History of Cawthorne/Cannon Hall
Hunter begins his notes of Cannon Hall by observing that "the "interest at Cawthorne of the Lords of the Manor has been much "overshadowed by the growth of this large estate, which appears "to have been enfranchised by some early lord, and in which in "4 Richard II. 1381) the owners then Thomas de Bosvile, had a "grant from the king of a free warren."
By a grant of this kind, the king, in whom after the Conquest rested the exclusive right of taking and killing game of any kind conceded this privilege to one of his subjects, "with the principal "intention of protecting the game, by giving the grantee a sole and "exclusive right of killing it himself, provided he prevented other "persons." (Blackstone.) The first clear and undisputed instance of the name of "Cannon" being applied to land at Cawthorne is in the le Hunt deed mentioned in the last chapter, in which a wood called "Cannon Greve" is named as being sold for fuel for the smelting of iron ore in the earlier part of the fourteenth century.
The word "Greve" here is the olden form of the word "Grove." It is found in Chaucer’s "Knight's Tale."
"And Fyry Phebus ryseth up so bright That al the orient laugheth of the light "And with his stremes dryeth in the greves The silver 'dropes, hongyng on the leeves."
The next mention of this estate is in an " Inquisitio post mortem" of John Boswell in 21 Henry VI., who was found to die seized of Cannon Hall in Cawthorne. This "Inquisitio," which has been more than once incidentally mentioned before, was the inquiry made by the king's justices through a jury of the county on the death of any man of fortune, to ascertain the value of his estate, the tenure upon which it was holden, and who and of what age the heir was, in order that the king might know what profits might arise to. the Crown. The Bosvile estates still include several hundred acres in the north-western part of Cawthorne parish.
THE BOSVILLE ARMS:
Argent, five fusils in fesse gules, in chief three bears' heads, sable. Crest: An ox issuing from a bolt of trees, proper. Motto. "Intento in Deum animo."
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The following epigram was written on the family's name and crest in the time of Elizabeth
“Di tibi dent Bosvile, boves villasque Radulphi
“Nec villa careat bosve vel illa bove."
At what time Cannon Hall became separated from the Bosvile estates Hunter was not able to ascertain. In 1650, the property was vested, he says, in William Hewet, Esq., of Beccles, Norfolk, son of Sir Edward Hewet, of St. Martin's- in-the-Fields, London. In his notice of the Bosvfle family under the Manor of Gunthwaite, Hunter mentions a Henry Bosvile as having been "placed as an apprentice "to Sir William Hewet, citizen and clothworker, London, and his being "admitted to the freedom of his company in the first year of "Queen Elizabeth."
By an indenture dated Nov. 25th, 1650, this William Hewet "conveyed to Robert Hartley for £2,900 the manor, farm, and "capital messuage called Cannon Hall, with Rowroyd, Jowet-house, Broadgates, five small cottages at Cawthorne, Wilmroyd close, and "the tithes thereof."
Hunter gives this as "from a memorandum of Mr. Wilson of "Broomhead Hall, who appears to have seen the original conveyance," but there is evidence some mistake in it, as the properties mentioned were certainly at that time in different ownerships.
In a "Survey of all the plaine lands in Cawthorne as they are now, "enjoyed by the lords or their tenants," made in 1649, Robert Hartey's name appears with 233 acres, but it is not stated whether as tenant or owner; while "Mr Huite land" is given with his own name as only 13 acres "in John Shirte's occupation," the name of Michael Hartley appealing as owner of 44 acres, with Mr. Bosvile as owner of Rawroyd and other estates, John Lindley, of Jowet-house, Thomas Pashle', of Broadgates.
The Robert Hartley, to whom this estate is said to have been sold in 1650, died at the age of 29, in 1656, leaving a widow, Margaret, the daughter of John Clayton of Oakenshaw, Esq., Recorder of Leeds, and one daughter, who afterwards became the wife of Mr Joseph Watkinson of Wakefield.
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In the Parish Registers of 1658 is the record that "John Spencer "and Margrett Hartley both of the Parish of Cawthorne were married the one-and-thirtieth day of March."
