one of God.' Mary bowed herself with humility, saying: 'Behold the handmaid of God, be it done according to thy word.' The angel departed, and the virgin glorified God, saying: Know, O my soul, the greatness of God, and exult, my spirit, in God my Saviour; for he hath regarded the lowliness of his handmaiden, insomuch that I shall be called blessed by all the nations, for he that is mighty hath made me great, and blessed be his holy name. For his mercy extendeth from generation to generation of them that fear him. Mighty hath he made his hand, and he hath scattered the proud in the imagination of his heart. He hath put down the mighty from their seat, and hath exalted the humble. Him who hath been hungry hath he filled with good things, and the rich he hath sent empty away. For he keepeth in memory the promises made to Abraham and to his son for ever'.
2 - The warning of the angel Gabriel given to Joseph concerning the conception of the Virgin Mary
Mary having known the will of God, fearing the people, lest they should take offence at her being great with child, and should stone her as guilty of fornication, chose a companion of her own lineage, a man by name called Joseph, of blameless life: for he as a righteous man feared God and served him with fastings and prayers, living by the works of his hands, for he was a carpenter.
Such a man the virgin knowing, chose him for her companion and revealed to him the divine counsel.
Joseph being a righteous man, when he perceived that Mary was great with child, was minded to put her away because he feared God. Behold, whilst he slept, he was rebuked by the angel of God saying, 'O Joseph, why art thou minded to put away Mary thy wife? Know that whatsoever hath been wrought in her hath all been done by the will of God. The virgin shall bring forth a son, whom thou shall call by the name Jesus; whom thou shalt keep from wine and strong drink and from every unclean meat, because he is an holy one of God from his mother's womb. He is a prophet of God sent unto the people of Israel, in order that he may convert Judah to his heart, and that Israel may walk in the law of the Lord, as it is written in the law of Moses. He shall come with great power, which God shall give him, and shall work great miracles, whereby many shall be saved.'
Joseph, arising from sleep, gave thanks to God, and abode with Mary all his life, serving God with all sincerity.
3 - Wonderful birth of Jesus and appearance of angels praising God
There reigned at that time in Judaea Herod, by decree of Caesar Augustus, and Pilate was governor in the priesthood of Annas and Caiaphas. Wherefore, by decree of Augustus, all the world was enrolled; wherefore each one went to his own country, and they presented themselves by their own tribes to be enrolled. Joseph accordingly departed from Nazareth, a city of Galilee, with Mary his wife, great with child, to go to Bethlehem (for that it was his city, he being of the lineage of David), in order that he might be enrolled according to the decree of Caesar. Joseph having arrived at Bethlehem, for that the city was small, and great the multitude of them that were strangers there, he found no place, wherefore he took lodging outside the city in a lodging made for a shepherds' shelter. While Joseph abode there the days were fulfilled for Mary to bring forth. The virgin was surrounded by a light exceeding bright, and brought forth her son without pain, whom she took in her arms, and wrapping him in swaddling-clothes, laid him in the manger, because there was no room in the inn. There came with gladness a great multitude of angels to the inn, blessing God and announcing peace to them that fear God. Mary and Joseph praised the Lord for the birth of Jesus, and with greatest joy nurtured him.
4 - Angels announce to the shepherds the birth of Jesus, and they, after having found him, announce him
At that time the shepherds were watching over their flock, as is their custom. And, behold, they were surrounded by an exceeding bright light, out of which appeared to them an angel, who blessed God. The shepherds were filled with fear by reason of the sudden light and the appearance of the angel: 'Behold, I announce to you a great joy, for there is born in the city of David a child who is a prophet of the Lord; who bringeth great salvation to the house of Israel. The child ye shall find in the manger, with his mother, who blesseth God.' And when he had said this there came a great multitude of angels blessing God, announcing peace to them that have good will. When the angels were departed, the shepherds spake among themselves, saying: 'Let us go even unto Bethlehem, and see the word which God by his angel hath announced to us.' There came many shepherds to Bethlehem seeking the new-born babe, and they found outside the city the child that was born, according to the word of the angel, lying in the manger. They therefore made obeisance to him, and gave to the mother that which they had, announcing to her what they had heard and seen. Mary therefore kept all these things in her heart, and Joseph [likewise], giving thanks to God. The shepherds returned to their flocks, announcing to everyone how great a thing they had seen. And so the whole hill-country of Judaea was filled with fear, and every man laid up this word in his heart, saying: 'What, think we, shall this child be?'
5 - Circumcision of Jesus
When the eight days were fulfilled according to the law of the Lord, as it is written in the book of Moses, they took the child and carried him to the temple to circumcise him. And so they circumcised the child, and gave him the name Jesus, as the angel of the Lord had said before he was conceived in the womb. Mary and Joseph perceived that the child must needs be for the salvation and ruin of many. Wherefore they feared God, and kept the child with fear of God.
6 - Three magi are led by a star in the east to Judaea, and, finding Jesus, make obeisance to him and gifts
In the reign of Herod, king of Judaea, when Jesus was born, three magi in the parts of the east were observing the stars of heaven. Whereupon appeared to them a star of great brightness, wherefore having concluded among themselves, they came to Judaea, guided by the star, which went before them, and having arrived at Jerusalem they asked where was born the King of the Jews. And when Herod heard this he was affrighted, and all the city was troubled. Herod therefore called together the priests and the scribes, saying: 'Where should Christ be born?' They answered that he should be born in Bethlehem; for thus it is written by the prophet: 'And thou, Bethlehem, art not little among the princes of Judah: for out of thee shall come forth a leader, who shall lead my people Israel.'
Herod accordingly called together the magi and asked them concerning their coming: who answered that they had seen a star in the east, which had guided them thither, wherefore they wished with gifts to worship this new King manifested by his star.
Then said Herod: 'Go to Bethlehem and search out with all diligence concerning the child; and when ye have found him, come and tell it to me, because I also would fain come and worship him.' And this he spake deceitfully.
7 - The visitation of Jesus by magi, and their return to their own country, with the warning of Jesus given to them in a dream
The magi therefore departed out of Jerusalem, and lo, the star which appeared to them in the east went before them. Seeing the star the magi were filled with gladness. And so having come to Bethlehem, outside the city, they saw the star standing still above the inn where Jesus was born. The magi therefore went thither, and entering the dwelling found the child with his mother, and bending down they did obeisance to him. And the magi presented unto him spices, with silver and gold, recounting to the virgin all that they had seen.
Whereupon, while sleeping, they were warned by the child not to go to Herod; so departing by another way they returned to their own home, announcing all that they had seen in Judaea.
8 - Jesus is carried in flight to Egypt, and Herod massacres the innocent children
Herod seeing that the magi did not return, believed himself mocked of them; whereupon he determined to put to death the child that was born. But behold while Joseph was sleeping there appeared to him the angel of the Lord, saying: 'Arise up quickly, and take the child with his mother and go into Egypt, for Herod willeth to slay him.' Joseph arose with great fear, and took Mary with the child, and they went into Egypt, and there they abode until the death of Herod; who, believing himself derided of the magi, sent his soldiers to slay all the new-born children in Bethlehem. The soldiers therefore came and slew all the children that were there, as Herod had commanded them. Whereby were fulfilled the words of the prophet, saying: 'Lamentation and great weeping are there in Ramah; Rachel lamenteth for her sons, but consolation is not given her because they are not.'
9 - Jesus, having returned to Judaea, holds a wondrous disputation with the doctors, having come to the age of twelve years
When Herod was dead, behold the angel of the Lord appeared in a dream to Joseph, saying: 'Return into Judaea, for they are dead that willed the death of the child.' Joseph therefore took the child with Mary (he having come to the age of seven years), and came to Judaea; whence, hearing that Archelaus, son of Herod, was reigning in Judaea, he went into Galilee, fearing to remain in Judaea; and they went to dwell at Nazareth.
The child grew in grace and wisdom before God and before men.
Jesus, having come to the age of twelve years, went up with Mary and Joseph to Jerusalem to worship there according to the law of the Lord written in the book of Moses. When their prayers were ended they departed, having lost Jesus, because they thought that he was returned home with their kinsfolk. Mary therefore returned with Joseph to Jerusalem, seeking Jesus among kinsfolk and neighbors. The third day they found the child in the temple, in the midst of the doctors, disputing with them concerning the law. And every one was amazed at his questions and answers, saying: 'How can there be such doctrine in him, seeing he is so small and hath not learned to read?'
Mary reproved him, saying: 'Son, what hast thou done to us? Behold I and thy father have sought thee for three days sorrowing.' Jesus answered: 'Know ye not that the service of God ought to come before father and mother?' Jesus then went down with his mother and Joseph to Nazareth, and was subject to them with humility and reverence.
10 - Jesus, at the age of thirty years, on Mount Olives, miraculously receiveth the gospel from the angel Gabriel
Jesus having come to the age of thirty years, as he himself said unto me, went up to Mount Olives with his mother to gather olives. Then at midday as he was praying, when he came to these words: 'Lord, with mercy...,' he was surrounded by an exceeding bright light and by an infinite multitude of angels, who were saying: 'Blessed be God.' The angel Gabriel presented to him as it were a shining mirror, a book, which descended into the heart of Jesus, in which he had knowledge of what God hath done and what hath said and what God willeth insomuch that everything was laid bare and open to him; as he said unto me: 'Believe, Barnabas, that I know every prophet with every prophecy, insomuch that whatever I say the whole hath come forth from that book.'
Jesus, having received this vision, and knowing that he was a prophet sent to the house of Israel, revealed all to Mary his mother, telling her that he needs must suffer great persecution for the honour of God, and that he could not any longer abide with her to serve her. Whereupon, having heard this, Mary answered: 'Son, ere thou wast born all was announced to me; wherefore blessed be the holy name of God.' Jesus departed therefore that day from his mother to attend to his prophetic office.
11 - Jesus miraculously healeth a leper, and goeth into Jerusalem
Jesus descending from the mountain to come into Jerusalem, met a leper, who by divine inspiration knew Jesus to be a prophet. Therefore, with tears he prayed him, saying: 'Jesus, thou son of David, have mercy on me.' Jesus answered: 'What wilt thou, brother, that I should do unto thee?'
The leper answered: 'Lord, give me health.'
Jesus reproved him, saying: 'Thou art foolish; pray to God who created thee, and he will give thee health; for I am a man, as thou art.' The leper answered: 'I know that thou, Lord, art a man, but an holy one of the Lord. Wherefore pray thou to God and he will give me health.' Then Jesus, sighing, said: 'Lord God Almighty, for the love of thy holy prophets give health to this sick man.' Then, having said this, he said, touching the sick man with his hands in the name of God: 'O brother, receive thy health!' And when he had said this the leprosy was cleansed, insomuch that the flesh of the leper was left unto him like that of a child. Seeing which namely, that he was healed, the leper with a loud voice cried out: 'Come hither, Israel, to receive the prophet whom God sendeth unto thee.' Jesus prayed him, saying: 'Brother, hold thy peace and say nothing,' but the more he prayed him the more he cried out, saying: 'Behold the prophet! behold the holy one of God!' At which words many that were going out of Jerusalem ran back, and entered with Jesus into Jerusalem, recounting that which God through Jesus had done unto the leper.
12 - First sermon of Jesus delivered to the people: wonderful in doctrine concerning the name of God
The whole city of Jerusalem was moved by these words, wherefore they all ran together to the temple to see Jesus, who had entered therein to pray, so that they could scarce be contained there. Therefore the priests besought Jesus, saying: 'This people desireth to see thee and hear thee; therefore ascend to the pinnacle, and if God give thee a word speak it in the name of the Lord.'
Then ascended Jesus to the place whence the scribes were wont to speak. And having beckoned with the hand for silence, he opened his mouth, saying: 'Blessed be the holy name of God, who of his goodness and mercy willed to create his creatures that they might glorify him. Blessed be the holy name of God, who created the splendour of all the saints and prophets before all things to send him for the salvation of the world, as he spake by his servant David, saying: "Before Lucifer in the brightness of the saints I created thee." Blessed be the holy name of God, who created the angels that they might serve him. And blessed be God, who punished and reprobated Satan and his followers, who would not reverence him whom God willeth to be reverenced. Blessed be the holy name of God, who created man out of the clay of the earth, and set him over his works. Blessed be the holy name of God, who drove man out of paradise for having transgressed his holy precept. Blessed be the holy name of God, who with mercy looked upon the tears of Adam and Eve, first parents of the human race. Blessed be the holy name of God, who justly punished Cain the fratricide, sent the deluge upon the earth, burned up three wicked cities, scourged Egypt, overwhelmed Pharaoh in the Red Sea, scattered the enemies of his people, chastised the unbelievers, and punished the impenitent. Blessed be the holy name of God, who with mercy looked upon his creatures, and therefore sent them his holy prophets, that they might walk in truth and righteousness before him: who delivered his servants from every evil, and gave them this land, as he promised to our father Abraham and to his son for ever. Then by his servant Moses he gave us his holy law, that Satan should not deceive us; and he exalted us above all other peoples.
'But, brethren, what do we, to-day, that we be not punished for our sins?'
And then Jesus with greatest vehemence rebuked the people for that they had forgotten the word of God, and gave themselves only to vanity; he rebuked the priests for their negligence in God's service and for their worldly greed; he rebuked the scribes because they preached vain doctrine, and forsook the law of God; he rebuked the doctors because they made the law of God of none effect through their traditions. And in such wise did Jesus speak to the people, that all wept, from the least to the greatest, crying mercy, and beseeching Jesus that he would pray for them; save only their priests and leaders, who on that day conceived hatred against Jesus for having thus spoken against the priests, scribes, and doctors. And they meditated upon his death, but for fear of the people, who had received him as a prophet of God, they spake no word.
Jesus raised his hands to the Lord God and prayed, and the people weeping said: 'So be it, O Lord, so be it.' The prayer being ended Jesus descended from the temple; and that day he departed from Jerusalem, with many that followed him.
And the priests spoke evil of Jesus among themselves.
13 - The remarkable fear of Jesus and his prayer, and the wonderful comfort of the angel Gabriel
Some days having passed, Jesus having in spirit perceived the desire of the priests, ascended the Mount of Olives to pray. And having passed the whole night in prayer, in the morning Jesus praying said: 'O Lord, I know that the scribes hate me, and the priests are minded to kill me, thy servant; therefore, Lord God almighty and merciful, in mercy hear the prayers of thy servant, and save me from their snares, for thou art my salvation. Thou knowest, Lord, that I thy servant seek thee alone, O Lord, and speak thy word; for thy word is truth, which endureth for ever.'
When Jesus had spoken these words, behold there came to him the angel Gabriel, saying: 'Fear not, O Jesus, for a thousand thousand who dwell above the heaven guard thy garments, and thou shalt not die till everything be fulfilled, and the world shall be near its end.'
Jesus fell with his face to the ground, saying: 'O great Lord God, how great is thy mercy upon me, and what shall I give thee, Lord, for all that thou hast granted me?'
The angel Gabriel answered: 'Arise, Jesus, and remember Abraham, who being willing to make sacrifice to God of his only-begotten son Ishmael, to fulfill the word of God, and the knife not being able to cut his son, at my word offered in sacrifice a sheep. Even so therefore shalt thou do, O Jesus, servant of God.
Jesus answered: 'Willingly, but where shall I find the lamb, seeing I have no money, and it is not lawful to steal it?'
Thereupon the angel Gabriel showed unto him a sheep, which Jesus offered in sacrifice, praising and blessing God, who is glorious for ever.
14 - After the fast of forty days, Jesus chooseth twelve apostles
Jesus descended from the mount, and passed alone by night to the farther side of Jordan, and fasted forty days and forty nights, not eating anything day nor night, making continual supplication to the Lord for the salvation of his people to whom God had sent him. And when the forty days were passed he was an hungered. Then appeared Satan unto him, and tempted him in many words, but Jesus drove him away by the power of words of God. Satan having departed the angels came and ministered unto Jesus that whereof he had need.
Jesus, having returned to the region of Jerusalem, was found again of the people with exceeding great joy, and they prayed him that he would abide with them; for his words were not as those of the scribes, but were with power, for they touched the heart.
Jesus, seeing that great was the multitude of them that returned to their heart for to walk in the law of God, went up into the mountain, and abode all night in prayer, and when day was come he descended from the mountain, and chose twelve, whom he called apostles, among whom is Judas, who was slain upon the cross. Their names are: Andrew and Peter his brother, fisherman; Barnabas, who wrote this, with Matthew the publican, who sat at the receipt of custom; John and James, sons of Zebedee; Thaddaeus and Judas; Bartholomew and Philip; James, and Judas Iscariot the traitor. To these he always revealed the divine secrets; but the Iscariot Judas he made his dispenser of that which was given in alms, but he stole the tenth part of everything.
15 - Miracle wrought by Jesus at the marriage, turning the water into wine
Jesus descended from the mount, and passed alone by night to the farther side of Jordan, and fasted forty days and forty nights, not eating anything day nor night, making continual supplication to the Lord for the salvation of his people to whom God had sent him. And when the forty days were passed he was an hungered. Then appeared Satan unto him, and tempted him in many words, but Jesus drove him away by the power of words of God. Satan having departed the angels came and ministered unto Jesus that whereof he had need.
Jesus, having returned to the region of Jerusalem, was found again of the people with exceeding great joy, and they prayed him that he would abide with them; for his words were not as those of the scribes, but were with power, for they touched the heart.
Jesus, seeing that great was the multitude of them that returned to their heart for to walk in the law of God, went up into the mountain, and abode all night in prayer, and when day was come he descended from the mountain, and chose twelve, whom he called apostles, among whom is Judas, who was slain upon the cross. Their names are: Andrew and Peter his brother, fisherman; Barnabas, who wrote this, with Matthew the publican, who sat at the receipt of custom; John and James, sons of Zebedee; Thaddaeus and Judas; Bartholomew and Philip; James, and Judas Iscariot the traitor. To these he always revealed the divine secrets; but the Iscariot Judas he made his dispenser of that which was given in alms, but he stole the tenth part of everything.
16 - Wonderful teaching given by Jesus to his apostles concerning conversion from the evil life
One day Jesus called together his disciples and went up on to the mountain, and when he had sat down there his disciples came near unto him; and he opened his mouth and taught them, saying: 'Great are the benefits which God hath bestowed on us, wherefore it is necessary that we should serve him with truth of heart. And forasmuch as new wine is put into new vessels, even so ought ye to become new men, if ye will contain the new doctrine that shall come out of my mouth. Verily I say unto you, that even as a man cannot see with his eyes the heaven and the earth at one and the same time, so it is impossible to love God and the world.
'No man can in any wise serve two masters that are at enmity one with the other; for if the one shall love you, the other will hate you. Even so I tell you in truth that ye cannot serve God and the world, for the world lieth in falsehood, covetousness, and malignity. Ye cannot therefore find rest in the world, but rather persecution and loss. Wherefore serve God and despise the world, for from me ye shall find rest for your souls, Hear my words, for I speak unto you in truth.
'Verily, blessed are they that mourn this earthly life, for they shall be comforted.
'Blessed are the poor who truly hate the delights of the world, for they shall abound in the delights of the kingdom of God.
'Verily, blessed are they that eat at the table of God, for the angles shall minister unto them.
'Ye are journeying as pilgrims. Doth the pilgrim encumber himself with palaces and fields and other earthly matters upon the way? Assuredly not: but he beareth things light and prized for their usefulness and convenience upon the road. This now should be an example unto you; and if ye desire another ensample I will give it you, in order that ye may do all that I tell you.
'Weigh not down your hearts with earthly desires, saying: Who shall clothe us?" or "Who shall give us to eat?" But behold the flowers and the trees, with the birds, which God our Lord clotheth and nourisheth with greater glory than all the glory of Solomon. And he is able to nourish you, even God who created you and called you to his service; who for forty years caused the manna to fall from heaven for his people Israel in the wilderness, and did not suffer their clothing to wax old or perish, they being six hundred and forty thousand men, besides women and children. Verily I say unto you, that heaven and earth shall fail, yet shall not fail his mercy unto them that fear him. But the rich of the world in their prosperity are hungry and perish. There was a rich man whose incomings increased, and he said, "What shall I do, O my soul? I will pull down my barns because they are small, and I will build new and greater ones; therefore thou shalt triumph my soul!" Oh, wretched man! for that night he died. He ought to have been mindful of the poor, and to have made himself friends with the alms of unrighteous riches of this world; for they bring treasures in the kingdom of heaven.
'Tell me, I pray you, if ye should give your money into the bank to a publican, and he should give unto you tenfold and twentyfold, would ye not give to such a man everything that ye had? But I say unto you, verily, that whatsoever ye shall forgive and shall forsake for love of God, ye receive it back an hundredfold, and life everlasting. See then how much ye ought to be content to serve God.
17 - In this chapter is clearly perceived the unbelief of Christians, and the true faith of Mumin
When Jesus had said this, Philip answered: 'We are content to serve God, but we desire, however, to know God. For Isaiah the prophet said: "Verily thou art a hidden God," and God said to Moses his servant: "I am that which I am."
Jesus answered: 'Philip, God is a good without which there is naught good; God is a being without which there is naught that is; God is a life without which there is naught that liveth; so great that he filleth all and is everywhere. He alone hath no equal. He hath had no beginning, nor will he ever have an end, but to everything hath he given a beginning and to everything shall he give an end. He hath no father nor mother; he hath no sons, nor brethren, nor companions. And because God hath no body, therefore he eateth not, sleepeth not, dieth not, walketh not, moveth not, but abideth eternally without human similitude, for that he is incorporeal, uncompounded, immaterial, of the most simple substance. He is so good that he loveth goodness only; he is so just that when he punisheth or pardoneth it cannot be gainsaid. In short, I say unto thee, Philip, that here on earth thou canst not see him nor know him perfectly; but in his kingdom thou shalt see him for ever: wherein consisteth all our happiness and glory.'
Philip answered: 'Master, what sayest thou? It is surely written in Isaiah that God is our father; how, then, hath he no sons?'
Jesus answered: 'There are written in the prophets many parables, wherefore thou oughtest not to attend to the letter, but to the sense. For all the prophets, that are one hundred and forty-four thousand, whom God hath sent into the world, have spoken darkly. But after me shall come the Splendour of all the prophets and holy ones, and shall shed light upon the darkness of all that the prophets have said, because he is the messenger of God.' And having said this, Jesus sighed and said: 'Have mercy on Israel, O Lord God and look with pity upon Abraham and upon his seed, in order that they may serve thee with truth of heart.
His disciples answered: 'So be it, O Lord our God!'
Jesus said: 'Verily I say unto you, the scribes and doctors have made void the law of God with their false prophecies, contrary to the prophecies of the true prophets of God: Wherefore God is wroth with the house of Israel and with this faithless generation.' His disciples wept at these words, and said: 'Have mercy, O God, have mercy upon the temple and upon the holy city, and give it not into contempt of the nations that they despise not thy holy covenant.' Jesus answered: 'So be it, Lord God of our fathers.'
18 - Here is shown forth the persecution of the servants of God by the world, and God's protection saving them
Having said this, Jesus said: 'Ye have not chosen me, but I have chosen you, that ye may be my disciples. If then the world shall hate you, ye shall be truly my disciples; for the world hath been ever an enemy of servants of God. Remember the holy prophets that have been slain by the world, even as in the time of Elijah ten thousand prophets were slain by Jezebel, insomuch that scarcely did poor Elijah escape, and seven thousand sons of prophets who were hidden by the captain of Ahab's host. Oh, unrighteous world, that knowest not God! Fear not therefore ye, for the hairs of your head are numbered so that they shall not perish. Behold the sparrows and other birds, whereof falleth not one feather without the will of God. Shall God, then, have more care of the birds than of man, for whose sake he hath created everything. Is there any man, perchance, who careth more for his shoes than for his own son? Assuredly not. Now how much less ought ye to think that God would abandon you, while taking care of the birds! And why speak I of the birds? A leaf of a tree falleth not without the will of God.