This John Spencer, described by Hunter as "a gentleman much "engaged in the mineral affairs of this district," afterwards purchased the Cannon Hall estate from the above only daughter of Robert Hartley. He was probably the son of the Randolph Spencer, of Criggon, in Montgomeryshire, gent, who was buried at Cawthorne, July 22nd, 1658.
He was succeeded in the Cannon Hall estate after his death, April I9th, 1681, by his son John, born to him by a former wife, who was buried at Cawthorne Oct. 29th, 1657.
This John Spencer the younger married one of the Wilsons of Broomhead, and died April 13th, 1729, aged 74.
Their son and heir William Spencer married Christiana, daughter and at length sole heir of Benjamin Ashton, of Hathersage, in the County of Derby, who, when he died in 1725, "left Mr. Spencer £14,000 " in addition to the estates. It was just at this time that Mr. Spencer "bought Eastfeild of Mr. Savill, formerly of Mexburgh, "grandchild to Madam Savill now living at Fawthwaite, aged near "100, one of the daughters and co-heirs ot Mr. Cudworth of East"feild, whose ancestors had enjoyed it for 400 years." (Yorkshire Diaries. Surtees Soc. Vol.65.) This Mr. William Spencer left the Hathersage estates to John Ashton Shuttleworth, the eldest son of their daughter Christiana, who was married to William Shuttleworth, of Horrock's-fold, Lancs.
With the eldest son of William and Christiana Spencer, John, who died unmarried Nov. 9th, 1775, aged 57, the male line of the Spencer family became extinct. His sister Ann became the second wife of Walter Stanhope, of Horsforth, Esq., second son of John Stanhope by his wife Margaret, daughter of Sir William Lowther, of Swillington, Knight. Their only son Walter, born Feb. 4th, 1749, became principal heir to his uncle John Spencer, and "out of grateful regard for "his memory prefixed the name of Spencer to his own." He inherited the Horsforth estates from his uncle John Stanhope, Esq., of page 29 Horsforth, barrister-at-law, familiarly known as "Lawyer Stanhope," who died in 1769.
The Pedigree of the Stanhope Family, who settled at Horsforth Hall at the end of the sixteenth century, is traced in Foster's Yorkshire pedigrees to a Sir Richard de Stanhope who had large estates in Northumberland [e.g. Stanhope, Durham] in the time of Henry III and Edward I., and whose son Sir Richard was lord of "Elstwyke, in Northumberland, in the time of Edward III Ricus Stanhoppe de Novo Castro "miles dominus manerii de Elstwick in Com. Northumbi." (Rawlinson MSS. : Liber B: p.8 (or I 4)) There is an unpublished volume on the early history of this family by the present Earl of Stanhope, "Notices of the Stanhopes as Esquire and Knights and until their "first Peerages in 1605 and 1616 London, 1855 8vo.”
The Sir Richard's son, Sir John Stanhope (M.P. for Newcastle, 1359; Mayor of Newcastle 41 Edward III escheator for Notts and Derbyshire 48 Edward III ; sheriff for Notts and Derby 6 Henry IV ) became possessed of Rampton in Nottinghamshire through his wife, whose mother was daughter and heiress of Sir John Longvilliers. He died 14 Henry IV., leaving a son Sir Richard, who was Knight of the Bath at the coronation of Henry IV., and also M P. for Nottingham. His son Sir Richard was succeeded by a John Stanhope, who was many years M.P. for Notts county, and whose son Thomas, of Rampton, was in 4 Edward IV. "retained by indenture to attend "the king in person in his wars with France, with one man-at-arms "and ten archers, receiving £20 19s. 6d. in band towards his wages "on that account." His elder son, Sir Edward Stanhope, of Rampton, Knight, was a principal commander at the Battle of Stoke, near Newark, 2 HenryVII. and also in defeating the Cornishmen at Blackheath, (22nd June, 2 Henry VII.) where he received the honour of knighthood.