'Believe me, because I tell you the truth, that the world will greatly fear you if ye shall observe my words. For if it feared not to have its wickedness revealed it would not hate you, but it feareth to be revealed, therefore it will hate you and persecute you. If ye shall see your words scorned by the world lay it not to heart, but consider how that God is greater than you; who is in such wise scorned by the world that his wisdom is counted madness. If God endureth the world with patience, wherefore will ye lay it to heart, O dust and clay of the earth? In your patience ye shall possess your soul. Therefore if one shall give you a blow on one side of the face, offer him the other that he may smite it. Render not evil for evil, for so do all the worst animals; but render good for evil, and pray God for them that hate you. Fire is not extinguished with fire, but rather with water; even so I say unto you that ye shall not overcome evil with evil, but rather with good. Behold God, who causeth the sun to come upon the good and evil, and likewise the rain. So ought ye to do good to all; for it is written in the law: "Be ye holy, for I your God am holy; be ye pure, for I am pure; and be ye perfect, for I am perfect." Verily I say unto you that the servant studieth to please his master, and so he putteth not on any garment that is displeasing to his master. Your garments are your will and your love. Beware, then, not to will or to love a thing that is displeasing to God, our Lord. Be ye sure that God hateth the pomps and lusts of the world, and therefore hate ye the world.'
19 - Jesus foretelleth his betrayal, and, descending from the mountain, healeth ten lepers
When Jesus had said this, Peter answered: 'O teacher, behold we have left all to follow thee, what shall become of us?'
Jesus answered: 'Verily ye in the day of judgment shall sit beside me, giving testimony against the twelve tribes of Israel.'
And having said this Jesus sighed, saying: 'O Lord, what thing is this? for I have chosen twelve, and one of them is a devil.'
The disciples were sore grieved at this word; whereupon he who writeth secretly questioned Jesus with tears, saying: 'O master, will Satan deceive me, and shall I then become reprobate?'
Jesus answered: 'Be not sore grieved, Barnabas; for those whom God hath chosen before the creation of the world shall not perish. Rejoice, for thy name is written in the book of life.
Jesus comforted his disciples, saying: 'Fear not, for he who shall hate me is not grieved at my saying, because in him is not the divine feeling.'
At his words the chosen were comforted. Jesus made his prayers, and his disciples said: 'Amen, so be it, Lord God almighty and merciful.'
Having finished his devotions, Jesus came down from the mountain with his disciples and met ten lepers, who from afar off cried out: 'Jesus, son of David, have mercy on us!"
Jesus called them near to him, and said unto them: 'What will ye of me, O brethren?'
They all cried out: 'Give us health!'
Jesus answered: 'Ah, wretched that ye are, have ye so lost your reason for that ye say: "Give us health!" See ye not me to be a man like yourselves. Call unto our God that hath created you and he that is almighty and merciful will heal you.
With tears the lepers answered: 'We know that thou art man like us, but yet an holy one of God and a prophet of the Lord; wherefore pray thou to God, and he will heal us.
Thereupon the disciples prayed Jesus, saying: 'Lord, have mercy upon them.' Then groaned Jesus and prayed to God, saying: 'Lord God almighty and merciful, have mercy and hearken to the words of thy servant: and for love of Abraham our father and for thy holy covenant have mercy on the request of these men, and grant them health.' Whereupon Jesus, having said this, turned himself to the lepers and said: 'Go and show yourselves to the priests according to the law of God.'
The lepers departed, and on the way were cleansed. Whereupon one of them, seeing that he was healed, returned to find Jesus, and he was an Ishmaelite. And having found Jesus he bowed himself, doing reverence unto him, and saying: 'Verily thou art an holy one of God,' and with thanks he prayed him that he would receive him for servant. Jesus answered: 'Ten have been cleansed; where are the nine?' And he said to him that was cleansed: 'I am not come to be served, but to serve; wherefore go to thine home, and recount how much God hath done in thee, in order that they may know that the promises made to Abraham and his son, with the kingdom of God, are drawing nigh.' The cleansed leper departed, and having arrived in his own neighborhood recounted how much God through Jesus had wrought in him.
20 - Miracle on the sea wrought by Jesus, and Jesus declares where the prophet is received
Jesus went to the sea of Galilee, and having embarked in a ship sailed to his city of Nazareth; whereupon there was a great tempest in the sea, insomuch that the ship was nigh unto sinking. And Jesus was sleeping upon the prow of the ship. Then drew near to him his disciples, and awoke him, saying: 'O master, save thyself, for we perish!' They were encompassed with very great fear, by reason of the great wind that was contrary and the roaring of the sea. Jesus arose, and raising his eyes to heaven, said: 'O Elohim Sabaoth, have mercy upon thy servants.' Then, when Jesus had said this, suddenly the wind ceased, and the sea became calm. Wherefore the seamen feared, saying: 'And who is this, that the sea and the wind obey him?'
Having arrived at the city of Nazareth the seamen spread through the city all that Jesus had wrought, whereupon the house where Jesus was, was surrounded by as many as dwelt in the city. And the scribes and doctors having presented themselves unto him, said: 'We have heard how much thou hast wrought in the sea and Judea: give us therefore some sign here in thine own country.'
Jesus answered: 'This faithless generation seek a sign, but it shall not be given them, because no prophet is received in his own country. In the time of Elijah there were many widows in Judea but he was not sent to be nourished save unto a widow of Sidon. Many were the lepers in the time of Elisha in Judea, nevertheless only Naaman the Syrian was cleansed.'
Then were the citizens enraged and seized him and carried him on to the top of a precipice to cast him down. But Jesus walking through the midst of them, departed from them.
21 - Jesus healeth a demoniac, and the swine are cast into the sea - Afterwards he healeth the daughter of the Canaanites
Jesus went up to Capernaum, and as he drew near to the city behold there came out of the tombs one that was possessed of a devil, and in such wise that no chain could hold him, and he did great harm to the man.
The demons cried out through his mouth, saying: 'O holy one of God, why art thou come before the time to trouble us?' And they prayed him that he would not cast them forth.
Jesus asked them how many they were. They answered "Six thousand six hundred and sixty-six.' When the disciples heard this they were affrighted, and prayed Jesus that he would depart. Then said Jesus: 'Where is your faith? It is necessary that the demon should depart, and not I.' The demons therefore cried: 'We will come out, but permit us to enter into those swine.' There were feeding there near to the sea, about ten thousand swine belonging to the Canaanites. Thereupon Jesus said: 'Depart, and enter into the swine.' With a roar the demons entered into the swine, and cast them headlong into the sea. Then fled into the city they that fed the swine, and recounted all that had been brought to pass by Jesus.
Accordingly the men of the city came forth and found Jesus and the man that was healed. The men were filled with fear and prayed Jesus that he would depart out of their borders. Jesus accordingly departed from them and went up into the parts of Tyre and Sidon.
And lo! a woman of Canaan with her two sons, who had come forth out of her own country to find Jesus. Having therefore seen him come with his disciples, she cried out: 'Jesus, son of David, have mercy on my daughter, who is tormented of the devil!
Jesus did not answer even a single word, because they were of the uncircumcised people. The disciples were moved to pity, and said: 'O master, have pity on them! Behold how much they cry out and weep!'
Jesus answered: 'I am not sent but unto the people of Israel.' Then the woman, with her sons, went before Jesus, weeping and saying: 'O son of David, have mercy on me!' Jesus answered: 'It is not good to take the bread from the children's hands and give it to the dogs.' And this said Jesus by reason of their uncleanness, because they were of the uncircumcised people.
The woman answered: 'O Lord, the dogs eat the crumbs that fall from their masters' table.' Then was Jesus seized with admiration at the words of the woman, and said: 'O woman, great is thy faith.' And having raised his hands to heaven he prayed to God, and then he said: 'O woman, thy daughter is freed, go thy way in peace.' The woman departed, and returning to her home found her daughter, who was blessing God. Wherefore the woman said: 'Verily there is none other God than the God of Israel.' Whereupon all her kinsfolk joined themselves unto the law of [God], according to the law written in the book of Moses.
22 - Miserable condition of the uncircumcised in that a dog is better than they
The disciples questioned Jesus on that day, saying: 'O master, why didst thou make such answer to the woman, saying that they were dogs?'
Jesus answered: 'Verily I say unto you that a dog is better than an uncircumcised man.' Then were the disciples sorrowful, saying: 'Hard are these words, and who shall be able to receive them?'
Jesus answered: 'If ye consider, O foolish ones, what the dog doth, that hath no reason, for the service of his master, ye will find my saying to be true. Tell me, doth the dog guard the house of his master, and expose his life against the robber? Yea, assuredly. But what receiveth he? Many blows and injuries with little bread, and he always showeth to his master a joyful countenance. Is this true?'
'True it is, O master,' answered the disciples.
Then said Jesus: 'Consider now how much God hath given to man, and ye shall see how unrighteous he is in not observing the covenant of God made with Abraham his servant. Remember that which David said to Saul king of Israel, against Goliath the Philistine: "My lord," said David, "while thy servant was keeping thy servant's flock there came the wolf, the bear, and the lion and seized thy servant's sheep: whereupon thy servant went and slew them, rescuing the sheep. And what is this uncircumcised one but like unto them? Therefore will thy servant go in the name of the Lord God of Israel, and will slay this unclean one that blasphemeth the holy people of God."
Then said the disciples: 'Tell us, O master, for what reason man must needs be circumcised?"
Jesus answered: 'Let it suffice you that God hath commanded it to Abraham, saying: "Abraham, circumcise thy foreskin and that of all thy house, for this is a covenant between me and thee for ever."'
23 - Origin of circumcision, and covenant of God with Abraham, and damnation of the uncircumcised
And having said this, Jesus sat nigh unto the mountain which they looked upon. And his disciples came to his side to listen to his words. Then said Jesus: 'Adam the first man having eaten, by fraud of Satan, the food forbidden of God in paradise, his flesh rebelled against the spirit; whereupon he swore, saying: "By God, I will cut thee!" And having broken a piece of rock, he seized his flesh to cut it with the sharp edge of the stone: whereupon he was rebuked by the angel Gabriel. And he answered: "I have sworn by God to cut it; I will never be a liar!"
'Then the angel showed him the superfluity of his flesh, and that he cut off. And hence, just as every man taketh flesh for the flesh of Adam, so is he bound to observe in his sons, and from generation to generation came down the obligation of circumcision. But in the time of Abraham there were but few circumcised upon the earth, because that idolatry was multiplied upon the earth. Whereupon God told to Abraham the fact concerning circumcision, and made this covenant, saying: "The soul that shall not have his flesh circumcised, I will scatter him from among my people for ever."'
The disciples trembled with fear at these words of Jesus, for with vehemence of spirit he spake. Then said Jesus: 'Leave fear to him that hath not circumcised his foreskin, for he is deprived of paradise.' And having said this, Jesus spake again, saying: 'The spirit in many is ready in the service of God, but the flesh is weak. The man therefore that feareth God ought to consider what the flesh is, and where it had its origin, and whereto it shall be reduced. Of the clay of the earth created God flesh, and into it he breathed the breath of life, with an inbreathing therein. And therefore when the flesh shall hinder the service of God it ought to be spurned like clay and trampled on, forasmuch as he that hateth his soul in this world shall keep it in life eternal.
'What the flesh is at this present its desires make manifest— that it is a harsh enemy of all good: for it alone desireth sin.
'Ought then man for the sake of satisfying one of his enemies to leave off pleasing God, his creator? Consider ye this: All the saints and prophets have been enemies of their flesh for service of God: wherefore readily and with gladness they went to their death, so as not to offend against the law of God given by Moses his servant, and I go and serve the false and lying gods.
'Remember Elijah, who fled through desert places of the mountains, eating only grass, clad in goats' skin. Ah, how many days he supped not! Ah, how much cold he endured! Ah, how many showers drenched him and [that] for the space of seven years, wherein endured that fierce persecution of the unclean Jezebel!
'Remember Elisha, who ate barley-bread, and wore the coarsest raiment. Verily I say unto you that they, not fearing to spurn the flesh, were feared with great terror by the king and princes. This should suffice for the spurning of the flesh, O men. But if ye will gaze at the sepulchres, ye shall know what flesh is.'
24 - Notable example how one ought to flee from banqueting and feasting
Having said this, Jesus wept, saying: 'Woe to those who are servants to their flesh, for they are sure not to have any good in the other life, but only torments for their sins. I tell you that there was a rich glutton who paid no heed to aught but gluttony, and so every day held a splendid feast. There stood at his gate a poor man by name Lazarus, who was full of wounds, and was fain to have those crumbs that fell from the glutton's table. But no one gave them to him; nay, all mocked him. Only the dogs had pity on him, for they licked his wounds. It came to pass that the poor man died, and the angels carried him to the arms of Abraham our father. The rich man also died, and the devils carried him to the arms of Satan; whereupon, undergoing the greatest torment, he lifted up his eyes and from afar saw Lazarus in the arms of Abraham. Then cried the rich man: "O father Abraham, have mercy on me, and send Lazarus, who upon his fingers may bring me a drop of water to cool my tongue, which is tormented in this flame."
'Abraham answered: "Son, remember that thou receivedst thy good in the other life and Lazarus his evil: wherefore now thou shalt be in torment, and Lazarus in consolation."
'The rich man cried out again, saying: "O father Abraham, in my house there are three brethren of mine. Therefore send Lazarus to announce to them how much I am suffering, in order that they may repent and not come hither."
'Abraham answered: "They have Moses and the prophets, let I them hear them."
'The rich man answered: "Nay, father Abraham; but if one dead shall arise they will believe."
'Abraham answered: "Whoso believeth not Moses and the prophets will not believe even the dead if they should arise."
'See then whether the poor are blessed,' said Jesus, 'who have patience, and only desire that which is necessary, hating the flesh. O wretched they, who bear others to the burial, to give their flesh for food of worms, and do not learn the truth. So far from it that they live here like immortals, for they build great houses and purchase great revenues and live in pride."
25 - How one ought to despise the flesh, and how one ought to live in the world
Then said he who writeth: 'O master, true are thy words and therefore have we forsaken all to follow thee. Tell us then, how we ought to hate our flesh: for to kill oneself is not lawful, and living we needs must give it its livelihood.'
Jesus answered: 'Keep thy flesh like a horse, and thou shalt live securely. For unto a horse food is given by measure and labour without measure, and the bridle is put on him that he may walk at thy will, he is tied up that he may not annoy anyone, he is kept in a poor place, and beaten when he is not obedient: so do thou, then, O Barnabas, and thou shalt live always with God.
'And be not offended at my words, for David the prophet did the same thing, as he confesseth, saying: "I am as an horse before thee: and am always by thee."
'Now tell me, whether is poorer he who is content with little, or he who desireth much? Verily I say unto you, that if the world had but a sound mind no one would amass anything for himself, but all would be in common. But in this is known its madness, that the more it amasseth the more it desireth. And as much as it amasseth, for the fleshly repose of others doth it amass the same. Therefore let one single robe suffice for you, cast away your purse, carry no wallet, no sandals on your feet; and do not think, saying: "What shall happen to us?" but have thought to do the will of God, and he will provide for your need, insomuch that nothing shall be lacking unto you.
'Verily I say unto you, that the amassing much in this life giveth sure witness of not having anything to receive in the other. For he that hath Jerusalem for his native country buildeth not houses in Samaria, for that there is enmity between these cities. Understand ye?'
'Yea,' answered the disciples.
26 - How one ought to love God - And in this chapter is contained the wonderful contention of Abraham with his father
Then said Jesus: 'There was a man on a journey who, as he was walking, discovered a treasure in a field that was to be sold for five pieces of money. Straightway the man, when he knew this, sold his cloak to buy that field. Is that credible?"
The disciples answered: 'He who would not believe this is mad.'
Thereupon Jesus said: 'Ye will be mad if ye give not your senses to God to buy your soul, wherein resideth the treasure of love; for love is a treasure incomparable. For he that loveth God hath God for his own; and whoso hath God hath everything.'
Peter answered: 'O master, how ought one to love God with true love? Tell thou us.'
Jesus replied: 'Verily I say unto you that he who shall not hate his father and his mother, and his own life, and children and wife for love of God, that such an one is not worthy to be loved of God.'
Peter answered: 'O master, it is written in the law of God in the book of Moses: "Honour thy father, that thou mayest live long upon the earth." And further he saith: "Cursed be the son that obeyeth not his father and his mother"; wherefore God commanded that such a disobedient son should be by the wrath of the people stoned before the gate of the city. And now how biddest thou us to hate father and mother?'
Jesus replied: 'Every word of mine is true, because it is not mine, but God's, who hath sent me to the house of Israel. Therefore I say unto you that all that which ye possess God hath bestowed it upon you: and so, whether is the more precious, the gift or the giver? When thy father and thy mother, with every other thing is a stumbling-block to thee in the service of God, abandon them as enemies. Did not God say to Abraham: "Go forth from the house of thy father and of thy kindred, and come to dwell in the land which I will give to thee and to thy seed?" And wherefore did God say this, save because the father of Abraham was an image-maker, who made and worshipped false gods? Whence there was enmity between them insomuch that the father wished to burn his son.'
Peter answered: 'True are thy words, wherefore I pray thee tell us how Abraham mocked his father.'
Jesus replied: 'Abraham was seven years old when he began to seek God. So one day he said to his father: "Father, what made man?"
'The foolish father answered: "Man; for I made thee, and my father made me."
Abraham answered: "Father, it is not so; for I have heard an old man weeping and saying: 'O my God, wherefore hast thou not given me children?'"
'His father replied: "It is true, my son, that God helpeth man to make man, but he putteth not his hand thereto; it is only necessary that man come to pray to his God and to give him lambs and sheep, and his God will help him."
'Abraham answered: "How many gods are there, father?"
'The old man replied: "They are infinite in number, my son."
'Then said Abraham: "O father, what shall I do if I shall serve one god and another shall wish me evil because I serve him not? In any wise there will come discord between them, and so war will arise among the gods. But if perchance the god that willeth me evil shall slay my own god, what shall I do? It is certain that he will slay me also."
'The old man, laughing, answered: "O son, have no fear, for no god maketh war upon another god; nay, in the great temple there are a thousand gods with the great god Baal; and I am now nigh seventy years old, and yet never have I seen that one god hath smitten another god. And assuredly all men do not serve one god, but one man one, and another another."
'Abraham answered: "So, then, they have peace among themselves?"
'Said his father: "They have."
'Then said Abraham: "O father, what be the gods like?"
'The old man answered: "Fool, every day I make a god, which I sell to others to buy bread, and thou knowest not what the gods are like!" And then at that moment he was making an idol. "This," said he, "is of palm wood, that one is of olive, that little one is of ivory: see how fine it is! Does it not seem as though it were alive? Assuredly, it lacks but breath!"
'Abraham answered: "And so, father, the gods are without breath? Then how do they give breath? And being without life, how give they life? It is certain, father, that these are not God."
'The old man was wroth at these words, saying: "If thou wert of age to understand, I would break thy head with this axe: But hold thy peace, because thou hast not understanding!"
'Abraham answered: "Father, if the gods help to make man, how can it be that man should make the gods? And if the gods are made of wood, it is a great sin to burn wood. But tell me, father, how is it that, when thou hast made so many gods, the gods have not helped thee to make so many other children that thou shouldest become the most powerful man in the world?"
'The father was beside himself, hearing his son speak so; the son went on: "Father, was the world for some time without men?"
'"Yes," answered the old man, "and why?"
"'Because," said Abraham, "I should like to know who made the first God."
'"Now go out of my house!" said the old man, "and leave me to make this god quickly, and speak no words to me; for, when thou art hungry thou desirest bread and not words."
'Said Abraham: "A fine god, truly, that thou cuttest him as thou wilt, and he defendeth not himself!"
'Then the old man was angry, and said: "All the world saith that it is a god, and thou, mad fellow, sayest that it is not. By my gods, if thou wert a man I could kill thee!" And having said this, he gave blows and kicks to Abraham, and chased him from the house.'
27 - In this chapter is clearly seen how improper is laughter in men: also the prudence of Abraham
The disciples laughed over the madness of the old man, and stood amazed at the prudence of Abraham. But Jesus reproved them, saying: 'Ye have forgotten the words of the prophet, who saith: "Present laughter is a herald of weeping to come," and further, "Thou shalt not go where is laughter, but sit where they weep, because this life passeth in miseries."' Then said Jesus: 'In the time of Moses, know ye not that for laughing and mocking at others God turned into hideous beasts many men of Egypt: Beware that in anywise ye laugh not at anyone, for ye shall surely weep [for it].'
The disciples answered: 'We laughed over the madness of the old man.'
Then said Jesus: 'Verily I say unto you, every like loveth his like, and therein findeth pleasure. Therefore, if ye were not mad ye would not laugh at madness.'
They answered: 'May God have mercy on us.'
Said Jesus: 'So be it.'
Then said Philip: 'O master, how came it to pass that Abraham's father wished to burn his son?'
Jesus answered: 'One day, Abraham having come to the age of twelve years, his father said to him: 'To-morrow is the festival of all the gods; therefore we shall go to the great temple and bear a present to my god, great Baal. And thou shalt choose for thyself a god, for thou art of age to have a god."
'Abraham answered with guile: "Willingly, O my father." And so betimes in the morning they went before every one else to the temple. But Abraham bare beneath his tunic an axe hidden. Whereupon, having entered into the temple, as the crowd increased Abraham hid himself behind an idol in a dark part of the temple. His father, when he departed, believed that Abraham had gone home before him, wherefore he did not stay to seek him.
When everyone had departed from the temple, the priests closed the temple and went away. Then Abraham took the axe and cut off the feet of all the idols, except the great god Baal. At its feet he placed the axe, amid the ruins which the statues made, for they, through being old and composed of pieces, fell in pieces. Thereupon, Abraham, going forth from the temple, seen by certain men, who suspected him of having gone to thieve something from the temple. So they laid hold on him, and having arrived at the temple, when they saw their gods so broken in pieces, they cried out with lamentation: "Come quickly, O men, and let us slay him who has slain our gods!" There ran together there about ten thousand men, with the priests, and questioned Abraham of the reason why he had destroyed their gods. Abraham answered: "You are foolish! Shall then a man slay God? It is the great God that has slain them. See you not that axe which he has near his feet? Certain it is that he desires no fellows." Then arrived there the father of Abraham, who, mindful of the many discourses of Abraham against their gods, and recognizing the axe wherewith Abraham had broken in pieces the idols, cried out: "It has been this traitor of a son of mine, who has slain our gods! for this axe is mine." And he recounted to them all that had passed between him and his son. Accordingly the men collected a great quantity of wood, and having bound Abraham's hands and feet put him upon the wood, and put fire underneath. 'Lo! God, through his angel, commanded the fire that it should not burn Abraham his servant. The fire blazed up with great fury, and burned about two thousand men of those who had condemned Abraham to death. Abraham truly found himself free, being carried by the angel of God near to the house of his father, without seeing who carried him; and thus Abraham escaped death."