It is from a younger son of this Sir Edward that the various families of Stanhope are descended which hold the earldom of Chesterfield, created in 1628, the earldom of Stanhope, 1718, the earldom of Harrington, 1742, and the baronetcy of Stanhope created in 1807, now held by Sir B. F. Scudamore Stanhope, Bart., of Holme Lacy
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From John, a younger brother of this Sir Edward Stanhope of Henry VIIth's day, are descended the Stanhopes of Horsforth, who, as we have seen, became settled at Cannon Hall through the marriage of Walter Stanhope to Ann, daughter of William Spencer, and their son Walter becoming heir to his maternal uncle John Spencer. This first Walter Spencer-Stanhope took an active part in the politics of his own county, and. through his family connection with the Lowthers of Lowther Castle, was elected Member for Carlisle in 1774. He afterwards sat for Hull and for Hazlemere, and a second time for Carlisle from 1802 to 1812. "He spoke frequently in the "House, and with much humour." A short account is given of his Parliamentary life in Ferguson's "M.P.’s of Cumbeland and Westmoreland, 1660-1867." On the death of Pitt, he moved and divided the House of Commons on the Constitutional question raised by Lord Ellenborough's appointment to a seat in the Cabinet while he was still a Common Law Judge.
In the List of Members of the "University College Club," established in 1792, is the name of Walter S. Stanhope, who is given as having entered the College Nov., 1767, being of Cannon Hall, Yorks. and Grosvenor Square, London, and M. P. for Carlisle. His friend Sir Wm. Scott, afterwards Lord Stowell, was then the President, and among the names of the members are that of the President's brother, Lord Eldon, and those of many prominent men of the time.
Mr. Stanhope was an intimate friend of William Wilberforce. In Mr. Wilberforce's Life is the following extract from his diary: "1775 Sept. 3. To Spencer-Stanhope's (Cannon Hall)--he told me that -B had declared he would give £1,000 to turn me out. Sept. 8:
Off to Huddersfield " In an account of a great political meeting held in the Castle Yard at York in 1795, described as "perhaps the "largest assemblage of gentlemen and freeholders which ever met in Yorkshire," Mr. Stanhope is mentioned as having made one of the three good speeches, the other speakers being Col. Creyke and Mr. Wilberforce. There is an account in Mr. Wilberforce's diary of his helping his friend Mr. Stanhope in his contest for Hull in 1796; of there being no morning service at Brigg and "Stanhope filling my head with election matters ;" of Sykes agreeing to support Stanhope; of Stanhope being successful in canvassing; page 31 of his return being regarded as safe, and of the numbers being on Friday, May 27th, Sir Chas. Turner 661, Stanhope 574, 5. Thornton 478, but at the close of the poll next day, Turner 881, Thornton, Stanhope 715.
He was the commanding officer of the local Volunteer Corps known as the " Staincross Volunteers," and was presented with a handsome vase, which is now in the drawing-room at Cannon Hall, in memory of a most exciting incident in that corps' military history. It bears the following inscription
- In the night of the 15t/i of August, 1805,
- The Beacon on Woolley Edge was fired,
- And the order issued soon after midnight
- For calling out the Staincross Volunteers.
- Dispersed and remote as they lay,
- Covering the whole Wapentake and
- Dwelling in every Town and Village in it
- So promptly did they answer to the call
- that in about 14 hours they not only
- were all assembled to the complement of 6oo,
- except only 9 who were absent from their homes,
- But had actually marched in that time
- upwards Of 12 miles upon an average.
- To record this event
- And to testify their regard and attachment to their Commandant,
- The non-commiisioned officers and privates
- of the Staincross Corps of Volunteers
- Present this Vase
- to Walter Spencer Stanhope, Esq.,
- Lieut .- Col. Comt. Staincross Volunteer Infantry 1805.
This Walter Spencer-Stanhope married Mary Winifrid, only daughter and sole heiress of Thomas Babington Pulleine, of Carlton Hall, near Richmond, Esq., and his wife Winifred, daughter of Edward Collingwood, of Dissington Hall, Esq., by Mary his wife, daughter and co-heir of John Roddam, of Roddam, Esq.