Then Philip said: "Great is the mercy of God upon whoever loves him. Tell us, O master, how Abraham came to [have] the knowledge of God." Jesus answered: "Having arrived near to the house of his father, Abraham feared to go into the house; so he removed [himself] some distance from the house and sat under a palm tree, where, being by himself, he said:"There must be a God who has life and power more than man, since he makes man, and man without God could not make man." Thereupon, looking round upon the stars, the moon, and the sun, he thought that they had been God. But after considering their variableness with their movements, hesaid: "It must be [necessarily] that God does not move and that clouds do not hide him [as they hide the planets]; otherwise men would be reduced to nothing." Remaining thus in suspense, he heard himself called by name, "Abraham!" And so, turning round and not seeing any one on any side, he said: "I am sure I heard myself called by name, 'Abraham. " Then, two other times in a similar manner, he heard himself called by name, "Abraham!" He answered: "What calls me?" Then he heard [the voice] say: "I am the angel of God, Gabriel." Abraham was filled with fear; but the angel comforted him, saying: "Do not fear, Abraham, for you are friend of God When you broke in pieces the gods of men, you were chosen [by] the God of the angels and prophets such that you are written in the Book of Life." Then said Abraham: "What should I do [so as] to serve the God of the angels and holy prophets?" The angel answered: "Go to that fount and wash yourself, for God wishes to speak with you." Abraham answered: "How should I wash myself?" Then the angel appeared to him as a beautiful youth, and washed himself in the fount, saying: "Do the same as this, O Abraham." When Abraham had washed himself, the angel said: "Go up that mountain, for God wilshes to speak to you there." Abraham ascended the mountain as the angel [had instructed him], and having sat down upon his knees he said to himself: "When will the God of the angels speak to me?" He heard himself called with a gentle voice: "Abraham!" Abraham answered him: "Who calls me?" The voice answered: "I am your God, O Abraham." Abraham, filled with fear, bent his face to earth, saying: "How shall your servant who is dust and ashes hearken to you!" Then said God: "Fear not, but rise up, for I have chosen you as my servant, and I will bless you and make you increase into a great people. Therefore go forth from the house of your father and of your kindred, and come to dwell in the land which I will give to you and to your seed." Abraham answered: "I will do everything, Lord; but guard me [so] that no other god may harm me." Then God spoke, saying: "I am God alone, and there is none other god but me. I strike down, and make whole; I slay, and give life; I lead down to hell, and I bring out thereof, and no-one is able to deliver himself out of my hands." Then God gave him the covenant of circumcision; and so our father Abraham knew God." And having said this, Jesus lifted up his hands, saying: "To you be honour and glory, O God. So be it!
Jesus went to Jerusalem, near to the Senofegia, a feast of our nation . The scribes and Pharisees having perceived this, took counsel to catch him in his talk. Whereupon, there came to him a doctor, saying: "Master, what must I do to have eternal life?" Jesus answered: "How is it written in the Law?" The tempter answered, saying: "Love the Lord your God, and your neighbour. You shall love your God above all things, with all your heart and your mind, and your neighbour as yourself." Jesus answered: "You have answered well: therefore go and do you so, I say, and you shall have eternal life." He said to him: "And who is my neighbour?" Jesus answered, lifting up his eyes: "A man was going down from Jerusalem to go to Jericho, a city rebuilt under a curse. This man on the road was seized by robbers, wounded and stripped; whereupon they departed, leaving him half dead. It chanced that a priest passed by that place, and he, seeing the wounded man, passed on without greeting him. In like manner passed a Levite, without saying a word. It chanced that there passed [also] a Samaritan, who, seeing the wounded man, was moved to compassion, and alighted from his horse, and took the wounded man and washed his wounds with wine, and anointed them with ointment, and binding up his wounds for him and comforting him, he set him upon his own horse. Whereupon, having arrived in the evening at the inn, he gave him into the charge of the host. And when he had risen on the morrow, he said: "Take care of this man, and I will pay you all." And having presented four gold pieces to the sick man for the host, he said: "Be of good cheer, for I will speedily return and conduct you to my own home." "Tell me," said Jesus, "which of these was the neighbour?" The doctor answered: "He who showed mercy." Then Jesus said: "You have answered rightly; therefore go and do you likewise." The doctor departed in confusion.
Then drew near to Jesus the priests, and said: "Master, is it lawful to give tribute to Caesar?" Jesus turned round to Judas, and said: "Have you any money?" And taking a penny in his hand, Jesus turned himself to the priests, and said to them: "This penny has an image: tell me, whose image is it?" They answered: "Caesar"s". "Give therefore," said Jesus, "that which is Caesar's to Caesar, and that which is God's give it to God." Then they departed in confusion. And behold there drew near a centurion, saying: "Lord, my son is sick; have mercy on my old age!" Jesus answered: "The Lord God of Israel have mercy on you!" The man was departing; and Jesus said: "Wait for me, for I will come to your house, to make prayer over your son." The centurion answered: "Lord, I am not worthy that you, a prophet of God, should come to my house, sufficient to me is the word that you have spoken for the healing of my son; for your God has made you lord over every sickness, even as his angel said to me in my sleep." Then Jesus marvelled greatly, and turning to the crowd, he said: "Behold this stranger, for he has more faith than all that I have found in Israel." And turning to the centurion, he said: "Go in peace, because God, for the great faith that he has given you, has granted health to your son." The centurion went his way, and on the road he met his servants, who announced to him how his son was healed. The man answered: "At what hour did the fever leave him?" They said: "Yesterday, at the sixth hour, the heat departed from him." The man knew that when Jesus said: "The Lord God of Israel have mercy on you," his son received his health. *Whereupon the man believed in our God, and having entered into his house, he brake in pieces all his own gods, saying: "There is only the God of Israel, the true and living God." Therefore said he: "None shall eat of my bread that does not worship the God of Israel."
One skilled in the Law invited Jesus to supper, in order to tempt him. Jesus came thither with his disciples, and many scribes, to tempt him, waited for him in the house. Whereupon, the disciples sat down to table without washing their hands. The scribes called Jesus, saying: "Wherefore do not your disciples observe the traditions of our elders, in not washing their hands before they eat bread?" Jesus answered: "And I ask you, for what cause have you annulled the precept of God to observe your traditions? You say to the sons of poor fathers: "Offer and make vows to the Temple." And they make vows of that little wherewith they ought to support their fathers. And when their fathers wish to take money, the sons cry out: "This money is consecrated to God"; whereby the fathers suffer. O false scribes, hypocrites, does God use this money? Assuredly not, for God eats not, as he says by his servant David the prophet: Shall I then eat the flesh of bulls and drink the blood of sheep? Render to me the sacrifice of praise, and offer to me your vows; for if I should be hungry I will not ask aught of you, seeing that all things are in my hands, and the abundance of paradise is with me. Hypocrites! you do this to fill your purse, and therefore you tithe rue and mint. Oh miserable ones! for to others you show the most clear way, by which you will not go. 'You scribes and doctors lay upon the shoulders of others weights of unbearable weight, but you yourselves the while are not willing to move them with one of your fingers. Truly I say to you, that every evil has entered into the world under the pretext of the elders. Tell me, who made idolatry to enter into the world, if not the usage of the elders? For there was a king who exceedingly loved his father, whose name was Baal. Whereupon, when the father was dead, his son for his own consolation, caused to be made an image like to his father, and set it up in the market-place of the city. And he made a decree that everyone who approached that statue within a space of fifteen cubits should be safe, and no one any account should do him hurt. Hence the malefactors, by reason of the benefit they received therefrom, began to offer to the statue roses and flowers, and in a short time the offerings were changed into money and food, insomuch that they called it god, to honour it. Which thing from custom was transformed into a law, insomuch that the idol of Baal spread through all the world; And how much does God lament this by the prophet Isaiah, saying: "Truly this people worships me in vain, for they have annulled my Law given to them by my servant Moses, and follow the traditions of their elders. Truly I say to you, that to eat bread with unclean hands defiles not a man, because that which enters into the man defiles not the man, but that which comes out of the man defiles the man." Thereupon, said one of the scribes: "If I shall eat pork, or other unclean meats, will they not defile my conscience?" Jesus answered: "Disobedience will not enter into the man, but will come out of the man, from his heart; and therefore will he be defiled when he shall eat forbidden food." Then said one of the doctors: "Master, you have spoken much against idolatry as though the people of Israel had idols, and so you have done us wrong." Jesus answered: "I know well that in Israel today there are not statues of wood; but there are statues of flesh." Then answered all the scribes in wrath: "And so we are idolaters?" Jesus answered: "Truly I say to you, the precept says not "You shall worship", but "You shall love the Lord your God with all your soul, and with all your heart, and with all your mind." Is this true?" said Jesus. "It is true" answered every one.
Then Jesus said: "Truly all that which a man loves, for which he leaves everything else but that, is his god. And so the fornicator has for his image the harlot, the glutton and drunkard has for image his own flesh, and the covetous has for his image silver and gold, and so likewise every other sinner." Then said he who had invited him: "Master, which is the greatest sin?" Jesus answered: "Which is the greatest ruin of a house?" Everyone was silent, when Jesus with his finger pointed to the foundation, and said: "If the foundation give way, immediately the house falls in ruin, in such wise that it is necessary to build it up anew: but if every other part give way it can be repaired. Even so then say I to you, that idolatry is the greatest sin, because it deprives a man entirely of faith, and consequently of God; so that he can have no spiritual affection. But every other sin leaves to man the hope of obtaining mercy: and therefore I say that idolatry is the greatest sin." All stood amazed at the speaking of Jesus, for they perceived that it could not in any wise be assailed. Then Jesus continued: "Remember that which God spoke and which Moses and Joshua wrote in the Law, and you shall see how grave is this sin. God said, speaking to Israel: "You shall not make to yourself any image of those things which are in heaven nor of those things which are under the heaven, nor shall you make it of those things which are above the earth, nor of those which are under the earth; nor of those which are above the water, nor of those which are under the water. For I am your God, strong and jealous, who will take vengeance for this sin upon the fathers and upon their children even to the fourth generation." Remember how, when our people had made the calf, and when they had worshipped it, by commandment of God Joshua and the tribe of Levi took the sword and slew of them one hundred and twenty thousand of those that did not crave mercy of God. Oh, terrible judgment of God upon the idolaters!"
There stood before the door one who had his right hand shrunken in such fashion that he could not use it. Whereupon Jesus, having lift up his heart to God, prayed, and then said: "In order that you may know that my words are true, I say, "In the name of God, man, stretch out your infirm hand!” He stretched it out whole, as if it had never had anything wrong with it. Then with fear of God they began to eat. And having eaten somewhat, Jesus said again: "Truly I say to you, that it were better to burn a city than to leave an evil custom. For on account of such is God wroth with the princes and kings of the earth, to whom God has given the sword to destroy iniquities." Afterwards said Jesus: "When you are invited, remember not to set yourself in the highest place, in order that if a greater friend of the host come the host say not to you: "Arise and sit lower down!' which were a shame to you. But go and sit in the meanest place, in order that he who invited you may come and say: "Arise, friend, and come and sit here, above!" For then shall you have great honour: for every one that exalts himself shall be humbled, and he that humbles himself shall be exalted. 'Truly I say to you, that Satan became not reprobate for any other sin than for his pride. Even as says the prophet Isaiah;, reproaching him with these words: "How are you fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, that were the beauty of the angels, and did shine like the dawn: truly to earth is fallen your pride!" 'Truly I say to you, that if a man knew his miseries, he would always weep here on earth and account himself most mean, beyond every other thing. For no other cause did the first man with his wife weep for a hundred years without ceasing, craving mercy of God. For they knew truly where they had fallen through their pride." And having said this, Jesus gave thanks; and that day it was published through Jerusalem how great things Jesus had said, with the miracle he had wrought, insomuch that the people gave thanks to God blessing his holy name. But the scribes and priests, having understood that he spoke against the traditions of the elders, were kindled with greater hatred. And like Pharaoh they hardened their heart: wherefore they sought occasion to slay him, but found it not.
Jesus departed from Jerusalem, and went to the desert beyond Jordan: and his disciples that were seated round him said to Jesus: "O master, tell us how Satan fell through pride, for we have understood that he fell through disobedience, and because he always tempts man to do evil." Jesus answered: "God having created a mass of earth, and having left it for twenty-five thousand years without doing aught else; Satan, who was as it were priest and head of the angels, by the great understanding that he possessed, knew that God of that mass of earth was to take one hundred and forty and four thousand signed with the mark of prophecy, and the Messenger of God, the soul of which messenger he had created sixty thousand years before aught else;. Therefore, being indignant, he instigated the angels, saying: "Look you, one day God shall will that this earth be revered by us. Wherefore consider that we are spirit, and therefore it is not fitting so to do." Many therefore forsook God. Whereupon said God, one day when all the angels were assembled: "Let each one that holds me for his lord straightway do reverence to this earth." They that loved God bowed themselves, but Satan, with them that were of his mind, said: "O Lord, we are spirit, and therefore it is not just that we should do reverence to this clay;." Having said this, Satan became horrid and of fearsome look, and his followers became hideous; because for their rebellion God took away from them the beauty wherewith he had endued them in creating them. Whereat the holy angels, when, lifting their heads, they saw how terrible a monster Satan; had become, and his followers, cast down their face to earth in fear. Then said Satan: "O Lord, you have unjustly made me hideous, but I am content thereat, because I desire to annul all that You shall do. And the other devils said: "Calf him not Lord, O Lucifer;, for you are Lord." Then said God to the followers of Satan: "Repent you, and recognize me as God, your creator." They answered: "We repent of having done you any reverence, for that You are not just; but Satan is just. Then said God: "Depart from me, O you cursed, for I have no mercy on you." And in his departing Satan spat up that mass of earth, And that spittle the angel Gabriel lifted up with some earth, so that therefore now man has the navel in his belly."
The disciples stood in great amazement at the rebellion of the angels. Then Jesus said: "Truly I say to you, that he who makes not prayer is more wicked than Satan, and shall suffer greater torments. Because Satan had, before his fall, no example of fearing, nor did God so much as send him any prophet to invite him to repentance: but man now that all the prophets are come except the Messenger of God who shall come after me, because so God wills, and that I may Prepare his way and man, I say, albeit he have infinite examples of the justice of God, lives carelessly without any fear, as though there were no God. Even as of such spoke the prophet David;: "The fool has said in his heart, there is no God. Therefore are they corrupt and become abominable, without one of them doing good." Make prayer unceasingly, O my disciples' 'in order that you may receive. For he who seeks finds, and he who knocks to him it is opened, and he who asks receives. And in your prayer do not look to much speaking, for God looks on the heart; as he said through Solomon;: "O my servant, give me your heart." Truly I say to you, as God lives, the hypocrites make much prayer in every part of the city in order to be seen and held for saints by the multitude: but their heart is full of wickedness, and therefore they do not mean that which they ask. It is needful that you mean your prayer if you will that God receive it. Now tell me: who would go to speak to the Roman governor To Herod, except he first have made up his mind to whom he is going, and what he is going to do? Assuredly none. And if man does so in order to speak with man, what ought man to do in order to speak with God, and ask of him mercy for his sins, while thanking him for all that he has given him? Truly I say to you, that very few make true prayer, and therefore Satan has power over them, because God wills not those who honour him with their lips: who in the Temple ask [with] their lips for mercy, and their heart cries out for justice. Even as he says to Isaiah the prophet, saying: "Take away this people that is irksome to me, because with their lips they honour me, but their heart is far from me." Truly I say to you, that he that goes to make prayer without consideration mocks God. Now who would go to speak to Herod with his back towards him, and before him speak well of Pilate the governor, whom he hates to the death? Assuredly none. Yet no less does the man who goes to make prayer and prepares not himself. He turns his back to God and his face to Satan, and speaks well of him. For in his heart is the love of iniquity, whereof he has not repented. If one, having injured you, should with his lips say to you, "Forgive me,' and with his hands should strike you a blow, how would you forgive him? Even so shall God have mercy on those who with their lips say: "Lord, have mercy on us," and with their heart love iniquity and think on fresh sins."
The disciples wept at the 'words of Jesus and besought him, saying: "Lord, teach us to make prayer." Jesus answered: "Consider what you would do if the Roman governor seized you to put you to death, and that same do you when you go to make prayer. And let your words be these: "O Lord our God, hallowed be your holy name, your kingdom come in us, your will be done always, and as it is done in heaven so be it done in earth; give us the bread for every day, and forgive us our sins, as we forgive them that sin against us, and suffer us not to fall into temptations, but deliver us from evil, for you are alone our God, to whom pertains glory and honour forever."
Then answered John: "Master let us wash ourselves as God commanded by Moses." * Jesus said: "Do you think that I have come to destroy the Law and the prophets? Truly I say to you, as God lives, I have not come to destroy it, but rather to observe it. For every prophet has observed the Law of God and all that God by the other prophets has spoken. As God lives, in whose presence my soul stands, no one that breaks one least precept can be pleasing to God, but shall be least in the kingdom of God, for he shall have no part there. Moreover I say to you, that one syllable of the Law of God cannot be broken without the. Gravest sin. But I do you to wit that it is necessary to observe that which God says by Isaiah the prophet, with these words: "Wash you and be clean, take away your thoughts from my eyes.” Truly I say to you, that all the water of the sea will not wash him who with his heart loves iniquities. And furthermore I say to you, that no one will make prayer pleasing to God if he be not washed, but will burden his soul with sin like to idolatry. 'Believe me, in sooth, that if man should make prayer to God as is fitting, he would obtain all that he should ask. Remember Moses the servant of God, who with his prayer scourged Egypt, opened the Red Sea, and there drowned Pharaoh and his host. Remember Joshua, who made the sun stand still, Samuel, who smote with fear the innumerable host of the Philistines; , Elijah, who made the fire to rain from heaven, Elisha raised a dead man, and so many other holy prophets, who by prayer obtained all that they asked. But those men truly did not seek their own in their matters, but sought only God and his honour."
Then said John: "Well have you spoken, O master, but we lack to know how man sinned through pride." Jesus answered: "When God has expelled Satan, and the angel Gabriel had purified that mass of earth whereon Satan spat, God created everything that lives, both of the animals that fly and of them that walk and swim, and he adorned the world with all that it has. One day Satan approached to the gates of paradise, and, seeing the horses eating grass, he announced to them that if that mass of earth should receive a soul there would be for them grievous labour; and that therefore it would be to their advantage to trample that piece of earth in such wise that it should be no more good for anything. The horses aroused themselves and impetuously set themselves to run over that piece of earth which lay among lilies and roses; Whereupon God gave spirit to that unclean portion of earth upon which lay the spittle of Satan, which Gabriel had taken up from the mass; and raised up the dog, who, barking, filled the horses with fear, and they fled. Then God gave his soul to man, while all the holy angels sang: "Blessed be your holy name, O God our Lord." "Adam, having sprung upon his feet, saw in the air a writing that shone like the sun; which said: "There is only one God, and Muhammad is the Messenger of God." Whereupon Adam opened his mouth and said: "I thank you, O Lord my God, that you have deigned to create me; but tell me. I pray you, what means the message of these words: "Muhammad is Messenger of God. Have there been other men before me?" 'Then said God: "Be you welcome, O my servant Adam. I tell you that you are the first man whom I have created. And he whom you have seen [mentioned] is your son, who shall come into the world many years hence, and shall be my Messenger, for whom I have created all things; who shall give light to the world when he shall come; whose soul was set in a celestial splendour; sixty thousand years before I made any. Thing." Adam besought God, saying: "Lord, grant me this writing upon the nails of the fingers of my hands." Then God gave to the first man upon his thumbs that writing; upon the thumb-nail of the right hand it said: "There is only one God;," and upon the thumb-nail of the left it said: "Muhammad is Messenger ;of God." Then with fatherly affection the first man kissed those words, and rubbed his eyes, and said: "Blessed be that day when you shall come to the world." Seeing the man alone, God said: "It is not well that he should remain alone." Wherefore he made him to sleep, and took a rib from near his heart, filling the place with flesh. * Of that rib made he Eve, and gave her to Adam for his wife. He set the twain of them as lords of Paradise, to whom he said: "Behold I give to you every fruit to eat, except the apples and the corn" whereof he said: "Beware that in no wise you eat of these fruits, for you shall become unclean, insomuch that I shall not suffer. You to remain here, but shall drive you forth, and you shall suffer great miseries."
When Satan had knowledge of this he became mad with indignation, and so he drew near to the gate of paradise where a horrid serpent with legs like a camel, and nails on his feet [that] cut like a razor on every side, stood on guard. The enemy said to him: 'Let me to enter into paradise.' The serpent answered: 'How shall I let you enter [since] God has commanded me to cast you out?' Satan answered: 'You see how much God loves you; he has set you outside of paradise to keep guard over a lump of clay, which is man! If you bring me into paradise I will make you so terrible that everyone shall flee you, and so you shall go and stay at your pleasure.' Then the serpent said: 'And how shall I set you within [paradise]?' Satan said, 'You are great: therefore, open your mouth, and I will enter into your belly, and so [when] you enter into paradise [you] shall place me near to those two lumps of clay that are newly walking upon the earth.' Then the serpent did so, and placed Satan near Eve, for Adam, her husband, was sleeping. Satan presented himself before the woman like a beauteous angel, and said to her: 'Why do you not eat of those apples and corn?' Eve answered: 'Our God has said to us that [if we] eat [them] we shall be unclean, and he will drive us from paradise.' Satan answered: 'He does not speak the truth! You must know that God is wicked and envious, and suffers no equals, but keeps every one as a slave. [This is] why he has said this [to you]; in order that you may not become equal to him. But if you and your companion do according to my counsel, you shall eat of those fruits as [you eat] of the other [fruits], and you shall not remain subject to others but like God you shall know good and evil, and you shall do whatever you please, because you shall be equal to God.' Then Eve took and ate of those [fruits], and when her husband awoke she told [him everything] that Satan had said; and he took and ate the fruit [when] his wife offered them to him. But, as the food was going down, he remembered the words of God, and, wishing to stop the food, he put his hand into his throat, where every man has the mark.
Then both of them knew that they were naked, and, being ashamed, they took fig leaves and made a clothing for their secret parts. When midday was passed, God appeared to them, and called Adam, saying: 'Adam, where are you?' He answered: 'Lord, I hid myself from your presence because my wife and I are naked, and so we are ashamed to present ourselves before you.' Then God said: 'And who has robbed you of your innocence, unless you have eaten the fruit [that makes you] unclean, and will not be able to abide [any] longer in paradise?' Adam answered: 'O Lord, the wife whom you have given me [urged] me to eat [it] and so I have eaten it.' Then God said to the woman: 'Why did you give [this] food to your husband?' Eve answered: 'Satan deceived me, and so I ate [the fruit].' 'And how did that reprobate enter into [the garden]?' said God. Eve answered: 'A serpent that stands at the northern gate brought him near to me.' Then God said to Adam: 'because you have [listened to] your wife and have eaten the fruit, cursed be the earth in your works; it shall bring forth brambles and thorns for you, and you shall eat bread by the sweat of your face. Remember that you are earth, and to earth you return.' And he spoke to Eve, saying: 'and you who did [listen] to Satan, and gave the food to your husband, shall abide under the dominion of man, who shall keep you as a slave, and you shall bear children with travail.' And having called the serpent, God called the angel Michael, who holds the sword of God, [and] said: 'first drive this wicked serpent forth from paradise, and when outside cut off his legs: for if he wants to walk, he must trail his body upon the earth.' Afterwards God called Satan, who came laughing, and he said to him: 'Because you, reprobate, have deceived [Adam and Eve] and have made them unclean, I will that every uncleanness [from] them and [from] all their children - [of which] they shall be truly penitent and shall serve me - in going forth from their body shall enter through your mouth, and so shall you be satiated with uncleanness.' Satan then gave a horrible roar, and said: 'Since you will to make me [continually] worse, I will make me that which I shall be able!' Then said God: 'Depart, cursed one, from my presence!' Then Satan departed, and God said to Adam [and] Eve, who were both weeping: 'Go forth from paradise, and do penance, and do not let your hope fail, for I will send your son so that your seed shall lift the dominion of Satan from off the human race: for I will give all things to he who shall come, my Messenger.' God hid himself [from Adam and Eve], and the angel Michael drove them forth from paradise. Then, Adam, turning around, saw written above the gate, there is only one God, and Muhammad is Messenger of God. Weeping, he said: 'May it be pleasing to God, O my son, that you come quickly and draw us out of misery.' And thus," said Jesus, "Satan and Adam sinned through pride, the one by despising man, the other by wishing to make himself equal with God."