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Mr. Stanhope died April 4th, 1821 his widow survived him till Dec. 16th, 1850.
Their second Son was the late John Spencer Stanhope, Esq., of Cannon Hall and Horsforth Hall, J. P., D.L., F. R.S, &c., who wa born May 27th, 1787. He married Dec. 5th, 1822, Elizabeth Wilhelmina, third daughter of Thomas William Coke [Cox], of Holkham Hall, Norfolk, in whom the Earldom of Leicester was revived in 1837.
Their third son, Edward, was born Oct, 30th, 1791, and died August 4th, 1866. He married Arabella, daughter of General John Calcraft of Cholderton, Hants., on the 9th of Sept., 1820, and left one son and two daughters. By Royal License he had assumed the name and arms of Collingwood in 1816, pursuant to the will of his great uncle, the Edward Collingwood mentioned above, who left him the Collingwood estates. On the death of his only son Edward, in 1868, the elder daughter Arabel, married to the Rev. Robert Gordon Calthrop, became possessed of the estates, and by Royal License dated April 3rd, 1868, they assumed the surname and arms of Collingwood only. The Collingwood estates are given in the 1873 "Domesday Book" as consisting of 5,407 acres with a rental of £5,421, this being exclusive of the estate of 1,200 acres in trust for the children.
William, the fourth son of the above Walter Stanhope, born Jan. 4th, 1793, assumed the name of Roddam only in 1806, on succeeding to the estates of his kinsman and godfather Admiral Roddam, of Roddam in Northumberland. [Hilary Clinton nee Roddam is related] He married, as his first wife, Sept., 1835, Charlotte, daughter of Henry Percy Pulleine, Esq., of Crakehall, by whom he had one daughter Charlotte Pulleine Roddam, married in 1858 to John Craster, Esq., of Craster Tower, Northumberland. By his second wife, Selina Henrietta, daughter of John Cotes, Esq, of Woodcote, he left one daughter, Mary Selina. On Mr. Roddam's death, December; 1864, without male issue, the estates in Northumberland passed into a different family.
The fifth son, Charles, was many years Vicar of Weaverham in Cheshire, and fifty-two years non-resident Vicar of Cawthorne. He married Frederica Mary, daughter of the late Robert Philip page 33 Goodenough, Prebendary of Carlisle and Southwell, by his wife Cecilia Markham, daughter of the Archbishop of York. Their surviving children are the Rev. Charles Walter, Vicar of Crowton, Cheshire, and Captain Frederick Stanhope, [1st. Batt. Somersets. Regt. He died at Weaverham, Oct.29, 1874, aged 79.
The sixth son, Philip, was sometime a captain in the Grenadier Guards and Page of honour to George III. and George IV., a General in the army, and Colonel of the 13th Light Infantry. He married, May 2nd, 1865, Mary Catharine, daughter of ------Harrison, Esq., and widow of Edward R. Strickland, Esq.: she died July 25th, 1865. General Stanhope died at 70, Harley Street, London, Feb. 21, 1880.
Their seventh son, Hugh, was a barrister-at-law of the Middle Temple, living at Glen Allen, near Alnwick. He married May 11, 1848, Amy Anne, fifth daughter of Henry Percy Pulleine, Esq:, of Crakehall. He died without issue, Dec. 24th, 1871.
The daughters of this Walter and Mary Winifred Stanhope have been seven in number: Marianne, married to Robert Hudson, Esq., of Tadworth Court, near Reigate, who died Sept., 1862 ; Anne Winifrid, who died I 7 March, 1860; Catharine and Eliza, who both died in infancy Isabella, who died May, 1857; and the surviving daughters, Frances Mary and Maria Alicia, now of Banks Hall.