Then the disciples wept after this discourse, and Jesus was weeping, when they saw many who came to find him, for the chiefs of the priests took counsel among themselves to catch him in his talk. Wherefore they sent the Levites and some of the scribes to question him, saying: "Who are you?" Jesus confessed, and said the truth: "I am not the Messiah." They said: "Are you Elijah or Jeremiah, or any of the ancient prophets?" Jesus answered: "No." Then said they: "Who are you? Say, in order that we may give testimony to those who sent us." Then Jesus said: "I am a voice that cries through all Judea, and cries: "Prepare you the way for the messenger of the Lord," even as it is written in Esaias;" They said: "If you be not the Messiah nor Elijah, or any prophet, wherefore do you preach new doctrine, and make yourself of more account than the Messiah?" Jesus answered: "The miracles which God works by my hands show that I speak that which God wills; nor indeed do I make myself to be accounted as him of whom you speak. For I am not worthy to unloose the ties of the hosen or the ratchets of the shoes of the Messenger of God whom you call "Messiah," who was made before me, and shall come after me, and shall bring the words of truth, so that his faith shall have no end." The Levites and scribes departed in confusion, and recounted all to the chiefs of the priests, who said: "He has the devil on his back who recounts all to him." Then Jesus said to his disciples: "Truly I say to you, that the chiefs and the elders of our people seek occasion against me." Then said Peter: "Therefore go not you any more into Jerusalem." Therefore said Jesus to him: "You are foolish, and know not what you say, for it is necessary that I should suffer many persecutions, because so have suffered all the prophets and holy one of God. But fear not, for there be that are with us and there be that are against us." And having said this, Jesus departed and went to the mount Tabor, and there ascended with him Peter; and James ;and John ;his brother, with him who writes this. Whereupon there shone a great light above him, and his garments became white like snow and his face glistened as the sun; and lo! There came Moses and Elijah; speaking with Jesus concerning all that needs must come upon our race and upon the holy city. Peter spoke, saying: "Lord, it is good to be here. Therefore, if you will, we will make here three tabernacles, one for you and one for Moses and the other for Elijah." And while he spoke they were covered with a white cloud, and they heard a voice saying: "Behold my servant, in whom I am well pleased; hear you him." The disciples were filled with fear, and fell with their face upon the earth as dead. Jesus went down and raised up his disciples, saying: "Fear not, for God loves you, and has done this in order that you may believe on my words."
Accordingly Jesus said: "Everyone that works works for an end in which he finds satisfaction. Wherefore I say to you that God, truly because he is perfect, has not need of satisfaction, seeing that he has satisfaction himself. And so, willing to work, he created before all things the soul of his Messenger, for whom he determined to create the whole, in order that the creatures should find joy and blessedness in God, whence his Messenger should take delight in all his creatures, which he has appointed to be his slaves. And wherefore is this, so save because thus he has willed? Truly I say to you, that every prophet when he is come has borne to one nation only the mark of the mercy of God. And so their words were not extended save to that people to which they were sent. But the Messenger of God, when he shall come, God shall give to him as it were the seal of his hand, insomuch that he shall carry salvation and mercy to all the nations of the world that shall receive his doctrine. He shall come with power upon the ungodly, and shall destroy idolatry, insomuch that he shall make Satan confounded; for so promised God to Abraham, saying: "Behold, in your seed I will bless all the tribes of the earth; and as you have broken in pieces the Idols, O Abraham; even so shall your seed do." James answered: "O master, tell us in whom this promise was made; for the Jews say "in Isaac," and the Ishmaelites say "in Ishmael;" Jesus answered: David, whose son was he, and of what lineage?" James answered: "Of Isaac; for Isaac was father of Jacob, and Jacob was father of Judah, of whose lineage is David." Then Jesus said: "And the Messenger of God when he shall come, of what lineage will he be?" The disciples answered: "Of David." Whereupon Jesus said: "You deceive yourselves; for David in spirit calls him lord, saying thus: God said to my lord, sit you on my right hand until I make your enemies your footstool. God shall send forth your rod which shall have lordship in the midst of your enemies. If the Messenger of God whom you call Messiah were son of David, how should David call him lord? Believe me, for truly I say to you, that the promise was made in Ishmael, not in Isaac."
The disciples said: "O master, it is written in the Book of Moses, that the promise was made in Isaac." Jesus answered with a groan: "It is so written, but Moses did not write it, nor Joshua, but rather our rabbins, who do not fear God! Truly I say to you, that if you consider the words of the angel Gabriel, you shall discover the malice of our scribes and doctors. For the angel said: "Abraham, all the world shall know how God loves you; but how shall the world know the love That you bear to God? Assuredly it is necessary that you do something for love of God." Abraham answered: 'Behold the servant of God, ready to do all that which God shall will.' Then spoke God, saying to Abraham: "Take your son, your firstborn Ishmael; and come up the mountain to sacrifice him." How is Isaac firstborn, if when Isaac was born Ishmael was seven years old? Then said the disciples: "Clear is the deception of our doctors: therefore tell us you the truth, because we know that you are sent from God." Then answered Jesus: "Truly I say to you, that Satan ever seeks to annul the laws of God; and therefore he with his followers, hypocrites and evil-doers, the former with false doctrine, the latter with lewd living, today have contaminated almost all things, so that scarcely is the truth found. Woe to the hypocrites! For the praises of this world shall turn for them into insults and torments in hell. "I therefore say to you that the Messenger of God is a splendour that shall give gladness to nearly all that God has made, for he is adorned with the spirit of understanding and of counsel, the spirit of wisdom and might, the spirit of fear and love, the spirit of prudence and temperance, he is adorned with the spirit of charity and mercy, the spirit of justice and Piety, the spirit of gentleness and patience, which he has received from God three times more than he has given to all his creatures. O blessed time, when he shall come to the world! Believe me that I have seen him and have done. Him reverence, even as every prophet has seen him: seeing that of his spirit God gives to them prophecy. And when I saw him my soul was filled with consolation, saying: "O Muhammad;, God be with you, and may he make me worthy to untie, your shoe latchet; for obtaining this I shall be a great prophet and holy one of God." And having said this, Jesus rendered his thanks to God.
Then came the angel Gabriel to Jesus, and spoke to him in such wise that we also heard his voice, which said: "Arise, and go to Jerusalem!" Accordingly Jesus departed and went up to Jerusalem. And on the Sabbath day he entered into the Temple;, and began to teach the people. Whereupon the people ran together to the Temple with the high priest and priests, who drew near to Jesus, saying: "O master, it has been said to us that you say evil of us; therefore beware lest Some evil befall you." Jesus answered: "Truly I say to you, that I speak evil of the hypocrites; therefore if you be hypocrites I speak against you." They answered: "Who is a hypocrite? Tell us plainly." Jesus said: "Truly I say to you, that he who does a good thing in order that men may see him, even he is a hypocrite, forasmuch as his work penetrates not the heart which men cannot see, and so leaves therein every unclean thought and every filthy lust. Know you who is hypocrite? He who with his tongue serves God, but with his heart serves men. O wretched man! For dying he loses all his reward. For on this matter says the prophet David: "Put not your confidence in princes, [nor] in the children of men, in whom is no salvation; for at death their thoughts perish": no, before death they find themselves deprived of reward, for "man is," as said Job the prophet of God, "unstable, so that he never continues in one stay." So that if today he praises you, tomorrow he will abuse you, and if today he wills to reward you, tomorrow he will be fain to despoil you. Woe, then, to the hypocrites, because their reward is vain. As God lives, in whose presence I stand, the hypocrite is a robber and commits sacrilege, inasmuch as he makes use of the Law to appear good, and thieves the honour of God, to whom alone pertains praise and honour for ever. Furthermore I say to you, that the hypocrite has not faith, forasmuch as if he believed that God sees all and with terrible judgment would punish wickedness; he would purify his heart, which, because he has not faith, he keeps full of iniquity. Truly I say to you, that the hypocrite is as a sepulchre, that [on the outside] is white, but within is full of corruption and worms. So then if you, O priests, do the service of God because God has created you and asks it of you, I speak not against you, for you are servants of God; but if you do all for gain, and so buy and sell in the Temple as in a market-place, not regarding that the Temple of God is a house of prayer and not of merchandise, which you convert into a cave of robbers: if you do all to please men, and have put God out of your mind; then cry I against you that you are sons of the devil, and not sons of Abraham, who left his father's house for love of God, and was willing to slay his own son. Woe to you, priests and doctors, if you be such, for God will take away from you the priesthood!"
Again spoke Jesus, saying: "I set before you an example. There was a householder who planted a vineyard, and made a hedge for it in order that it should not be trampled down of beasts. And in the midst of it he built a press for the wine, and thereupon let it out to husbandman. Whereupon, when the time was come to collect the wine he sent his servants; whom when the husbandman saw, they stoned some and burned some, and others they ripped open with a knife. And this they did many times. Tell me, what will the lord of the vineyard do to the husbandmen" Every one answered: "In evil wise will he make them to perish, and his vineyard will he give to other husbandman." Therefore said Jesus: "Know you not that the vineyard is the House of Israel, and the husbandman are the people of Judah and Jerusalem? Woe to you; for God is wroth with you, having ripped open so many prophets of God; so that at the time of Ahab; there was not found one to bury the holy ones of God!" And when he had said this the chief priests wished to seize him, but they feared the common people, which magnified him. Then Jesus, seeing a woman who from her birth had remained with her head bent toward the ground, said: "Raise your head, O woman, in the name of our God, in order that these may know that I speak truth, and that he wills that I announce it." Then the woman raised herself up whole, magnifying God. The chief of the priests cried out, saying: "This man is not sent of God, seeing he keeps not the Sabbath; for today he has healed an infirm person." Jesus answered: "Now tell me, is it not lawful to speak on the Sabbath day, and to make prayer for the salvation of others? And who is there among you who, if on the Sabbath his ass or his ox fell into the ditch, would not pull him out on the Sabbath? Assuredly none. And shall I then have broken the Sabbath day by having given health to a daughter of Israel? Surely, here is known your hypocrisy! Oh, how many are there today that fear the smiting of a straw in another's eye, while a beam is ready to cut off their own head! Oh, how many there are that fear an ant, but reck not of an elephant!" And having said this, he went forth from the Temple;. But the priests chafed with rage among themselves, because they were not able to seize him and to work their will upon him, even as their fathers have done against the holy ones of God.
Jesus went down, in the second year of his prophetic ministry, from Jerusalem, and went to Nain. Whereupon, as he drew near to the gate of the city, the citizens were bearing to the sepulchre the only son of his mother, a widow, over whom everyone was weeping. Whereupon, when Jesus had arrived, the men understood how that Jesus, a prophet of Galilee;, was come: and so they set themselves to beseech him for the dead man, that he being a prophet should raise him up; which also his disciples did. Then Jesus feared greatly, and turning himself to God, said: "Take me from the world, O Lord, for the world is mad, and they well near call me God!” And having said this, he wept. Then came the angel Gabriel, and said: "O Jesus, fear not, for God has given you power over every infirmity, insomuch that all that you shall grant in the name of God shall be entirely accomplished." Hereupon Jesus gave a sigh, saying: "Thy will be done, Lord God almighty and merciful. And having said this, he drew near to the mother of the dead, and with pity said to her: "Woman, weep not." And having taken the hand of the dead, he said: "I say to you, young man, in the name of God arise up healed!" Then the boy revived, whereupon all were filled with fear, saying: "God has raised up a great prophet amongst us, and he has visited his people."
At that time the army of the Romans was in Judea, our country being subject to them for the sins of our forefathers. Now it was the custom of the Romans to call god and to worship him that did any new thing of benefit to the common people. And so [some] of these soldiers finding themselves in Nain, they rebuked now one, now another, saying: "One of your gods has visited you, and you make no account of it. Assuredly if our gods should visit us we would give them all That we have. And you see how much we fear our gods, since to their images we give the best of all we have." Satan did so instigate this manner of speaking that he aroused no small sedition among the people of Nain." But Jesus did not tarry in Nain, but turned to go into Capernaum. The discord of Nain was such that some said: "He is our God who has visited us"; others said: "God is invisible, so that none has seen him, not even Moses, his servant; therefore it is not God, but rather his son." Others said: "He is not God, nor son of God, for God has not a body to beget anything; but he is a great prophet of God." And so did Satan instigate that, in the third year of the prophetic ministry of Jesus, great ruin to our people was like to arise therefrom. Jesus went into Capernaum: whereupon the citizens, when they knew him, assembled together all the sick folk they had, and placed them in front of the porch of the house where Jesus was lodging with his disciples. And having called Jesus forth, they besought him for the health of them. Then Jesus laid his hands upon each of them, saying: "God of Israel, by your holy name, give health to this sick person." Whereupon each one was healed. On the Sabbath Jesus entered into the synagogue, and all the people ran there together to hear him speak.
The scribe that day read the psalm of David, where says David: When I shall find a time, I will judge uprightly. Then, after the reading of the prophets, arose Jesus, and made sign of silence with his hands, and opening his mouth he spoke thus: "Brethren, you have heard the words spoken by David the prophet, our father, that when he should have found a time he would judge uprightly. I tell you in truth that many judge, in which judgment they fall for no other reason than Because they judge that which is not meet for them, and that which is meet for them they judge before the time. Wherefore the God of our fathers cries to us by his prophet David, saying: Justly judge, O sons of men. Miserable therefore are those who set themselves at street corners, and do nothing but judge all those who pass by, saying: "That one is fair, this one is ugly, that one is good, this one is bad." Woe to them, because they lift the sceptre of his judgment from the hand of God, who says: "I am witness and judge, and my honour I will give to none.'" Truly I tell you that these testify of that which they have not seen nor really heard, and judge without having been constituted judges. Therefore are they abominable on the earth before the eyes of God, who will pass tremendous judgment upon them in the last day. Woe to you, woe to you who speak good of the evil, and call the evil good, for you condemn as a malefactor God, who is the author of good, and justify as good Satan, who is the origin of all evil. Consider what punishment you shall have, and that it is horrible to fall into the judgment of God, which shall be then upon those who justify the wicked for money, and judge not the cause of the orphans and widows. Truly I say to you, that the devils shall tremble at the judgment of such, so terrible shall it be. You man who are set as a judge, regard no other thing; neither kinsfolk nor friends, neither honour nor gain, but look solely with fear of God to the truth, which you shall seek with greatest diligence, because it will secure you in the judgment of God. But I warn you that without mercy shall he be judged who judges without mercy."
Tell me, O man, you that judge another man, do you not know that all men had their origin in the same clay? Do you not know that none is good save God alone? Wherefore every man is a liar and a sinner. Believe me man, that if you judge others of a fault your own heart has whereof to be judged. Oh, how dangerous it is to judge! Oh, how many have perished by their false judgment! Satan judged man to be more vile than himself; therefore he rebelled against God, his creator: whereof he is impenitent, as I have knowledge by speaking with him. Our first parents judged the speech of Satan to be good, therefore they were cast out of paradise, and condemned all their progeny. Truly I say to you, as God lives in whose presence I stand, false judgment is the father of all sins. Forasmuch as none sins without will, and none wills that which he does not know. Woe, therefore, to the sinner who with the judgment judges sin worthy and goodness unworthy, who on that account rejects goodness and chooses sin. Assuredly he shall bear an intolerable punishment when God shall come to judge the world. Oh, how many have perished through false judgment, and how many have been near to perishing! Pharaoh judged Moses and the people of Israel to be impious, Saul judged David to be worthy of death, Ahab judged Elijah, Nebuchadnezzar the three children who would not worship their lying gods. The two elders judged Susanna, and all the idolatrous princes judged the prophets. Oh, tremendous judgment of God! The judge perishes, the judged is saved. And wherefore this, O man, if not because [in] rashness they falsely judge the innocent? How nearly then the good approached to ruin by judging falsely, is shown by the brethren of Joseph, who sold him to the Egyptians, by Aaron and Miriam, sister of Moses, who judged their brother. Three friends of Job; judged the innocent friend of God, Job. David judged Mephibosheth and Uriah. Cyrus judged Daniel to be meat for the lions; and many others, the which were near to their ruin for this. Therefore I say to you, Judge not and you shall not be judged." And then, Jesus having finished his speech, many forthwith were converted to repentance, bewailing their sins; and they would fain have forsaken all to go with him. But Jesus said: "Remain in your homes, and forsake sin and serve God with fear, and thus shall you be saved; because I am not come to receive service, but rather to serve." And having said thus, he went out of the synagogue and the city, and retired into the desert to pray, because he loved solitude greatly.
When he had prayed to the Lord, his disciples came to him and said: "O master, two things we would know; one is, how you talked with Satan, who nevertheless you say is impenitent; the other is, how God shall come to judge in the day of judgment.' Jesus replied: "Truly I say to you I had compassion on Satan, knowing his fall; and I had compassion on mankind whom he tempts to sin. Therefore I prayed and fasted to our God, who spoke to me by his angel Gabriel: "What seek you, O Jesus, and what is your request?" I answered: "Lord, you know of what evil Satan is the cause, and that through his temptations many perish; he is your creature, Lord, whom you did create; therefore, Lord, have mercy upon him." God answered: "Jesus, behold I will pardon him. Only cause him to say, "Lord, my God, I have sinned, have mercy upon me," and I will pardon him and restore him to his first state." 'I rejoiced greatly," said Jesus, when I heard this, believing that I had made this peace. Therefore I called Satan, who came, saying: "What must I do for you, O Jesus?” I answered: "You shall do it for yourself, O Satan, for I love not your services, but for your good have I called you." Satan replied: "If you desire not my services neither desire I yours; for I am nobler than you, therefore you are not worthy to serve me you who are clay, while I am spirit." "Let us leave this," I said, "and tell me if it were not well you should return to your first beauty and your first state. You must know that the angel Michael must needs on the day of judgment strike you with the sword of God one hundred thousand times, and each blow will give you the pain of ten hells." Satan replied: "We shall see in that day who can do most; certainly I shall have on my side many angels and most potent idolaters who will trouble God, and he shall know how great a mistake he made to banish me for the sake of a vile [piece of ] clay." Then I said: "O Satan, you are infirm in mind, and know not what you say." Then Satan, in a derisive manner wagged his head, saying: "Come now; let us make up this peace between me and God; and what must be done say you, O Jesus, since you are sound in mind." I answered: "Two words only need be spoken." Satan replied: "What words?" I answered: "These: I have sinned; have mercy on me." Then Satan said: "Now willingly will I make this peace if God will say these words to me." "Now depart from me," I said, "O cursed one, for you are the wicked author of all injustice and sin, but God is just and without any sin." Satan departed shrieking, and said: "It is not so, O Jesus, but you tell a lie to please God." Now consider," said Jesus to his disciples, "how he will find mercy. They answered: "Never, Lord, because he is impenitent. Speak to us now of the judgment of God."
The judgment day of God will be so dreadful that, truly I say to you, the reprobates would sooner choose ten hells than go to hear God speak in wrath against them against whom all things created will witness. Truly I say to you, that not alone shall the reprobates fear, but the saints and the elect of God, so that Abraham shall not trust in his righteousness, and Job shall have no confidence in his innocence. And what say I? Even the Messenger of God shall fear, for that God, to make known his majesty, shall deprive his Messenger of memory, so that he shall have no remembrance how that God has given him all things. Truly I say to you that, speaking from the heart, I tremble because by the world I shall be called God, and for this I shall have to render an account. As God lives, in whose presence my soul stands, I am a mortal man as other men are, for although God has placed me as prophet over the House of Israel for the health of the feeble and the correction of sinners, I am the servant of God, and of this you are witness, how I speak against those wicked men who after my departure from the world shall annul the truth of my gospel by the operation of Satan. But I shall return towards the end, and with me shall come Enoch and Elijah, and we will testify against the wicked, whose end shall be accursed." And having thus spoken, Jesus shed tears, whereat his disciples wept aloud, and lifted their voices, saying: "Pardon O Lord God, and have mercy on your innocent servant." Jesus answered: "Amen, Amen."
"Before that day shall come," said Jesus, "great destruction shall come upon the world, for there shall be war so cruel and pitiless that the father shall slay the son, and the son shall slay the father by reason of the factions of peoples. Wherefore the cities shall be annihilated, and the country shall become desert. Such pestilences shall come that none shall be found to bear the dead to burial, so that they shall be left as food for beasts. To those who remain upon the earth God shall send such scarcity that bread shall be valued above gold, and they shall eat all manner of unclean things. O miserable age, in which scarce any one shall be heard to say: "I have sinned, have mercy on me, O God"; but with horrible voices they shall blaspheme him who is glorious and blessed forever. After this, as that day draws near, for fifteen days, shall come every day a horrible sign over the inhabitants of the earth. The first day the sun shall run its course in heaven without light, but black as the dye of cloth; and it shall give groans, as a father who groans for a son near to death. The second day the moon shall be turned into blood, and blood shall come upon the earth like dew. The third day the stars shall be seen to fight among themselves like an army of enemies. The fourth day the stones and rocks shall dash against each other as cruel enemies. The fifth day every plant and herb shall weep blood. The sixth day the sea shall rise without leaving its place to the height of one hundred and fifty cubits, and shall stand all day like a wall. The seventh day it shall on the contrary sink so Low as scarcely to be seen. The eighth day the birds and the animals of the earth and of the water shall gather themselves close together, and shall give forth roars and cries. The ninth day there shall be a hailstorm so horrible that it shall kill [such] that scarcely the tenth part of the living shall escape. The tenth day shall come such horrible lightning and thunder [such] that the third part of the mountains shall be split and scorched. The eleventh day every river shall run backwards, and shall run blood and not water. The twelfth day every created thing shall groan and cry. The thirteenth day the heaven shall be rolled up like a book, and it shall rain fire, so that every living thing shall die. The fourteenth day there shall be an earthquake so horrible that the tops of the mountains shall fly through the air like birds, and all the earth shall become a plain. The fifteenth day the holy angels shall die, and God alone shall remain alive; to whom be honour and glory." And having said this, Jesus smote his face with both his hands, and then smote the ground with his head. And having raised his head, he said: "Cursed be everyone who shall insert into my sayings that I am the son of God." At these words the disciples fell down as dead, whereupon Jesus lifted them up, saying: 'Let us fear God now, if we would not be affrighted in that day.'
When these signs be passed, there shall be darkness over the world forty years, God alone being alive, to whom be honour and glory forever. When the forty years have passed, God shall give life to his Messenger, who shall rise again like the sun, but resplendent as a thousand suns. He shall sit, and shall not speak, for he shall be as it were beside himself. God shall raise again the four angels favoured of God, who shall seek the Messenger of God, and, having found him, shall Station themselves on the four sides of the place to keep watch upon him. Next shall God give life to all the angels, who shall come like bees circling round the Messenger of God. Next shall God give life to all his prophets, who, following Adam, shall go everyone to kiss the hand of the Messenger of God, committing themselves to his protection. Next shall God give life to all the elect, who shall cry out: "O Muhammad be mindful of us!" At whose cries pity shall awake in the Messenger of God, and he shall consider what he ought to do, fearing for their salvation. Next shall God give life to every created thing and they shall return to their former existence, but every one shall besides possess the power of speech. Next shall God give life to all the reprobates, at whose resurrection, by reason of their hideousness, all the creatures of God shall be afraid, and shall cry: "Let not your mercy forsake us, O Lord our God." After this shall God cause Satan; to be raised up, at whose aspect every creature shall be as dead, for fear of the horrid form of his appearance. May it please God," said Jesus, "that I behold not that monster on that day. The Messenger of God alone shall not be affrighted by such shapes, because he shall fear God only. "Then the angel, at the sound of whose trumpet all shall be raised, shall sound his trumpet again, saying: "Come to the judgment, O creatures, for your Creator wills to judge you." Then shall appear in the midst of heaven over the valley of Jehoshaphat; a glittering throne over which shall come a white cloud, whereupon the angels shall cry out: "Blessed be you our God, who has created us and saved us from the fall of Satan." Then the Messenger; of God shall fear, for that he shall perceive that none has loved God as he should. For he who would get in change a piece of gold must have sixty mites; wherefore, if he have but one mite he cannot change it. But if the Messenger of God shall fear, what shall the ungodly do who are full of wickedness?"
The Messenger of God shall go to collect all the prophets, to whom he shall speak praying them to go with him to pray God for the faithful. And every one shall excuse himself for fear; nor, as God lives, would I go there, knowing what I know. Then God, seeing this, shall remind his Messenger how he created all things for love of him, and so his fear shall leave him, and he shall go near to the throne with love and reverence, while the angels sing: "Blessed be your holy name O God, our God." And when he has drawn near to the throne, God shall open [his mind] to his Messenger, even as a friend to a friend when for a long while they have not met. The first to speak shall be the Messenger of God, who shall say: "I adore and love you, O my God, and with all my heart and soul I give you thanks for that you did vouchsafe to create me to be your servant, and made all for love of me, so that I might love you for all things and in all things and above all things; therefore let all your creatures praise you, O my God." Then God shall say: "We give you thanks, O Lord, and bless your holy name." Truly I say to you, the demons and reprobates with Satan shall then weep so that more water shall flow from the eyes of one of them than is in the river of Jordan. Yet shall they not see God "And God shall speak to his Messenger, saying: "You are welcome, O my faithful servant; therefore ask what you will, for you shall obtain all." The Messenger of God shall answer. "O Lord, I remember that when you did create me, you said that you had willed to make for love of me the world and paradise, and angels and men, that they might glorify you by me your servant. Therefore, Lord God, merciful and just. I pray you that you recollect your promise made to your servant." And God shall make answer even as a friend who jests with a friend, and shall say: 'Have you witnesses of this, my friend Muhammad?' And with reverence he shall say: "Yes, Lord." Then God shall answer: "Go, call them, O Gabriel;." The angel Gabriel shall come to the Messenger of God, and shall say: "Lord who are your 'witnesses?" The Messenger of God shall answer: "They are Adam;, Abraham, Ishmael;, Moses;, David;, and Jesus son of Mary.?" "Then shall the angel departs and he shall call the aforesaid witnesses, who with fear shall go thither. And when they are present God shall say to them: Remember you that which my Messenger affirms?" They shall reply: "What thing, O Lord?" God shall say: "That I have made all things for love of him, so that all things might praise me by him." Then every one of them shall answer: "There are with us three witnesses better than we are, O Lord." And God shall reply: "Who are these three witnesses?" Then Moses shall say: "The book that you gave to me is the first"; and David shall say: "The book that you gave to me is the second"; and he who speaks to you shall say: "Lord the whole world, deceived by Satan, that I was your son and your fellow, but the book that you gave me said truly that I am your servant; and that book confesses that which your Messenger affirms." Then shall the Messenger of God speak, and shall say: "Thus says the book that you gave me O Lord." And when the Messenger of God has said this, God shall speak, saying: ,All that I have now done, I have done in order that everyone should know how much I love you." And when he has thus spoken, God shall give to his Messenger a book, in which are written all the names of the elect of God. Wherefore every creature shall do reverence to God, saying: "To you alone O God, be glory and honour, because you have given us to your Messenger.
God shall open the book in the hand of his Messenger, and his Messenger reading therein shall call all the angels and prophets and all the elect, and on the forehead of each one shall be written the mark of the Messenger of God. And in the book shall be written the glory of paradise. Then shall each pass to the right hand of God; next to whom shall sit the Messenger of God. And the prophets shall sit near him, and the saints shall sit near the prophets, and the blessed near the saints, and the angel shall then sound the trumpet, and shall call Satan to judgment.
Then that miserable one shall come, and with greatest contumely shall be accused of every creature. Wherefore God shall call the angel Michael, who shall strike him one hundred thousand times with the sword of God. He shall strike Satan, and every stroke is heavy as ten hells, and he shall be the first to be cast into the abyss. The angel shall call his followers, and they shall in like manner be abused and accused. Wherefore the angel Michael, by commission from God, shall strike some a hundred times, some fifty, some twenty, some ten, some five. And then shall they descend into the abyss, because God shall say to them: "Hell is your dwelling-place, O cursed ones." After that shall be called to judgment all the unbelievers and reprobates, against whom shall first arise all creatures inferior to man, testifying before God how they have served these men, and how the same have outraged God and his creatures. And the prophets every one shall arise, testifying against them; wherefore they shall be condemned by God to infernal flames. Truly I say to you, that no idle lord or thought shall pass unpunished in that tremendous day. Truly I say to you, that the hair-shirt shall shine like the sun, and every louse a man shall have borne for love of God shall be turned into pearl. O, thrice and four times blessed are the poor, who in true poverty shall have served God from the heart, for in this world are they destitute of worldly cares, and shall therefore be freed from many sins, and in that day they shall not have to render an account of how they have spent the riches of the world, but they shall be rewarded for their patience and their poverty. Truly I say to you, that if the world knew his it would choose the hair-shirt sooner than purple, lice sooner than gold, fasts sooner than feasts. When all have been examined, God shall say to his Messenger: "Behold, O my friend, their wickedness, how great it has been, for I their creator did employ all created things in their service and in all things have they dishonoured me. It is most just, therefore, that I have no mercy on them." The Messenger of God shall answer:, "It is true, Lord, our glorious God, not one of your friends and servants could ask you to have mercy on them; no, I your servant before all ask justice against them." And he having said these words, all the angels and prophets, with all the elect of God no, why say I the elect? Truly I say to you, that spiders and flies, stones and sand shall cry out against the impious, and shall demand justice. Then shall God cause to return to earth every living soul inferior to man, and. he shall send the impious to hell. Who, in going, shall see again that earth, to which dogs and horses and other vile animals shall be reduced. Wherefore shall they say: "O Lord God, cause us also to return to that earth." But that which they ask shall not be granted to them."
While Jesus was speaking the disciples wept bitterly. And Jesus wept many tears. Then after he had wept, John spoke: "O master, we desire to know two things. The one is, how it is possible that the Messenger of God, who is full of mercy and pity, should have no pity on reprobates that day, seeing that they are of the same clay as himself? The other is, how is it to be understood that the sword of Michael is [as] heavy as ten hells? Is there more than one hell?" Jesus replied: "Have you not heard what David the prophet says, how the just shall laugh at the destruction of sinners, and shall deride him with these words, saying: I saw the man who put his hope in his strength and his riches, and forgot God. Truly, therefore, I say to you, that Abraham shall deride his father, and Adam [shall deride] all reprobate men: and this shall be because the elect shall rise again so perfect and united to God that they shall not conceive in their minds the small[est] thought against his justice. Each of them shall demand justice, and above all the Messenger of God. As God lives, in whose presence I stand, though now I weep for pity of mankind, on that day I shall demand justice without mercy against those who despise my words, and most of all against those who defile my gospel.
Hell is one, O my disciples, and in it the damned shall suffer punishment eternally. Yet has it seven rooms or regions, one deeper than the other, and he who goes to the deep shall suffer greater punishment. Yet my words [are] true concerning the sword of the angel Michael, for he that commits but one sin merits hell, and he that commits two sins merits two hells. Therefore in one hell the reprobates shall feel punishment as though they were in ten, or in a hundred or in a thousand; and the omnipotent God, through his power and by reason of his justice, shall cause Satan to suffer as though he were in ten hundred thousand hells, and the rest each one according to his wickedness." Then Peter answered: "O master, truly the justice of God is great, and today this discourse has made you sad; therefore, we pray you, rest, and tomorrow tell us what hell is like." Jesus answered: "O Peter, you tell me to rest; O Peter, you do not know what you say, [or] else you would not have spoken thus. Truly I say to you, that rest in this present life is the poison of piety and the fire which consumes every good work. Have you forgotten how Solomon, God's prophet, with all the prophets, has reproved sloth? It is true that he says: The idle will not work the soil for fear of the cold, therefore in summer shall he beg. [And for this reason] he said: All that your hand can do, do it without rest. And what says Job, the most innocent friend of God: As the bird is born to fly, man is born to work. Truly I say to you, I hate rest above all things."
Hell is one, and is contrary to paradise, as winter is contrary to summer, and cold to heat. Therefore, he who would describe the misery of hell must have seen the paradise of God's delights. O place accursed by God's justice for the malediction of the faithless and reprobate, of which Job, the friend of God, said: There is no order there, but everlasting fear! And Isaiah the prophet, against the reprobate, says: Their flame shall not be quenched nor their worm die. And David our father, weeping said: Then lightning and bolts and brimstone and great tempest shall rain upon them." O miserable sinners, how loathsome delicate meats, costly raiment, soft couches, and [the] concord of sweet song shall seem to them! How sick shall raging hunger, burning flames, scorching cinders, and cruel torments with bitter weeping make them!" And then Jesus uttered a lamentable groan, saying: "Truly, it is better never to have been formed than to suffer such cruel torments, for imagine a man suffering torments in every part of his body, who has no one to show him compassion, but is mocked by everyone; tell me, would not this be great pain?" The disciples answered: "The greatest." Then Jesus said: "This is a delight [in comparison] to hell. For I tell you in truth, that if God should place in one balance all the pain which all men have suffered in this world and shall suffer till the Day of Judgment, and in the other [balance] one single hour of the pain of hell, the reprobates would without doubt choose the worldly tribulations, for the worldly [tribulations] come from the hand of man, but the others from the hand of devils, who are utterly without compassion. O what cruel fire they shall give to miserable sinners! O what bitter cold, which yet shall not temper their flames! What gnashing of teeth and sobbing and weeping! For the Jordan has less water than the tears which shall flow from their eyes every moment. Their tongues shall curse all created things, with their. father and mother, and their Creator, who is blessed forever."
Having said this, Jesus washed himself, with his disciples, according to the Law of God written in the Book of Moses; and then they prayed. And the disciples, seeing [Jesus] sad did not speak at all to him that day, but each stood terror-struck at his words. Then Jesus, opening his mouth after the evening [prayer], said: * "What father of a family, if he knew that a thief meant to break into his house, would sleep? None surely; for he would watch and stand prepared to slay the thief. Do you not know then that Satan is as a roaring lion that goes about seeking whom he may devour. Thus he seeks to make man sin. Truly I say to you, that if man would act as the merchant he should have no fear in that day, because he would be well prepared. There was a man who gave money to his neighbours that they might trade with it, and the profit should be divided in a just proportion. And some traded well, so that they doubled the money. But some used the money in the service of the enemy of him who gave them the money, speaking evil of him. Tell me now; when the neighbour shall call the debtors to account how shall the matter go? Assuredly he will reward those who traded well, but against the others his anger shall vent itself in reproaches. And then he will punish them according to the Law. As God lives, in whose presence my soul stands, the neighbour is God, who has given to man all that he has, with life itself, so that, [man] living well in this world, God may have praise, and man the glory of paradise. For those who live well double their money by their example, because sinners, seeing their example, are converted to repentance; wherefore men who live well shall be rewarded with a great reward. But wicked sinners, who by their sins halve what God has given them, by their lives spent in the service of Satan the enemy of God, blaspheming God and giving offence to others tell me what shall be their punishment?" "It shall be without measure," said the disciples.
Then Jesus said: "He who would live well should take example from the merchant who locks up his shop, and selling guards it day and night with great diligence. And again the things which he buys he is fain to make a profit; for if he perceives that he will lose thereby he will not sell, no, not to his own brother. Thus then should you do; for in truth your soul is a merchant, and the body is the shop: wherefore what it receives from outside, through the senses, is bought and sold by it. And the money is love. See then that with your love you do not sell nor buy the small thought by which d work be all for you cannot profit. But let thought, speech, and love of God; for so shall you find safety in that day. Truly I say to you, that many make ablutions and go to pray, many fast and give alms, many study and preach to others, whose end is abominable before God; because they cleanse the body and not the heart, they cry with the mouth not with the heart; they abstain from meats, and fill themselves with sins; they give to others things not good for them, in order that they may be held good; they study that they may know to speak, not to work; they preach to others against that which they do themselves, and thus are condemned by their own tongue. As God lives, these do not know God with their hearts; for if they knew him they would love him; and since whatsoever a man has he has received it from God,, even so should he spend all for the love of God."
After certain days Jesus passed near to a city of the Samaritans; and they would not let him enter the city, nor would they sell bread to his disciples. Wherefore said James and John: "Master, may it please you that we pray God that he send down fire from heaven upon these people?" Jesus answered: "You know not by what spirit you are led, that you so speak. *Remember that God determined to destroy Nineveh because he did not find one who feared God in that city; the which was so wicked that God, having called Jonah; the prophet to send him to that city, he would fain for fear of the people have fled to Tarsus;, wherefore God caused him to be cast into the sea, and received by a fish and cast up near to Nineveh. And he preaching there, that people was converted to repentance, so that God had mercy on them. Woe to them that call for vengeance; for on themselves it shall come, seeing that every man has in himself cause for the vengeance of God. Now tell me, have you created this city with this people? O madmen that you are, assuredly no. For all creatures united together could not create a single new fly from nothing, and this it is to create. If the blessed God who has created this city now sustains it, why desire you to destroy it? Why did you not say: "May it please you, master, that we pray to the Lord our God that this people may be converted to penitence?" Assuredly this is the proper act of a disciple of mine, to pray to God for those who do evil. Thus did Abel when his brother Cain, accursed of God, slew him. Thus did Abraham; for Pharaoh; who took from him his wife and whom therefore, the angel of God did not slay, but only struck with infirmity. Thus did Zechariah when, by decree of the impious king, he was slain in the Temple. Thus did Jeremiah, Isaiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, and David, with all the friends of God and holy prophets. Tell me, if a brother were stricken with frenzy, would you slay him because he spoke evil and struck those who came near him? Assuredly you would not do so; but rather would you endeavour to restore his health with medicines suitable to his infirmity."
"As God lives, in whose presence my soul stands, a sinner is of infirm mind when he persecutes a man. For tell me, is there anyone who would break his head for the sake of tearing the cloak of his enemy? Now how can he be of sane mind who separates himself from God, the head of his soul, in order that he may injure the body of his enemy? "Tell me, O man, who is your enemy? Assuredly your body and everyone who praises you. Wherefore if you were of sane mind you would kiss the hand of those who revile you, and present gifts to those who persecute you and strike you much; because, O man because the more that for your sins you are reviled and persecuted in this life the less shall you be in the day of judgment. But tell me, O man, if the saints and prophets of God have been persecuted and defamed by the world even though they were innocent, what shall be da one to you, O sinner? And if they endured all with patience, praying for their persecutors, what shouldst you do, O man, who are worthy of hell? Tell me, O my disciples, do you not know that Shimei cursed the servant of God, David the prophet, and threw stones at him? Now what said David to those who would fain have killed Shimei? "What is it to you, O Joab, that you would kill Shimei? Let him curse me, for this is the will of God, who will turn this curse into a blessing." And thus it was; for God saw the patience of David and delivered him from the persecution of his own son, Absalom. Assuredly not a leaf stirs without the will of God. Wherefore, when you are in tribulation do not think of how much you have borne, nor of him who afflicts you; but consider how much for your sins you are worthy to receive at the hand of the devils of hell. You are angry with this city because it would not receive us, nor sell bread to us. Tell me; are these people your slaves? Have you given them this city? have you given them their corn? Or have you helped them to reap it? Assuredly no; for you are strangers in this land, and poor men. What thing is this then that you say?" The two disciples answered: "Lord, we have sinned; may God have mercy on us." And Jesus answered: "So be it."
The Passover drew near, so Jesus, with his disciples, went up to Jerusalem. And he went to the pool called Probatica. And the bath was so called because every day the angel of God troubled the water, and whoever first entered the water after its movement was cured of every kind of infirmity. For this reason a great number of sick persons remained beside the pool, which had five porticoes. And Jesus saw there an impotent man, who had been there thirty-eight years sick with a grievous infirmity. So Jesus, knowing this by divine inspiration, had compassion on the sick man, and said to him: "Do you want to be made whole?" The impotent man answered: "Sir, when the angel troubles the waters I do not have anyone to put me into it, but while I am coming [to the water] another steps down before me and enters." Then Jesus lifted up his eyes to heaven and said: "Lord our God, God of our fathers, have mercy upon this impotent man." And having said this, Jesus said: "In God's name, brother, be whole; rise and take up your bed." Then the impotent man arose, praising God, and carried his bed upon his shoulders, and went to his house praising God. Those who saw him cried: "It is the Sabbath day; it is not lawful for you to carry your bed." He answered: "He that made [me] whole said to me, 'Pick up your bed, and go your way to your home.'" Then asked they him: "Who is he?" He answered: "I do not know his name." So among themselves they said: "It must have been Jesus the Nazarene." Others said: "No, for [Jesus the Nazarene] is a holy one of God, whereas he who has done this thing is a wicked man, for he causes the Sabbath to be broken." And Jesus went into the Temple, and a great multitude drew near to him to hear his words [for which reason] the priests were consumed with envy.
One of them came to him, saying: "Good master, you teach well and truly; tell me therefore, what reward shall God give us in paradise?" Jesus answered: "You call me good, and do not know that God alone is good, even as Job, the friend of God, said: A child of a day old is not clean; yes, even the angels are not faultless in God's presence. Moreover he said: The flesh attracts sin, and sucks up iniquity even as a sponge sucks up water. The priest was silent, being confounded. And Jesus said: "Truly I say to you, nothing is more perilous than speech. For so said Solomon: Life and death are in the power of the tongue. " And he turned to his disciples, and said: "Beware of those who bless you, because they deceive you. With the tongue Satan blessed our first parents, but the outcome of his words was miserable. So did the sages of Egypt bless Pharaoh. So did Goliath bless the Philistines. So did four hundred false prophets bless Ahab; but false were their praises, so that the praised one perished with the praisers. Wherefore not without cause did God say by Isaiah the prophet: O My people, those that bless you deceive you. Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees! Woe to you, priests and Levites! Because you have corrupted the sacrifice of the Lord, so that those who come to sacrifice believe that God eats cooked flesh [in the manner of] a man.
For you say to them: 'Bring your sheep and bulls and lambs to the Temple of your God, and do not eat it all, but give to your God a share of that which he has given you'; and you do not tell them of the origin of sacrifice, that it is for a witness of the life granted to the son of our father Abraham, so that the faith and obedience of our father Abraham, with the promises made to him by God and the blessing given to him, should never be forgotten. But God says by Ezekiel the prophet: Remove from me these your sacrifices, your victims are abominable to me. For the time draws near when that shall be done of which our God spoke by Hosea the prophet, saying: I will call chosen the people not chosen. And as he says in Ezekiel the prophet: God shall make a new covenant with his people, not according to the covenant which he gave to your fathers, which they did not and he shall take from them a heart of stone, and give them a new heart" : and all this shall be because you do not walk now in his Law. And you have the key and do not open: rather you block the road for those who would walk in it." The priest was departing to report everything to the high priest, who stood near the sanctuary, but Jesus said: "Stay, for I will answer your question."
You ask me to tell you what God will give us in paradise. Truly I say to you that those who think of the wages do not love the master. A shepherd, who has a flock of sheep, when he sees the wolf coming, prepares to defend them; contrariwise, the hireling when he sees the wolf leaves the sheep and flees. As God lives, in whose presence I stand, if the God of our fathers were your God you would not have thought of saying: "What will God give me?" But you would have said, as did David his prophet: What shall I give to God for all that he has given to me? "I will speak to you by a parable that you may understand. There was a king who found by the wayside a man stripped by thieves; who had wounded him to death. And he had compassion on him, and commanded his slaves to bear that man to the city and tend him, and this they did with all diligence. And the king conceived a great love for the sick man, so that he gave him his own daughter in marriage, and made him his heir. Now assuredly this king was most merciful; but the man beat the slaves, despised the medicines, abused his wife, spoke evil of the king, and caused his vassals to rebel against him. And when the king required any service, he was wont to say: "What will the king give me as reward?" Now when the king heard this, what did he do to so impious a man?" They all replied: "Woe to him, for the king deprived him of all, and cruelly punished him." Then Jesus said: "O priests, and scribes, and Pharisees, and you high-priest that hear my voice, I proclaim to you what God has said to you by his prophet Isaiah: "I have nourished slaves and exalted them, but they have despised me." "The king is our God, who found Israel in this world full of miseries, and gave him therefore to his servants Joseph, Moses and Aaron, who tended him. And our God conceived such love for him that for the sake of the people of Israel he smote Egypt, drowned Pharaoh, and discomfited an hundred and twenty kings of the Canaanites and Madianites; he gave him his laws, making him heir of all that [land] wherein our people dwells. "But how does Israel bear himself? How many prophets has he slain; how many prophecies has he contaminated; how has he violated the Law of God: how many for that cause have departed from God and gone to serve idols, through your offence, O priests! And how do you dishonour God with your manner of life! And now you ask me: "What will God give us in paradise?" You ought to have asked me: What will be the punishment that God will give you in hell; and then what you ought to do for true penitence in order that God may have mercy on you: for this I can tell you, and to this end am I sent to you."
As God lives, in whose presence I stand, you will not receive adulation from me, but truth. Wherefore I say to you, repent and turn to God even as our fathers did after sinning, and harden not your heart. The priests were consumed with rage at this speech, but for fear of the common people they spoke not a word. And Jesus continued, saying: "O doctors, O scribes, O Pharisees, O priests, tell me. You desire horses like knights, but you desire not to go forth to war: you desire fair clothing like women, but you desire not to spin and nurture children; you desire the fruits of the field, and you desire not to cultivate the Earth; you desire the fishes of the sea, but you desire not to go a fishing; you desire honour as citizens, but you desire not the burden of the republic; and you desire tithes and first fruits as priests, but you desire not to serve God in truth. What then shall God do with you, seeing you desire here every good without any evil? Truly I say to you that God will give you a place where you will have every evil without any good." And when Jesus had said this, there was brought to him a demoniac who could not speak nor see, and was deprived of hearing. Whereupon Jesus, seeing their faith, raised his eyes to heaven and said: "Lord God of our fathers, have mercy on this sick man and give him health, in order that this people may know that you have sent me." And having said this Jesus commanded the spirit to depart, saying: "In the power of the name of God our Lord, depart, evil one, from the man. The spirit departed and the dumb man spoke, and saw with his eyes. Whereupon everyone was filled with fear, but the scribes said: "In the power of Beelzebub, prince of the demons, he casts out the demons." Then Jesus said: "Every kingdom divided against itself destroys itself, and house falls upon house. If in the power of Satan, Satan be cast out, how shall his kingdom stand? And if your sons cast out Satan with the scripture that Solomon the prophet gave them, they testify that I cast out Satan in the power of God. As God lives, blasphemy against the Holy Spirit is without remission in this and in the other world; because the wicked man of his own will reprobates himself, knowing the reprobation." And having said this Jesus went out of the Temple. And the common people magnified him, for they brought all the sick folk whom they could gather together, and Jesus having made prayer gave to all their health: whereupon on that day in Jerusalem the Roman soldiery, by the working of Satan, began to stir up the common people, saying that Jesus was the God of Israel, who was come to visit his people.
Jesus departed from Jerusalem after the Passover, and entered into the borders of Caesarea Philippi. Whereupon, the angel Gabriel having told him of the sedition which was beginning among the common people, he asked his disciples, saying: "What do men say of me?" They said: "Some say that you are Elijah, others Jeremiah, and others one of the old prophets." Jesus answered: "And you; what say you that I am?" Peter answered: "You are Christ, son of God." Then was Jesus angry, and with anger rebuked him, saying: "Be gone and depart from me, because you are the devil and seek to cause me offences And he threatened the eleven, saying: "Woe to you if you believe this, for I have won from God a great curse against those who believe this." And he was fain to cast away Peter; whereupon the eleven besought Jesus for him, who cast him not away, but again rebuked him saying: "Beware that never again you say such words, because God would reprobate you!" Peter wept and said: "Lord, I have spoken foolishly; beseech God that he pardon me." Then Jesus said: "If our God willed not to show himself to Moses his servant, nor to Elijah whom he so loved, nor to any prophet, will you think that God should show himself to this faithless generation? But know you not that God has created all things of nothing with one single word, and all men have had their origin out of a piece of clay? Now, how shall God have likeness to man? Woe to those who suffer themselves to be deceived of Satan!" And having said this, Jesus besought God for Peter, the eleven and Peter weeping, and saying: "So be it, so be it, O blessed Lord our God." Afterwards Jesus departed and went into Galilee, in order that this vain opinion which the common folk began to hold concerning him might be extinguished.
Jesus having arrived in his own country, it was spread through all the region of Galilee how that Jesus the prophet was come to Nazareth. Whereupon with diligence sought they the sick and brought them to him, beseeching him that he would touch them with his hands. And so great was the multitude that a certain rich man, sick of the palsy, not being able to get himself carried through the door, had himself carried up to the roof of the house in which Jesus was, and having caused the roof to be uncovered, had himself let down by sheets in front of Jesus. Jesus stood for a moment in hesitation, and then he said: "Fear not, brother, for your sins are forgiven you." Everyone was offended hearing this, and they said: "And who is this who forgives sins?" Then Jesus said: "As God lives, I am not able to forgive sins, nor is any man, but God alone forgives. But as servant of God I can beseech him for the sins of others: and so I have besought him for this sick man, and I am sure that God has heard my prayer. Wherefore, that you may know the truth, I say to this sick man: "In the name of the God of our fathers, the God of Abraham and his sons, rise up healed!"" And when Jesus had said this the sick man rose up healed, and glorified God. Then the common people besought Jesus that he would beseech God for the sick who stood outside. Whereupon Jesus went out to them, and, having lifted up his hands, said: "Lord God of hosts, the living God, the true God, the holy God, that never will die; having mercy upon them!" Whereupon every one answered: "Amen.". And this having been said, Jesus laid his hands upon the sick folk, and they all received their health. Thereupon they magnified God, saying: "God has visited us by his prophet, and a great prophet has God sent to us."
At night Jesus spoke in secret with his disciples, saying: "Truly I say to you that Satan desires to sift you as wheat; but I have besought God for you, and there shall not perish of you save he that lays snares for me." And this he said of Judas, because the angel Gabriel said to him how that Judas had hand with the priests, and reported to them all that Jesus spoke. With tears drew near to Jesus he who writes this saying: "O master, tell me, who is he that should betray you?" Jesus answered, saying: "O Barnabas, this is not the hour for you to know him, but soon will be wicked one reveal himself, because I shall depart from the world." Then wept the apostles, saying: "O master, wherefore will you forsake us? It is much better that we should die than be forsaken of you!" Jesus answered: "Let not your heart be troubled, neither be you fearful: for I have not created you, but God our creator who has created you will protect you. As for me, I am now come to the world to prepare the way for the Messenger of God, who shall bring salvation to the world. But beware that you be not deceived, for many false prophets shall come, who shall take my words and contaminate my gospel." Then said Andrew: "Master tell us some sign, that we may know him." Jesus answered: "He will not come in your time, but will come some years after you, when my gospel shall be annulled, insomuch that there shall be scarcely thirty faithful. At that time God will have mercy on the world, and so he will send his Messenger, over whose head will rest a white cloud, whereby he shall be known of one elect of God, and shall be by him manifested to the world. He shall come with great power against the ungodly, and shall destroy idolatry upon the earth. And it rejoices me because that through him our God shall be known and glorified, and I shall be known to be true; and he will execute vengeance against those who shall say that I am more than man. Truly I say to you that the moon shall minister sleep to him in his boyhood, and when he shall be grown up he shall take her in his hands. Let the world beware of casting him out because he shall slay the idolaters, for many more were slain by Moses, the servant of God, and Joshua, who spared not the cities which they burnt, and slew the children; for to an old wound one applies fire. "He shall come with truth more clear than that of all the prophets, and shall reprove him who use the world amiss. The towers of the city of our father shall greet one another for joy: and so when idolatry shall be seen to fall to the ground and confess me a man like other men, truly I say to you the Messenger of God shall be come."
"Truly I say to you, that if Satan shall try whether you be friends of God; because no one assails his own cities if Satan should have his will over you he would suffer you to glide at your own pleasure; but because he knows that you be enemies to him he will do every violence to make you perish. But fear not you, for he will be against you as a dog that is chained, because God has heard my prayer." John answered: "O master, not only for us, but for them that shall believe the gospel, tell us how the ancient tempter lays wait for man." Jesus answered: "In four ways tempts that wicked one. The first is when he tempts by himself, with thoughts. The second is when he tempts with words and deeds by means of his servants; the third is when he tempts with false doctrine; the fourth is when he tempts with false visions. Now how cautious ought men to be, and all the more according as he has in his favour the flesh of man, which loves sin as he who has fever loves water. Truly I say to you, that if a man fear God he shall have victory over all, as says David his prophet: "God shall give his angels charge over you, who shall keep your ways, so that the devil shall not cause you to stumble. A thousand shall fall on your left hand, and ten thousand on your right hand, so that they shall not come near you." "Furthermore, our God with great love promised to us by the same David to keep us, saying: "I give to you understanding, which shall teach you; and in your ways wherein you shall walk I will cause My eye to rest upon you." "But what shall I say? He has said by Isaiah: "Can a mother forget the child of her womb? But I say to you, that when she forget, I will not forget you." "Tell me, then, who shall fear Satan, having for guard the angels and for protection the living God? Nevertheless, it is necessary, as says the prophet Solomon, that "You, my son, that are come to fear the Lord, prepare your soul for temptations." Truly I say to you, that a man ought to do as the banker who examines money, examining his thoughts, that he sin not against God his creator."
There have been and are in the world men who hold not thought for sin [and] who are in the greatest error. Tell me, how [did] Satan sin? It is certain that he sinned in the thought he was more worthy than man. Solomon sinned in thinking to invite all the creatures of God to a feast, [so] a fish corrected him by eating all that he had prepared. Not without cause, our father David says, that to ascend in one's heart sets one in the valley of tears. And why does God cry by his prophet Isaiah, saying: Take away your evil thoughts from my eyes? And to what purpose [does] Solomon say, with all your keeping, keep your heart?" As God lives, in whose presence my soul stands, all [scripture speaks] against the evil thoughts with which sin is committed, for without thinking it is not possible to sin. Now tell me, when the husbandman plants the vineyard does he set the plants deep? Assuredly yes. Satan does [the same]. In planting sin [he] does not stop at the eye or the ear, but passes into the heart, which is God's dwelling, as Moses his servant, [said]: I will dwell in them, in order that they may walk in my Law. Now tell me, if Herod the king gave you a house to keep in which he desired to dwell, would you let Pilate, his enemy, enter there or place his goods in it? Surely not. Then how much less ought you let Satan enter into your heart, or place his thoughts [in your heart]. Our God has given you your heart to keep, which is his dwelling. Observe, therefore, [how] the banker considers [his] money. [He considers] whether the image of Caesar is right, whether the silver is good or false, and whether it is of due weight. He turns it over much in his hand. Ah, mad world! How prudent you are in your business; in the last day you will reprove and judge the servants of God of negligence and carelessness, for without doubt your servants are more prudent than the servants of God. Tell me, now, who is he who examines a thought as the banker a silver coin? No one."
Then said James: "O master, how is the examination of a thought like to [that of] a coin?" Jesus answered: "The good silver in the thought is piety, because every impious thought comes of the devil. The right image is the example of the holy ones and prophets, which we ought to follow; and the weight of the thought is the love of God by which all ought to be done. Whereupon the enemy will bring there impious thoughts against your neighbour, [thoughts] conformed to the world, to corrupt the flesh; [thoughts] of earthly love to corrupt the love of God." Bartholomew answered: "O master, what ought we to do to think little, in order that we may not! Fall into temptation?" Jesus answered: "Two things are necessary for you. The first is to exercise yourselves much, and the second is to talk little: for idleness is a sink wherein is gathered every unclean thought, and too much talking is a sponge which picks up iniquities. It is, therefore, necessary not only you’re working should hold the body occupied, but also that the soul be occupied with prayer. For it needs never to cease from prayer. "I tell you for an example: There was a man who paid ill, wherefore none that knew him would go to till his fields. Whereupon he, like a wicked man, said: 'I will go to the market-place to find idle ones who are doing nothing, and will therefore come to till my vines.' This man went forth from his house, and found many strangers who were standing in idleness, and had no money. To them he spoke, and led them to his vineyard. But truly none that knew him and had work for his hands went thither. He is Satan, that one who pays ill; for he gives labour, and man receives for it the eternal fires in his service. Wherefore he has gone forth from paradise, and goes in search of labourers. Assuredly he sets to his labours those who stand in idleness whoever they be, but much more those who do not know him. It is not in any wise enough for anyone to know evil in order to escape it, but it behoves to work at good in order to overcome it."
I tell you for an example. There was a man who had three vineyards, which he let out to three husbandman. Because the first knew not how to cultivate the vineyard the vineyard brought forth only leaves. The second taught the third how the vines ought to be cultivated; and he most excellently hearkened to his words; and he cultivated his, as he told him, insomuch that the vineyard of the third bore much. But the second left his vineyard uncultivated, spending his time solely in talking. When the time was come for paying the rent to the lord of the vineyard, the first said: "Lord, I know not how your vineyard ought to be cultivated: therefore I have not received any fruit this year." The lord answered: "O fool, do you dwell alone in the world, that you has not asked counsel of my second vinedresser, who knows well how to cultivate the land? Certain it is that you shall pay me." And having said this he condemned him to work in prison until he should pay his lord; who moved with pity at his simplicity liberated him, saying: "Be gone, for I will not that you work longer at my vineyard; it is enough for you that I give you your debt." The second came, to whom the lord said: "Welcome, my vinedresser! Where are the fruits that you owe me? Assuredly, since you know well how to prune the vines, the vineyard that I let out to you must needs have borne much fruit." The second answered: "O lord, your vineyard is backward because I have not pruned the wood nor worked up the soil; but the vineyard has not borne fruit, so I cannot pay you." Whereupon the lord called the third and with wonder said: "You said to me that this man, to whom I let out the second vineyard, taught you perfectly to cultivate the vineyard which I let out to you. How then can it be that the vineyard I let out to him should not have borne fruit, seeing it is all one soil." The third answered: "Lord, the vines are not cultivated by talking only, but he needs must sweat a shirt every day who wills to make it bring forth its fruit. And how shall your vineyard of your vinedresser bear fruit, O lord, if he does nothing but waste the time in talking? Sure it is, O lord, that if he had put into practice his own words, [while] I who cannot talk so much have given you the rent for two years, he would have given you the rent of the vineyard for five years." The lord was wroth, and said with scorn to the vinedresser, "And so you have wrought a great work in not cutting away the wood and levelling the vineyard, wherefore there is owing to you a great reward!" And having called his servants he had him beaten without any mercy. And then he put him into prison under the keeping of a cruel servant who beat him every day, and never was willing to set him free for prayers of his friends."
Truly I say to you, that on the Day of Judgment many shall say to God: "Lord, we have preached and taught by your Law." Against them even the stones shall cry out, saying: "When you preached to others, with your own tongue you condemned yourselves, O workers of iniquity." "As God lives," said Jesus, "he who knows the truth and works the contrary shall be punished with such grievous penalty that Satan shall almost have compassion on him. Tell me, now has our God given us the Law for knowing or for working? Truly I say to you, that all knowledge has for end that wisdom which works all it knows. "Tell me, if one were sitting at table and with his eyes beheld delicate meats, but with his hands should choose unclean things and eat those, would not he be mad?" "Yes, assuredly," said the disciples. Then Jesus said: "O mad beyond all madmen are you, O man, that with your understanding know heaven, and with your hands choose earth; with your understanding know God, and with your affection desire the world; with your understanding know the delights of paradise, and with your works choose the miseries of hell. Brave soldier, that leaves the sword and carries the scabbard to fight! Now, know you not that he who walks by night desires light, not only to see the light, but rather to see the good road, in order that he may pass safely to the inn? O miserable world, to be a thousand times despised and abhorred! Since our God by his holy prophets has ever willed to grant it to know the way to go to his country and his rest: but you wicked one, not only wiliest not to go, but, which is worse, have despised the light! True is the proverb of the camel, that it likes not clear water to drink, because it desires not to see its own ugly face. So does the ungodly who works ill; for he hates the light lest his evil works should be known. But he who receives wisdom, and not only works not well, but, which is worse, employs it for evil, is like to him who should use the gifts as instruments to slay the giver."
Truly I say to you, that God had not compassion on the fall of Satan, but yet [had compassion on the fall of Adam; and let this suffice you to know the unhappy condition of him who knows good and does evil." Then said Andrew: "O master, it is a good thing to leave learning aside, so as not to fall into such condition." Jesus answered: "If the world is good without the sun, man without eyes, and the soul without understanding, then is it good not to know. Truly I say to you, that bread is not so good for the temporal life as is learning for the eternal life. Know you not that it is a precept of God to learn? For thus says God: Ask of your elders, and they shall teach you. And of the Law says God: See that my precept be before your eyes, and when you sit down, and when you walk, and at all times meditate thereon. Whether, then, it is good not to learn, you may now know. Oh, unhappy he who despises wisdom, for he is sure to lose eternal life." James answered: "O master, we know that Job learned not from a master, nor Abraham; nevertheless they became holy ones and prophets." Jesus answered: "Truly I say to you, that he who is of the bridegroom's house does not need to be invited to the marriage, because he dwells in the house where the marriage is held; but they that are far from the house. Now know you not that the prophets of God are in the house of God's grace and mercy, and so have the Law of God manifest in them: as David our father says on this matter: The Law of his God is in his heart; therefore his path shall not be digged up. Truly I say to you that our God in creating man not only created him righteous, but inserted in his heart a light that should show to him that it is fitting to serve God. Wherefore, even if this light be darkened after sin, yet is it not extinguished. For every nation has this desire to serve God, though they have lost God and serve false and lying gods. Accordingly it is necessary that a man be taught of the prophets of God, for they have clear the light to teach the way to go to paradise, our country, by serving God well: just as it is necessary that he who has his eyes diseased should be guided and helped."
James answered: "And how shall the prophets teach us if they are dead; and how shall he be taught who has not knowledge of the prophets?" Jesus answered: "Their doctrine is written down, so that it ought to be studied, for [the writing] is to you for a prophet. Truly, truly, I say to you that he who despises the prophecy despises not only the prophet, but despises also God who has sent the prophet. But concerning such as know not the prophet, as are the nations, I tell you that if there shall live in those regions any man who lives as his heart shall show him, not doing to others that which he would not receive from others, and giving to his neighbour that which he would receive from others, such a man shall not be forsaken of the mercy of God. Wherefore at death, if not sooner, God will show him and give him his Law with mercy. Perhaps you think that God has given the Law for love of the Law? Assuredly this is not true, but rather has God given his Law in order that man might work good for love of God. And so if God shall find a man who for love of him works good, shall he perhaps despise him? No, surely, but rather will he love him more than those to whom he has given the Law. I tell you for an example: There was a man who had great possessions; and in his territory he had desert land that only bore unfruitful things. And so, as he was walking out one day through such desert land, he found among such unfruitful plants a plant that had delicate fruits. Whereupon this man said: "Now how does this plant here bear these so delicate fruits? Assuredly I will not that it be cut down and put on the fire with the rest." And having called his servants he made them dig it up and set it in his garden. Even so, I tell you, that our God shall preserve from the flames of hell those who work righteousness; wheresoever they be."
"Tell me, where dwelt Job but in Uz among idolaters? And at the time of the flood, how writes Moses? Tell me. He says: "Noah truly found grace before God." Our father Abraham had a father without faith, for he made and worshipped false idols. Lot abode among the most wicked men on earth. Daniel as a child, with Ananias, Azarias, and Misael, were taken captive by Nebuchadnezzar in such wise that they were but two years old when they were taken; and they were nurtured among the multitude of idolatrous servants. As God lives, even as the fire burns dry things and converts them into fire, making no difference between olive and cypress and palm; even so our God has mercy on every one that works righteously, making no difference between Jew, Scythian, Greek, or Ishmaelite. But let not your heart stop there, O James, because where God has sent the prophet it is necessary entirely to deny your own judgment and to follow the prophet, and not to say: 'Why says he thus? Why does he thus forbid and command?' But say: 'Thus God wills. Thus God commands.' Now what said God to Moses when Israel despised Moses? They have not despised you, but they have despised me. Truly I say to you, that man ought to spend all the time of his life not in learning how to speak or to read, but in learning how to work well. Now tell me, who is that servant of Herod who would not study to please him by serving him with all diligence? Woe to the world that studies only to please a body that is clay and dung, and studies not but forgets the service of God who has made all things, who is blessed for evermore."
Tell me, would it have been a great sin of the priests if when they were carrying the ark of the testimony of God they had let it fall to the ground? The disciples trembled hearing this, for they knew that God slew Uzzah for having wrongly touched the ark of God. And they said: "Most grievous would be such a sin." Then Jesus said: "As God lives, it is a greater sin to forget the word of God, wherewith he made all things, whereby he offers you eternal life." And having said this Jesus made prayer; and after the prayer he said: "Tomorrow we needs must pass into Samaria;, for so has said to me the holy angel of God." Early on the morning of a certain day, Jesus arrived near the well which Jacob made and gave to Joseph his son. Whereupon Jesus being wearied with the journey, sent his disciples to the city to buy food. And so he sat himself down by the well, upon the stone of the well. And, lo, a woman of Samaria comes to the well to draw water. Jesus says to the woman: "Give me to drink." The woman answered: "Now, are you not ashamed that you, being an Hebrew, ask drink of me which am a Samaritan woman?" Jesus answered: "O woman, if you knew who he is that asks you for drink, perhaps you would have asked of him for drink." The woman answered: "Now how should you give me to drink, seeing you have no vessel to draw the water, nor rope, and the well is deep?" Jesus answered: "O woman, whoever drinks of the water of this well, thirst comes to him again, but whosoever drinks of the water that I give has thirst no more; but to them that have thirst give they to drink, insomuch that they come to eternal life." Then said the woman: "O Lord, give me of this your water." Jesus answered: "Go call your husband, and to both of you I will give to drink." The woman said: "I have no husband." Jesus answered: "Well have you said the truth, for you have had five husbands, and he whom you now have is not your husband." The woman was confounded hearing this, and said: "Lord, hereby perceive I that you are a prophet; therefore tell me, I pray: the Hebrews make prayer on mount Sion in the Temple built by Solomon in Jerusalem, and say that there and nowhere else [men] find grace and mercy of God. And our people worship on these mountains, and say that only on the mountains of Samaria ought [to] worship to be made. Who are the true worshippers?"
Then Jesus gave a sigh and wept, saying: "Woe to you, Judea, for you glory, saying: "The Temple of the Lord, the Temple of the Lord," and live as though there were no God; given over wholly to the pleasures and gains of the world; for this woman in the day of judgment shall condemn you to hell; for this woman seeks to know how to find grace and mercy before God." And turning to the woman he said: "O woman, you Samaritans worship that which you know not, but we Hebrews worship that which we know. Truly, I say to you, that God is spirit and truth, and so in spirit and in truth must he be worshipped. For the promise of God was made in Jerusalem, in the Temple of Solomon, and not elsewhere. But believe me, a time will come that God will give his mercy in another city, and in every place it will be possible to worship him in truth. And God in every place will have accepted true prayer with mercy. The woman answered: "We look for the Messiah; when he comes he will teach us." Jesus answered: "Know you, woman, that the Messiah must come?" *She answered: "Yes, Lord." Then Jesus rejoiced, and said: "So far as I see, O woman, you are faithful: know therefore that in the faith of the Messiah shall be saved every one that is elect of God; therefore it is necessary that you know the coming of the Messiah;." The woman said: "O Lord, perhaps you are the Messiah." Jesus answered: "I am indeed sent to the House of Israel as a prophet of salvation; but after me shall come the Messiah, sent of God to all the world; for whom God has made the world. And then through all the world will God be worshipped, and mercy received, insomuch that the year of jubilee, which now comes every hundred years, shall by the Messiah be reduced to every year in every place." Then the woman left her water pot and ran to the city to announce all that she had heard from Jesus.
Whilst the woman was talking with Jesus came his disciples, and marvelled that Jesus was speaking so with a woman. Yet no one said to him: "Why speak you thus with a Samaritan woman?" Whereupon, when the woman was departed, they said: "Master, come and eat." Jesus answered: "I must eat other food." Then said the disciples one to another: "Perhaps some wayfarer has spoken with Jesus and has gone to find him food." And they questioned him who writes this; saying: "Has there been any one here, O Barnabas, who might have brought food to the master?" Then answered he who writes: "There has not been here any other than the woman whom you saw, who brought this empty vessel to fill it with water." Then the disciples stood amazed, awaiting the issue of the words of Jesus. Whereupon Jesus said: "You know not that the true food is to do the will of God; because it is not bread that sustains man and gives him life, but rather the word of God, by his will. And so for this reason the holy angels eat not, but live nourished only by the will of God. And thus we, Moses and Elijah and yet another, have been forty days and forty nights; without any food." And lifting up his eyes, Jesus said: "How far off is the harvest?" The disciples answered: "Three months." Jesus said: "Look now, how the mountain is white with corn; truly I say to you, that today there is a great harvest; to be reaped." And then he pointed to the multitude who had come to see him. For the woman having entered into the city had moved all the city, saying: "O men, come and see a new prophet sent of God to the House of Israel"; and she recounted to them all that she had heard from Jesus. When they were come thither they besought Jesus to abide with them; and he entered into the city and abode there two days, healing all the sick, and teaching concerning the kingdom of God; *Then said the citizens to the woman: "We believe more in his words and miracles than we do in what you said; for he is indeed a holy one of God, a prophet sent for the salvation of those that shall believe on him." After the prayer of midnight; the disciples came near to Jesus, and he said to them: "This night shall be in the time of the Messiah, Messenger of God, the jubilee every year that now comes every hundred years. Therefore I will not that we sleep, but let us make prayer, bowing our head a hundred times, doing reverence to our God, mighty and merciful, who is blessed for evermore, and therefore each time let us say: "I confess you our God alone, that has not had beginning, nor shall ever have end; for by your mercy gave you to all things their beginning, and by your justice you shall give to all an end; that has no likeness among men, because in your infinite goodness you are not subject to motion nor to any accident. Have mercy on us, for you have created us, and we are the works of your hand."
Having made the prayer, Jesus said: "Let us give thanks to God because he has given to us this night great mercy; for that he has made to come back the time that needs must pass in the night, in that we have made prayer in union with the Messenger of God. And I have heard his voice." The disciples rejoiced greatly at hearing this, and said: "Master, teach us some precepts this night." Then Jesus said: "Have you ever seen dung mixed with balsam?" They answered: "No, Lord, for no one is so mad as to do this thing." "Now I tell you that there be in the world greater madmen, said Jesus, "because with the service of God they mingle the service of the world. So much so that many of blameless life have been deceived of Satan, and while praying have mingled with their prayer worldly business, whereupon they have become at that time abominable in the sight of God. Tell me, when you wash yourselves for prayer, do you take care that no unclean thing touch you? Yes, assuredly. But what do you when you are making prayer? You wash your soul from sins through the mercy of God. Would you be willing then, while you are making prayer, to speak of worldly things? Take care not to do so, for every worldly word becomes dung of the devil upon the soul of him that speaks." Then the disciples trembled, because he spoke with vehemence of spirit; and they said: "O master, what shall we do if when we are making prayer a friend shall come to speak to us?" Jesus answered: "Suffer him to wait, and finish the prayer." Bartholomew said; "But what if he shall be offended and go his way, when he see that we speak not with him?" Jesus answered: "If he shall be offended, believe me he will not be a friend of yours nor a believer, but rather an unbeliever and a companion of Satan. Tell me, if you went to speak with a stable boy of Herod; and found him speaking into Herod's ears, would you be offended if he made you to wait?' No, Assuredly; but you would be comforted at seeing your friend in favour with the king. Is this true?" said Jesus. The disciples answered: "It is most true." Then Jesus said: "Truly I say to you, that everyone when he prays speaks with God. Is it then right that you should leave speaking with God in order to speak with man? Is it right that your friend should for this cause be offended, because you have more reverence for God than for him? Believe me that if he shall be offended when you make him wait, he is a good servant of the evil. For this desires the devil, that God should be forsaken for man. As God lives, in every good work he that fears God ought to separate himself from the works of the world, so as not to corrupt the good work."
"When a man works ill or talks ill, if one go to correct him, and hinder such work, what does such an one?" said Jesus. The disciples answered: "He does well, because he serves God, who always seeks to hinder evil, even as the sun that always seeks to chase away the darkness." Jesus said: "And I tell you on the contrary that when one works well or, speaks well, whosoever seeks to hinder him, under pretext of aught that is not better, he serves the devil, no, he even becomes his companion. For the devil attends to nought else but to hinder every good thing. "But what shall I say to you now? I will say to you as said Solomon; the prophet, holy one, and friend of God: "Of a thousand whom you know, one be your friend." Then said Matthew: "Then shall we not be able to love any one." Jesus answered: "Truly I say to you, that it is not lawful for you to hate anything save only sin: insomuch that you cannot hate even Satan as creature of God, but rather as enemy of God. Know you wherefore? I will tell you; because he is a creature of God, and all that God has created is good and perfect. Accordingly, whoever hates the creature hates also the creator. But the friend is a singular thing, that is not easily found, but is easily lost. For the friend will not suffer contradiction against him whom he supremely loves. Beware, be you cautious, and choose not for friend one who loves not him whom you love. Know you what friend means? Friend means nothing but physician of the soul; And so, just as one rarely finds a good physician who knows the sicknesses and understands to apply the medicines thereto, so also are friends rare who know the faults and understand how to guide to good. But herein is an evil, that there are many who have friends that feign not to see the faults of their friend; others excuse them; others defend them under earthly pretext; and, what is worse, there are friends who invite and aid their friend to err, whose end shall be like to their villainy. Beware that you receive not such men for friends, for that in truth they are enemies and slayers of the soul.
"Let your friend be such that, even as he wills to correct you, so he may receive correction; and even as he wills that you should leave all things for love of God, even so again it may content him that you forsake him for the service of God.” But tell me, if a man know not how to love God how shall he know how to love himself; and how shall he know how to love others, not knowing how to love himself? Assuredly this is impossible. Therefore when you choose you one for friend (for truly he is supremely poor who has no friend at all), see that you consider first, not his fine lineage, not his fine family, not his fine house, not his fine clothing, not his fine person, nor yet his fine words, for you shall be easily deceived. But look how he fears God, how he despises earthly things, how he loves good works, and above all how he hates his own flesh, and so shall you easily find the true friend: if he above all things shall fear God, and shall despise the vanities of the world; if he shall be always occupied in good works, and shall hate his own body as a cruel enemy. Nor yet shall you love such a friend in such wise that your love stay in him, for [so] shall you be an idolater. But love him as a gift that God has given you, for so shall God adorn [him] with greater favour. Truly I say to you, that he who has found a true friend has found one of the delights of paradise; no, such is the key of paradise." Thaddaeus answered: "But if perhaps a man shall have a friend who is not such as you have said, O master? What ought he to do? Ought he to forsake him?" Jesus answered: "He ought to do as the mariner does with the ship, who sails it so long as he perceives it to be profitable, but when he sees it to be a loss forsakes it. So shall you do with your friend that is worse than you: in those things wherein he is an offence to you, leave him if you would not be left of the mercy of God."
"Woe to the world because of offences. It needs must be that the offence come, because all the world lies in wickedness. But yet woe to that man through whom the offence comes. It were better for the man if he should have a millstone about his neck and should be sunk in the depths of the sea than that he should offend his neighbour. If your eye be an offence to you, pluck it out. For it is better that you go with one eye only into paradise than with both of them into hell. If your hand or your foot offend you, do likewise; for it is better that you go into the kingdom of heaven with one foot or with one hand, than with two hands and two feet go into hell." Simon, called Peter: said "Lord, how must I do this? Certain it is that in a short time I shall be dismembered." Jesus answered: "O Peter, put off fleshly prudence and straightway you shall find the truth. For he that teaches you is your eye, and he that helps you to work is your foot, and he that ministers aught to you is your hand. Wherefore when such are to you an occasion of sin leave them; for it is better for you to go into paradise ignorant, with few works, and poor, than to go into hell wise, with great works, and rich. Everything that may hinder you from serving God, cast it from you as a man casts away everything that hinders his sight." And having said this, Jesus called Peter close to him, and said to him: * "If your brother shall sin against you, go and correct him. If he amend, rejoice, for you have gained your brother; but if he shall not amend go and call afresh two witnesses and correct him afresh; and if he shall not amend, go and tell it to the church; and if he shall not then amend, count him for an unbeliever, and therefore you shall not dwell under the same roof whereunder he dwells, you shall not eat at the same table whereat he sits, and you shall not speak with him; insomuch that if you know where he sets his foot in walking you shall not set your foot there."
"But beware that you hold not yourself for better; rather shall you say thus: "Peter, Peter, if God helped you not with his grace you would be worse than he." Peter answered: "How must I correct him?" Jesus answered: "In the way that you yourself would fain be corrected and as you would fain be borne with, so bear with others. Believe me, Peter, for truly I say to you that every time you shall correct your brother with mercy you shall receive mercy of God, and your words shall bear some fruit; but if you shall do it with rigour, you shall be rigorously punished by the justice of God, and shall bear no fruit. Tell me, Peter: Those earthen pots wherein the poor cook their food they wash them, perhaps, with stones and iron hammers? No, assuredly; but rather with hot water. Vessels are broken in pieces with iron, things of wood are burned with fire; but man is amended with mercy. Wherefore, when you shall correct your brother you shall say to yourself: "If God help me not, I shall do tomorrow worse than all that he has done today." Peter answered: "How many times must I forgive my brother, O master?" Jesus answered: "As many times as you would fain be forgiven by him." Peter said: "Seven times a day?" Jesus answered: "Not only seven, but seventy times seven you shall forgive him every day; for he that forgives, to him shall it be forgiven, and he that condemns shall be condemned." Then said he who writes this: "Woe to princes! For they shall go to hell" Jesus reproved him, saying: "You are become foolish, O Barnabas. In that you have spoken thus. Truly I say to you, that the bath is not so necessary for the body, the bit for the horse, and the tiller for the ship, as the prince is necessary for the state. And for what cause did God give Moses, Joshua, Samuel, David, and Solomon, and so many others who passed judgment? To such has God given the sword for the extirpation of iniquity." Then said he who writes this: "Now, how ought judgment to be given, condemning and pardoning?" Jesus answered: "Not everyone is a judge: for to the judge alone it appertains to condemn others, O Barnabas. And the judge ought to condemn the guilty, even as the father commands a putrefied member to be cut off from his son, in order that the whole body may not become putrefied."
Peter said: "How long must I wait for my brother to repent?" Jesus answered: "So long as you would be waited for." Peter answered: "Not everyone will understand this; wherefore speak to us more plainly." Jesus answered: "Wait for your brother as long as God waits for him." "Neither will they understand this," said Peter. Jesus answered: "Wait for him so long as he has time to repent." Then was Peter sad and the others also, because they understood not the meaning. Whereupon Jesus answered: "If you had sound understanding, and knew that you yourselves were sinners, you would not think ever to cut off your heart from mercy to the sinner. And so I tell you plainly, that the sinner ought to be waited for that he may repent, so long as he has a soul beneath his teeth to breathe. For so does our God wait for him, the mighty and merciful. God said not: "In that hour that the sinner shall fast, do alms, make prayer, and go on pilgrimage, I will forgive him." Wherefore this have many accomplished, and are damned eternally. But he said: "In that hour that the sinner shall bewail his sins, I for my part will not remember any more his iniquities." Do you understand?" said Jesus. The disciples answered: "Part we understand, and part not." Jesus said: "Which is the part that you understand not?" They answered: "That many who have made prayer with fastings are damned." Then Jesus said: "Truly I say to you, that the hypocrites and the Gentiles make more prayers, more alms, and more fasts than do the friends of God. But because they have not faith, they are not able to repent for love of God, and so they are damned." Then said John: "Teach us, for love of God, of the faith." Jesus answered: "It is time that we say the prayer of the dawn." Whereupon they arose, and having washed themselves made prayer to our God, who is blessed for evermore.
When the prayer was done, his disciples again drew near to Jesus, and he opened his mouth and said: Draw near, John, for today will I speak to you of all that you have asked. Faith is a seal whereby God seals his elect: which seal he gave to his Messenger, at whose hands every one that is elect has received the faith. For even as God is one, so is the faith one. Wherefore God, having created before all things his Messenger, gave to him before aught else the faith which is as it were a likeness of God and of all that God has done and said. And so the faithful by faith sees all things, better than one sees with his eyes; because the eyes can err; no they do almost always err; but faith errs never, for it has for foundation God and his word. Believe me that by faith are saved all the elect of God. And it is certain that without faith it is impossible for anyone to please God. Wherefore Satan seeks not to bring to nothing fastings and prayer, alms and pilgrimages, no rather he incites unbelievers thereto, for he takes pleasure in seeing man work without receiving pay. But he takes pains with all diligence to bring faith to nought, wherefore faith ought especially to be guarded with diligence, and the safest course will be to abandon the "Wherefore," seeing that the "Wherefore" drove men out of Paradise and changed Satan from a most beautiful angel into a horrible devil." Then said John: "Now, how shall we abandon the "Wherefore," seeing that it is the gate of knowledge?" Jesus answered: "No, rather the "Wherefore" is the gate of hell." Thereupon John kept silence, when Jesus added: "When you know that God has said a thing, who are you, O man, that you should say, "Wherefore have you so said, O God: wherefore have you so done?" Shall the earthen vessel, perhaps, say to its maker: "Wherefore have you made me to hold water and not to contain balsam?" Truly I say to you, it is necessary against every temptation to strengthen yourself with this word, saying "God has so said"; "So has God done"; "God so wills"; for so doing you shall live safely."
At this time there was a great disturbance throughout Judea because of Jesus. The Roman soldiery, through the operation of Satan, [had] stirred up the Hebrews, saying that Jesus was God come to visit them. So great [was the] sedition [that] arose, that near the Forty Days all Judea was in arms, such that the son was against the father, and the brother against the brother. Some said that Jesus was God come to the world; others said: 'No, but he is a son of God'; and others said: 'No, for God has no human similitude, and therefore does not beget sons; but Jesus of Nazareth is a prophet of God.' This [sedition] arose because of the great miracles which Jesus did. To quiet the people, it was necessary that the high-priest should ride in procession, clothed in his priestly robes, with the holy name of God, the tetra gramaton (sic), on his forehead, and the governor Pilate, and Herod rode in a similar manner. Then, three armies assembled in Mizpeh, each one of two hundred thousand men that bare sword. Herod spoke to them, but they were not quietened. Then the governor and the high-priest spoke, saying: "Brothers, this war [has been] aroused by the work of Satan, for Jesus is alive, and we ought to resort to him, and ask him to give testimony of himself, and then believe him, according to his word." So at this everyone was quieted; and having laid down their arms they all embraced one another, saying to one another: 'Forgive me, brother!' *On that day, therefore, every one laid this in his heart, to believe [whatever] Jesus said. The governor and the high-priest offered great rewards to whoever should come [forward and] announce where Jesus was to be found.
At this time, by the word of the holy angel, we [had] gone to Mount Sinai with Jesus. There Jesus [and] his disciples kept the forty days. When this was past, Jesus drew near to the river Jordan, to go to Jerusalem. And he was seen by one of them who believed Jesus to be God. Then, crying with great gladness [over and over] "Our God comes!" he reached the city [and] moved the whole city saying: Our God comes, O Jerusalem; prepare you to receive him! And he testified that he had seen Jesus near to [the] Jordan. Then everyone, small and great, went out from the city to see Jesus, so that the city was left empty, for the women [carried] their children in their arms, and forgot to take food to eat. When they [saw] this, the governor and the high-priest rode forth and sent a messenger to Herod, who [also] rode forth to find Jesus, in order to quiten the sedition of the people. For two days they sought him in the wilderness near to [the] Jordan, and the third day they found him, near the hour of midday, when he (with his disciples) was purifying himself for prayer, according to the Book of Moses. Jesus marvelled greatly, seeing the multitude which covered the ground with people, and [he] said to his disciples: "Perhaps Satan has raised sedition in Judea. May it please God to take away from Satan the dominion which he has over sinners." And when he had said this, the crowd drew near, and when they knew him they began to cry out: "Welcome to you, O our God!" and they began to do him reverence, as to God. Jesus gave a great groan and said: "Get from before me, O madmen, for I fear [that] the earth shall open and devour me with you for your abominable words!" At this the people were filled with terror and began to weep.
Then Jesus, having lifted his hand in token of silence, said: "Truly you have erred greatly, O Israelites, in calling me, a man, your God. And I fear that God may for this give heavy plague upon the holy city, handing it over in servitude to strangers; O a thousand times accursed Satan, that has moved you to this!" And having said this, Jesus smote his face with both his hands, whereupon arose such a noise of weeping that none could hear what Jesus was saying. Whereupon once more he lifted up his hand in token of silence; and the people being quieted from their weeping, he spoke once more: " I confess before heaven, and I call to witness everything that dwells upon the earth, that I am a stranger to all that you have said; seeing that I am man, born of mortal woman, subject to the judgment of God, suffering the miseries of eating and sleeping, of cold and heat, like other men. Whereupon when God shall come to judge, my words like a sword shall pierce each one [of them] that believe me to be more than man." And having said this, Jesus saw a great multitude of horsemen, whereby he perceived that there were coming the governor with Herod and the high-priest. Then Jesus said: "Perhaps they also are become mad." When the governor arrived there, with Herod and the priest, every one dismounted, and they made a circle round about Jesus, insomuch that the soldiery could not keep back the people that were desirous to hear Jesus speaking with the priest. Jesus drew near to the priest with reverence, but he was wishful to bow himself down and worship Jesus, when Jesus cried out: "Beware of that which you do, priest of the living God! Sin not against our God!" The priest answered: "Now is Judea so greatly moved over your signs and your teaching that they cry out that you are God; wherefore, constrained by the people, I am come here with the Roman governor and king Herod. We pray you therefore from our heart, that you will be content to remove the sedition which is arisen on your account. For some say you are God, some say you are son of God, and some say you are a prophet." Jesus answered: "And you, O high priest of God, why have you not quieted this sedition? Are you also perhaps, gone out of your mind? Have the prophecies, with the Law of God, so passed into oblivion, O wretched Judea, deceived of Satan!"
And having said this, Jesus said again: "I confess before heaven, and call to witness everything that dwells upon the earth, that I am a stranger to all that men have said of me, to wit, that I am more than man. For I am a man, born of a woman, subject to the judgment of God; that live here like as other men, subject to the common miseries. As God lives, in whose presence my soul stands, you have greatly sinned, O priest, in saying what you have said. May it please God that there come not upon the holy city great vengeance for this sin." Then said the priest: "May God pardon us, and do you pray for us. Then said the governor and Herod: "Sir, it is impossible that man should do that which you do; wherefore we understand not that which you say. Jesus answered: "That which you say is true, for God works good in man, even as Satan works evil. For man is like a shop, wherein whoever enters with his consent works and sells therein. But tell me, O governor, and you O king, you say this because you are strangers to our Law: for if you read the testament and covenant of our God you would see that Moses with a rod made the water turn into blood, the dust into fleas, the dew into tempest, and the light into darkness. He made the frogs and mice to come into Egypt;, which covered the ground, he slew the first-born, and opened the sea, wherein he drowned Pharaoh;. Of these things I have wrought none. And of Moses, every one confesses that he is a dead man at this present. Joshua made the sun to stand still, and opened the Jordan, which I have not yet done. And of Joshua every one confesses that he is a dead man at this present. Elijah made fire to come visibly down from heaven, and rain, which I have not done. And of Elijah every one confesses that he is a man. And [in like manner] very many other prophets, holy men, friends of God, who in the power of God have wrought things which cannot be grasped by the minds of those who know not our God, almighty and merciful, who is blessed for evermore."
Accordingly the governor and the priest and the king prayed Jesus that in order to quiet the people he should mount up into a lofty place and speak to the people. Then went up Jesus on to one of the twelve stones which Joshua made the twelve tribes take up from the midst of Jordan;, when all Israel passed over there dry shod; and he said with a loud voice: "Let our priest go up into a high place whence he may confirm my words." Thereupon the priest went up thither; to whom Jesus said distinctly, so that everyone might hear: "It is written in the testament and covenant of the living God that our God has no beginning, neither shall he ever have an end." The priest answered: "Even so is it written therein." Jesus said: "It is written there that our God by his word alone has created all things." "Even so it is," said the priest. Jesus said: "It is written there that God is invisible and hidden from the mind of man, seeing he is incorporeal and uncomposed, without variableness." "So is it, truly" said the priest. Jesus said: "It is written there how that the heaven of heavens cannot contain him, seeing that our God is infinite." "So said Solomon the prophet," said the priest, "O Jesus." Jesus said: "It is written there that God has no need, forasmuch as he eats not, sleeps not,; and suffers not from any deficiency." "So is it," said the priest. Jesus said: "It is written there that our God is everywhere, and that there is not any other god but he, who strikes down and makes whole, and does all that pleases him." "So is it written," replied the priest. Then Jesus, having lifted up his hands, said: "Lord our God, this is my faith wherewith I shall come to your judgment: in testimony against every one that shall believe the contrary." And turning himself towards the people, he said: "Repent, for from all that of which the priest has said that it is written in the Book of Moses, the covenant of God for ever, you may perceive your sin; for. that I am a visible man and a morsel of clay that walks upon the earth, mortal as are other men. And I have had a beginning, and shall have an end, and [am] such that I cannot create a fly over again." Thereupon the people raised their voices weeping, and said: "We have sinned, Lord our God, against you; have mercy upon us. And they prayed Jesus, every one, that he would pray for the safety of the holy city, that our God in his anger should not give it over to be trodden down of the nations. Thereupon Jesus, having lifted up his hands, prayed for the holy city and for the people of God, every one crying: "So be it," "Amen."
When the prayer was ended, the priest said with a loud voice: "Stay, Jesus, for we need to know who you are, for the quieting of our nation." Jesus answered: "I am Jesus, son of Mary, of the seed of David, a man that is mortal and fears God, and I seek that to God be given honour and glory." The priest answered: "In the Book of Moses it is written that our God must send us the Messiah, who shall come to announce to us that which God wills, and shall bring to the world the mercy of God. Therefore I pray you tell us the truth, are you the Messiah of God whom we expect?" Jesus answered: "It is true that God has so promised, but indeed I am not he, for he is made before me, and shall come after me." The priest answered: "By your words and signs at any rate we believe you to be a prophet and an holy one of God, wherefore I pray you in the name of all Judea and Israel that you for love of God should tell us in what wise the Messiah will come.
Jesus answered: "As God lives, in whose presence my soul stands, I am not the Messiah whom all the tribes of the earth expect, even as God promised to our father Abraham, saying: "In your seed will I bless all the tribes of the earth." But when God shall take me away from the world, Satan will raise again this accursed sedition, by making the impious believe that I am God and son of God, whence my words and my doctrine shall be contaminated, insomuch that scarcely shall there remain thirty faithful ones: whereupon God will have mercy upon the world, and will send his Messenger for whom he has made all things who shall come from the south with power, and shall destroy the idols with the idolaters who shall take away the dominion from Satan which he has over men. He shallbring with him the mercy of God for salvation of them that shall believe in him, and blessed is he who shall believe his words. "Unworthy though I am to untie his hosen, I have received grace and mercy from God to see him." Then answered the priest, with the governor and the king, saying: "Distress not yourself, O Jesus, holy one of God, because in our time shall not this sedition be any more, seeing that we will write to the sacred Roman senate in such wise that by imperial decree none shall any more call you God or son of God." Then Jesus said: "With your words I am not consoled, because where you hope for light darkness shall come; but my consolation is in the coming of the Messenger, who shall destroy every false opinion of me, and his faith shall spread and shall take hold of the whole world, for so has God promised to Abraham our father. And that which gives me consolation is that his faith shall have no end, but shall be kept inviolate by God." The priest answered: "After the coming of the Messenger of God shall other prophets come?" Jesus answered: "There shall not come after him true prophets sent by God, but there shall come a great number of false prophets, whereat I sorrow. For Satan shall raise them up by the just judgment of God, and they shall hide themselves under the pretext of my gospel." Herod answered: "How is it a just judgment of God that such impious men should come?" Jesus answered: "It is just that he who will not believe in the truth to his salvation should believe in a lie to his damnation. Wherefore I say to you, that the world has ever despised the true prophets and loved the false, as can be seen in the time of Micaiah and Jeremiah. For every like loves his like." Then said the priest: "How shall the Messiah be called, and what sign shall reveal his coming?" Jesus answered: "The name of the Messiah is admirable, for God himself gave him the name when he had created his soul, and placed it in a celestial splendour. God said: "Wait Muhammad; for your sake I will to create paradise, the world, and a great multitude of creatures, whereof I make you a present, insomuch that whoever shall bless you shall be blessed, and whoever shall curse you shall be accursed. When I shall send you into the world I shall send you as my Messenger of salvation, and your word shall be true, insomuch that heaven and earth shall fail, but your faith shall never fail." Muhammad is his blessed name." Then the crowd lifted up their voices, saying: "O God send us your Messenger: O Muhammad, come quickly for the salvation of the world!"
And having said this, the multitude departed with the priest and the governor with Herod, having great disputations concerning Jesus and concerning his doctrine. Whereupon the priest prayed the governor to write to Rome to the senate the whole matter; which thing the governor did; wherefore the senate had compassion on Israel, and decreed that on pain of death none should call Jesus the Nazarene, prophet of the Jews, either God or son of God. Which decree was posted up in the Temple, engraved upon copper. When the greater part of the crowd had departed, there remained about five thousand men, without women and children who being wearied by the journey, having been two days without bread, for that through longing to see Jesus they had forgotten to bring any, whereupon they ate raw herbs therefore they were not able to depart like the others. Then Jesus, when he perceived this, had pity on them, and said to Philip: "Where shall we find bread for them that they perish not of hunger?" Philip answered: "Lord, two hundred pieces of gold could not buy so much bread that each one should taste a little." Then said Andrew: "There is here a child which has five loaves and two fishes, but what will it be among so many?" Jesus answered: "Make the multitude sit down" And they sat down upon the grass by fifties and by forties. Thereupon said Jesus: "In the name of God!" And he took the bread, and prayed to God and then brake the bread, which he gave to the disciples, and the disciples gave it to the multitude; and so did they with the fishes. Every one ate and every one was satisfied. Then Jesus said: "Gather up that which is over." So the disciples gathered those fragments, and filled twelve baskets. Thereupon every one put his hand to his eyes, saying: "Am I awake, or do I dream?" And they remained, every one, for the space of an hour. As it were beside themselves by reason of the great miracle. Afterwards Jesus, when he had given thanks to God, dismissed them, but there were seventy-two men that willed not to leave him; wherefore Jesus, perceiving their faith, chose them for disciples.
Jesus, having withdrawn into a hollow part of the desert in Tiro near to Jordan, called together the seventy-two with the twelve, and, when he had seated himself upon a stone, made them to sit near him. And he opened his mouth with a sigh and said: "This day have we seen a great wickedness in Judea and in Israel such that my heart trembles within my breast for fear of God. Truly I say to you, that God is jealous for his honour, and loves Israel as a lover. You know that when a youth loves a lady, and she does not love him, but another, he is moved to indignation and slays his rival. Even so, I tell you, does God: for, when Israel has loved anything such that he forgets God, God has brought such a thing to nothing. Now what thing is more dear to God here on earth than the priesthood and the holy Temple? Nevertheless, in the time of Jeremiah the prophet, when the people had forgotten God, and boasted only of the Temple, for that there was none like it in all the world, God raised up his wrath by Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, and with an army caused him to take the holy city and burn it with the sacred Temple, such that the sacred things which the prophets of God trembled to touch were trodden under foot by infidels full of wickedness. Abraham loved his son Ishmael a little more than was right, so in order to kill that evil love out of the heart of Abraham, God commanded that he should slay his son: which he would have done had the knife cut. * David loved Absalom vehemently, and therefore God brought it to pass that the son rebelled against his father and was suspended by his hair and slain by Joab. O fearful judgment of God, that Absalom loved his hair above all things, and this was turned into a rope to hang him! Innocent Job came near to loving his seven sons and three daughters [too much], when God gave him into the hand of Satan, who not only deprived him of his sons and his riches in one day, but also struck him with grievous sickness, such that worms came out of his flesh for the next seven years. Our father Jacob loved Joseph more than his other sons, so God caused him to be sold, and caused Jacob to be deceived by these same sons, such that he believed that the beasts had devoured his son, and so lived in mourning for ten years.
As God lives, brothers, I fear that God will be angered against me. Therefore you must go through Judea and Israel, preaching the truth to the twelve tribes, that they may be undeceived." The disciples answered with fear, weeping: "We will do whatever you bid us [to do]." Then Jesus said: "Let us make prayer and fast for three days, and from henceforth every evening when the first star shall appear, when prayer is made to God, let us make prayer three times, asking him for mercy three times: because the sin of Israel is three times more grievous than other sins." "So be it," answered the disciples. When the third day was ended, on the morning of the fourth day, Jesus called together all the disciples and apostles and said to them: "Barnabas and John will stay with me: you others are to go through all the region of Samaria and Judea and Israel, preaching penitence: because the axe is laid near to the tree, to cut it down. And make prayer over the sick, because God has given me authority over every sickness." Then he who writes said: "O Master, if your disciples be asked how they ought to show penitence, what shall they answer?" Jesus answered: "When a man loses a purse does he turn back only his eye, to see it? or his hand, to take it? or his tongue, to ask? No, but he turns his whole body back and employs every power of his soul to find it. Is this true?" Then he who writes answered: "It is most true."
Then Jesus said: "Penitence is a reversing of the evil life: for every sense must be turned around to the contrary of that which it wrought while sinning. Instead of delight must be mourning; for laughter, weeping; for revellings, fasts; for sleeping, vigils; for leisure, activity; for lust, chastity; let storytelling be turned into prayer and avarice into almsgiving." Then he who writes answered: "But if they are asked, how are we to mourn, how are we to weep, how are we to fast, how are we to show activity, how are we to remain chaste, how are we to make prayer and do alms; what answer shall they give? And how shall they do penance properly if they do not know how to repent." Jesus answered: "You have asked [a good question], O Barnabas, and I wish to answer all fully if it is pleasing to God. So today I will speak to you of penitence generally, and that which I say to one I say to all. Know then that penitence more than anything [else] must be done for pure love of God; otherwise it will be vain to repent. I will speak to you by a similitude. Every building, if its foundation be removed, falls into ruin: is this true?" "It is true," answered the disciples. Then Jesus said: "The foundation of our salvation is God, without whom there is no salvation. When man has sinned, he has lost the foundation of his salvation; so it is necessary to begin from the foundation. Tell me, if your slaves had offended you, and you knew that they did not grieve at having offended you, but grieved at having lost their reward, would you forgive them? Certainly not. I tell you that this is what God will do to those who repent for having lost paradise. Satan, the enemy of all good, has great remorse for having lost paradise and gained hell. Yet he will he never find mercy. Do you know why? Because he does not love God; no, he hates his Creator.
Truly I say to you, that every animal according to its own nature, if it loses that which it desires, mourns for the lost good. Accordingly, the sinner who will be truly penitent must have [a] great desire to punish in himself that which he has done in opposition to his Creator: [to the extent that] when he prays he dare not to crave paradise from God, or that God [will] free him from hell, but in confusion of mind, prostrate before God, he says in his prayer: 'Behold the guilty one, O Lord, who has offended you without any cause at the very time when he ought to have been serving you. Here he seeks that what he has done may be punished by your hand, and not by the hand of Satan, Your enemy; in order that the ungodly may not rejoice over your creatures. Chastise, punish as it pleases you, O Lord, for you will never give me so much torment as this wicked one deserves.' The sinner, holding to this manner of [penitence], will find mercy with God in proportion to [the extent that] he craves justice. Assuredly, [the] laughter of a sinner is an abominable sacrilege since this world is rightly called by our father David a vale of tears. There was a king who adopted one of his slaves as [his] son [and] he made him lord of all that he possessed. Now it happened that by the deceit of a wicked man the wretched one fell under the displeasure of the king, so that he suffered great miseries, not only in his substance, but in being despised, and being deprived of all that he won each day by working. Do you think that such a man would laugh for any time?" "No," answered the disciples, "for if the king should have known it he would have had him slain, seeing him laugh at the king's displeasure. But it is probable that he would weep day and night." Then Jesus wept saying: "Woe to the world, for it is sure of eternal torment. O wretched mankind, that God has chosen you as a son, granting you paradise, at which you, O wretched one, by the operation of Satan, did fall under the displeasure of God, and was cast out of paradise and condemned to the unclean world, where you receive all things with toil and every good work is taken from you by continual sinning. And the world simply laughs, and, what is worse, he that is the greatest sinner laughs more than the rest! It will be, therefore, as you have said: that God will give the sentence of eternal death upon the sinner who laughs at his sins and does not weep."
The weeping of the sinner ought to be like that of a father who weeps over his son [who is] near to death. O madness of man, that weeps over the body from which the soul is departed, and [yet] does not weep over the soul from which the mercy of God has departed because of sin! Tell me, if the mariner, when his ship has been wrecked by a storm, could recover all that he had lost by weeping, what would he do? It is certain that he would weep bitterly. But I say to you truly, that in everything [for which] a man weeps, he sins, except when he weeps for his sin. For every misery that comes to man comes to him from God for his salvation, so that he should rejoice [when it befalls him]. But sin comes from the devil for the damnation of man, and [yet] man is not sad about that. Surely here you can perceive that man seeks loss and not profit." Bartholomew said: "Lord, what shall he do who cannot weep because his heart is a stranger to weeping?” Jesus answered: "Not all those who shed tears weep, O Bartholomew. As God lives, there are found men from whose eyes no tear has ever fallen, and they have wept more than a thousand of those who [do] shed tears. The weeping of a sinner is a consumption of earthly affection by vehemence of sorrow. Just as the sunshine preserves from putrefaction what is placed uppermost, even so this consumption preserves the soul from sin. If God should grant as many tears to the true penitent as the sea has waters he would desire far more: and so that desire consumes that little drop that he would shed, as a blazing furnace consumes a drop of water. But they who readily burst into weeping are like the horse that goes faster the more lightly he is laden.
'Truly there are men who have both the inward affection and the outward tears. But he, who is thus, will be a Jeremiah. In weeping, God measures more the sorrow than the tears.' Then said John: "O master, how does man lose in weeping over things other than sin?" Jesus answered: 'If Herod; should give you a mantle to keep for him, and afterwards should take it away from you, would you have reason to weep?' "No," said John. Then Jesus said: 'Now has man less reason to weep when he loses aught, or has not that which he would; for all comes from the hand of God. Accordingly, shall not God have power to dispose at his pleasure of his own things, O foolish man? For you have of your own, sin alone; and for that ought you to weep, and not for aught else.' Matthew said: "O master, you have confessed before all Judea that God has no similitude like man, and now you have said that man receives from the hand of God; accordingly, since God has hands he has a similitude with man." Jesus answered: 'You are in error, O Matthew, and many have so erred, not knowing the sense of the words. For man ought to consider not the outward [form] of the words, but the sense; seeing that human speech is as it were an interpreter between us and God. Now knew you not, that when God willed to speak to our fathers on Mount Sinai, our fathers cried out: "Speak you to us, O Moses, and let not God speak to us, lest we die"? And what said God by Isaiah the prophet, but that, so far as the heaven is distant from the earth, even so are the ways of God distant from the ways of men, and the thoughts of God from the thoughts of men?
'God is so immeasurable that I tremble to describe him. But it is necessary that I make to you a proposition. I tell you, then, that the heavens are nine and that they are distant from one another even as the first heaven is distant from the earth, which is distant from the earth five hundred years' journey. Wherefore the earth is distant from the highest heaven four thousand and five hundred years' journey. I tell you, accordingly, that [the earth] is in proportion to the first heaven as the point of a needle and the first heaven in like manner is in proportion to the second as a point, and similarly all the heavens are inferior each one to the next. But all the size of the earth with that of all the heavens is in proportion to paradise as a point, no, as a grain of sand. Is this greatness immeasurable?' The disciples answered: 'Yes, surely.' Then Jesus said: 'As God lives, in whose presence my soul stands, the universe before God is small as a grain of sand, and God is as many times greater [than it] as it would take grains of sand to fill all the heavens and paradise, and more. Now consider you if God has any proportion with man, who is a little piece of clay that stands upon the earth. Beware, then, that you take the sense and not the bare words, if you wish to have eternal life.' The disciples answered: 'God alone can know himself, and truly it is as said Isaiah the prophet: "He is hidden from human senses." Jesus answered: 'So is it true; wherefore, when we are in paradise we shall know God, as here one knows the sea from a drop of salt water. Returning to my discourse, I tell you that for sin alone one ought to weep, because by sinning man forsakes his Creator. But how shall he weep who attends at revellings and feasts? He will weep even as ice will give fire! You needs must turn revellings into fasts if you will have lordship over your senses, because even so has our God lordship. Thaddaeus said: 'So then, God has sense over which to have lordship.' Jesus answered: 'Go you back to saying, "God has this," "God is such"? Tell me, has man sense?' 'Yes,' answered the disciples. Jesus said: 'Can a man be found who has life in him, yet in him sense works not?' 'No,' said the disciples. 'You deceive yourselves,' said Jesus, 'for he that is blind, deaf, dumb, and mutilated-where is his sense? And when a man is in a swoon?' Then were the disciples perplexed; when Jesus said: 'Three things there are that make up man: that is, the soul and the sense and the flesh, each one of itself separate. Our God created the soul and the body as you have heard, but you have not yet heard how he created the sense. Therefore to-morrow, if God please, I will tell you all.' And having said this Jesus gave thanks to God, and prayed for the salvation of our people, every one of us saying: 'Amen.'
When he had finished the prayer of dawn, Jesus sat down under a palm tree, and thither his disciples drew near to him. Then Jesus said: 'As God lives, in whose presence stands my soul, many are deceived concerning our life. For so closely are the soul and the sense joined together, that the more part of men affirm the soul and the sense to be one and the same thing, dividing it by operation and not by essence, calling it the sensitive, vegetative, and intellectual soul. But truly I say to you, the soul is one, which thinks and lives. O foolish ones, where will they find the intellectual soul without life? Assuredly, never. But life without senses will readily be found, as is seen in the unconscious when the sense leaves him.' Thaddaeus answered: "O master, when the sense leaves the life, a man does not have life." Jesus answered: "This is not true, because man is deprived of life when the soul departs; because the soul returns not any more to the body, save by miracle. But sense departs by reason of fear that it receives, or by reason of great sorrow that the soul has. For the sense has God created for pleasure, and by that alone it lives, even as the body lives by food and the soul lives by knowledge and love. This sense is now rebellious against the soul, through indignation that it has at being deprived of the pleasure of paradise through sin. Wherefore there is the greatest need to nourish it with spiritual pleasure for him who wills not that it should live of carnal pleasure. Understand you? Truly I say to you, that God having created it condemned it to hell and to intolerable snow and ice; because it said that it was God; but when he deprived it of nourishment, taking away its food from it, it confessed that it was a slave of God and the work of his hands. And now tell me, how does sense work in the ungodly? Assuredly, it is as God in them: seeing that they follow sense, forsaking reason and the Law of God. Whereupon they become abominable, and work not any good."
'And so the first thing that follows sorrow for sin is fasting. For he that sees that a certain food makes him sick, for that he fears death, after sorrowing that he has eaten it, forsaken it, so as not to make himself sick. So ought the sinner to do. Perceiving that pleasure has made him to sin against God his creator by following sense in these good things of the world, let him sorrow at having done so, because it deprives him of God, his life, and gives him the eternal death of hell. But because man while living has need to take these good things of the world, fasting is needful here. So let him proceed to mortify sense and to know God for his lord. And when he sees the sense abhor fastings, let him put before it the condition of hell, where no pleasure at all but infinite sorrow is received; let him put before it the delights of paradise, that are so great that a grain of one of the delights of paradise is greater than all those of the world. For so will it easily be quieted; for that it is better to be content with little in order to receive much, than to be unbridled in little and be deprived of all and abide in torment. 'You ought to remember the rich feaster in order to fast well. For he, wishing here on earth to fare deliciously every day, was deprived eternally of a single drop of water: while Lazarus, being content with crumbs here on earth, shall live eternally in full abundance of the delights of paradise. But let the penitent be cautious; for that Satan seeks to annul every good work, and more in the penitent than in others, for that the penitent has rebelled against him, and from being his faithful slave has turned into a rebellious foe. Whereupon Satan will seek to cause that he shall not fast in any wise, under pretext of sickness, and when this shall not avail he will invite him to an extreme fast, in order that he may fall sick and afterwards live deliciously. And if he succeed not in this, he will seek to make him set his fast simply upon bodily food, in order that he may be like to himself, who never eats but always sins. As God lives, it is abominable to deprive the body of food and fill the soul with pride, despising them that fast not, and holding oneself better than they. Tell me, will the sick man boast of the diet that is imposed on him by the physician, and call them mad who are not put on diet? Assuredly not. But he will sorrow for the sickness by reason of which he needs must be put upon diet. Even so I say to you, that the penitent ought not to boast in his fast, and despise them that fast not; but he ought to sorrow for the sin by reason whereof he fasts. Nor should the penitent that fasts procure delicate food, but he should content himself with coarse food. Now will a man give delicate food to the dog that bites and to the horse that kicks? No, surely, but rather the contrary. And let this suffice you concerning fasting.'
Hearken, then, to what I shall say to you concerning watching. For just as there are two kinds of sleeping, viz. that of the body and that of the soul, even so must you be careful in watching that while the body watches the soul sleep not. For this would be a most grievous error. Tell me, in parable: there is a man who whilst walking strikes himself against a rock, and in order to avoid striking it the more with his foot, he strikes with his head what is the state of such a man?' "Miserable," answered the disciples, "for such a man is frenzied." Then Jesus said: "Well have you answered, for truly I say to you that he who watches with the body and sleeps with the soul is frenzied. As the spiritual infirmity is more grievous than the corporeal, even so is it more difficult to cure. Wherefore, shall such a wretched one boast of not sleeping with the body, which is the foot of the life, while he perceives not his misery that he sleeps with the soul, which is the head of the life? The sleep of the soul is forgetfulness of God and of his fearful judgment. The soul, then, that watches is that which in everything and in every place perceives God, and in everything and through everything and above everything gives thanks to his majesty, knowing that always at every moment it receives grace and mercy from God. Wherefore in fear of his majesty there always resounds in its ear that angelic utterance "Creatures, come to judgment, for your Creator wills to judge you." For it abides habitually ever in the service of God. * Tell me, whether do you desire the more: to see by the light of a star or by the light of the sun?" Andrew answered: "By the light of the sun; for by the light of the star we cannot see the neighbouring mountains, and by the light of the sun we see the tiniest grain of sand. Wherefore we walk with fear by the light of the star, but by the light of the sun we go securely."
Jesus answered: "Even so I tell you that you ought to watch with the soul by the sun of justice [which is] our God, and not to boast yourselves of the watchings of the body. It is most true, therefore, that bodily sleep is to be avoided as much as is possible, but [to avoid it] altogether is impossible, the sense and the flesh being weighed down with food and the mind with business. Wherefore let him that will sleep little avoid too much business and much food. As God lives, in whose presence stands my soul, it is lawful to sleep somewhat every night, but it is never lawful to forget God and his fearful judgment: and the sleep of the soul is such oblivion." Then answered he who writes: "O master, how can we always have God in memory? Assuredly, it seems to us impossible. Jesus said, with a sigh: "This is the greatest misery that man can suffer, O Barnabas. For man cannot here upon earth have God his creator always in memory; saving them that are holy, for they always have God in memory, because they have in them the light of the grace of God, so that they cannot forget God. But tell me, have you seen them that work quarried stones, how by their constant practice they have so learned to strike that they speak with others and all the time are striking the iron tool that works the stone without looking at the iron, and yet they do not strike their hands? Now do you likewise. Desire to be holy if you wish to overcome entirely this misery of forgetfulness. Sure it is that water cleaves the hardest rocks with a single drop striking there for a long period. Do you know why you have not overcome this misery? Because you have not perceived that it is sin. I tell you then that it is an error, when a prince gives you a present, O man, that you shouldst shut your eyes and turn your back upon him. Even so do they err who forget God, for at all times man receives from God gifts and mercy."
Now tell me, does our God at all times grant you [his bounty]? Yes, assuredly; for unceasingly he ministers to you the breath whereby you live. Truly, truly, I say to you, every time that your body receives breath your heart ought to say: "God be thanked!"' Then said John: "it is most true what you say, O master; teach us therefore the way to attain to this blessed condition." Jesus answered: "Truly I say to you, one cannot attain to such condition by human powers, but rather by the mercy of God our Lord. It is true indeed that man ought to desire the good in order that God may give it him. Tell me, when you are at table do you take those meats which you would not so much as look at? No, assuredly. Even so I say to you that you shall not receive that which you will not desire. God is able, if you desire holiness, to make you holy in less time than the twinkling of an eye, but in order that man may be sensible of the gift and the giver our God wills that we should wait and ask. Have you seen them that practice shooting at a mark? Assuredly they shoot many times in vain. Howbeit, they never wish to shoot in vain, but are always in hope to hit the mark. Now do you this, you who ever desire to have our God in remembrance, and when you forget, mourn; for God shall give you grace to attain to all that I have said. Fasting and spiritual watching are so united one with the other that, if one break the watch, straightway the fast is broken. For in sinning a man breaks the fast of the soul, and forgets God. So is it that watching and fasting as regards the soul are always necessary for us and for all men. For to none is it lawful to sin. But the fasting of the body and its watchings, believe me, they are not possible at all times, nor for all persons. For there are sick and aged folk, women with child, men that are put upon diet, children, and others that are of weak complexion. For indeed everyone, even as he clothes himself according to his proper measure, so should choose his [manner of] fasting. For just as the garments of a child are not suitable for a man of thirty years, even so the watchings and fastings of one are not suitable for another."
'But beware that Satan will use all his strength [to bring it to pass] that you [shall] watch during the night, and afterward be sleeping when by commandment of God you ought to be praying and listening to the word of God. Tell me, would it please you if a friend of yours should eat the meat and give you the bones?" Peter answered: "No, master, for such an one ought not to be called friend, but a mocker." Jesus answered with a sigh: "You have well said the truth, O Peter, for truly every one that watches with the body more than is necessary, sleeping, or having his head weighed down with slumber when he should be praying or listening to the words of God, such a wretch mocks God his creator, and so is guilty of such a sin. Moreover, he is a robber, seeing that he steals the time that he ought to give to God, and spends it when, and as much as, pleases him. In a vessel of the best wine a man gave his enemies to drink so long as the wine was at its best, but when the wine came down to the dregs he gave to his lord to drink. What, think you, will the master do to his servant when he shall know all, and the servant be before him? Assuredly, he will beat him and slay him in righteous indignation according to the laws of the world. And now what shall God do to the man that spends the best of his time in business, and the worst in prayer and study of the Law? Woe to the world, because with this and with greater sin is its heart weighed down! Accordingly, when I said to you that laughter should be turned into weeping, feasts into fasting, and sleep into watching, I compassed in three words all that you have heard that here on earth one ought always to weep, and that weeping should be from the heart, because God our creator is offended; that you ought to fast in order to have lordship over the sense, and to watch in order not to sin; and that bodily weeping and bodily fasting and watching should be taken according to the constitution of each one."