The late John Spencer-Stanhope, Esq., of Cannon Hall, was born on Sunday, May 27th, 1787, and educated at Westminster and Christ Church, Oxford. He was the author of a work which Hunter speaks of as "one of the most elegant works in modern literature, and by a "distinguished native and resident in this [Staincross] Wapentake" The work is called "Olympia, or Topography illustrative of the "actual state of the Plain of Olympia and of the Ruins of the City "of Elis." It was published by Murray in 1817, and dedicated to "the Royal Academy of Inscriptions and Belles Lettres of the Institute of France." It was republished in 1824 and 1835, and again with the addition of many engravings in 1865, under the title of " Plataea, Olympia, Elis," receiving a most favourable notice from the press, and notably from the Saturday Review.
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In 1810, Mr. Stanhope left England on board H.M. Ship "Vestal” to visit those parts of the Peninsula which were then independent of France, intending to proceed by way of Sicily to Greece. After many adventures in Spain, he took ship at Valencia for Majorca: "but," he says in the Preface to his Work, "after spending three days on "board of this miserable vessel, I was treacherously carried into Barcelona and delivered as a prisoner into the hands of the French." At Barcelona he took fencing lessons of a master who became implicated in a discovered plot for delivering the place up to the Spaniards, and was himself suspected and thrust into a cell in the citadel and threatened with death. After being removed to the great fortress of Verdun, he was allowed to spend three months in Paris, where he made the acquaintance of many members of the Institute. Through their interest, application was made to allow him to continue his travels on parole. The great Napoleon set him altogether at liberty without any conditions in a Passport still preserved at Cannon Hall in the Study:
"PasseportL' EtrangerSignalementAge de 24 an. taille d'un metre 70 centimetres cheveux chataines front ordinaireyeux bleus nez ordinaire bouche moyenne barbe brune &c, &c Police Generale de l'Empire.Laissez passer librement Mr. John Spencer Stanhope, savant Anglais, prisonnier de guerre sur parole a Paris Natif de LondresDemeurant a (blank) Allant en Greceet donnez-lui aide et protection en case de besoin.Le present passe-port accorde par decision de S. M. I. R. qui degage cet etranger de sa parole comme prisonnierde guerre, et lui permet d'apres la demande de l' Institut Imperiel deFrance de passer en Grece qu' il desire visiter pour l'interest des sciences"Fait delivre a Paris le quatorze Mai, 1813. "(Signed by) Le Ministre de La Guerre.
Mr. Stanhope returned to England through Germany, and afterwards went through Germany to Greece, where he made his researches page 35 amid many difficulties arising from illness and other causes. His visit was shortened by a severe attack of fever, which nearly proved fatal, and from which he did not for some years altogether recover.
After his return home, these researches were in 1814 laid before the French Institute, and in 1817 were published in London. He was afterwards elected an Honorary Correspondent of the French Geographical Society: La Societe de Geographie
Admet au nombre de ses membres Mr. John Spencer Stanhope Correspondant de l'Institut Royal de France. Paris le 20 Decembre, 1822."
He was also elected at home a Fellow of the Royal Society and of the Society of Antiquaries. It was through his explorations that a slab of the Frieze of the Parthenon at Athens was brought to country, being presented by him to the British Museum and added to the Elgin Greek Sculptures.
His only other publications were "A Catechism on Agriculture and "A Catechism on Cattle" printed at Barnsley for the author, being plain instructions on a subject he desired to see taught in our country schools. It was through his, great interest in agriculture that he made the acquaintance of his friend and future father-in law, celebrated Norfolk agriculturist, Mr. Coke, afterwards created Earl of Leicester.
Mr. Stanhope died at Cannon Hall on Friday, Nov. 7th, 1873, having only a few days outlived his beloved wife, Lady Elizabeth, who had died on Thursday, Oct. 31st. At an interval of a few days they were buried side by side in the family mausoleum.
In a village address, presented to the Stanhope family in 1867, it was most truly said, that Lady Elizabeth Stanhope's 'numerous acts of kindness during a long period of years had endeared her and her aged and affectionate partner, John Spencer Stanhope, Esq'., to the hearts of all ."The present owner of Cannon Hall, Walter Thomas William Spencer~Stanhope, Esq., J.P., D.L., was born on St Thomas' Day (Dec 210, 1827. He was educated at Eton and Christ Church, page 36 Oxford, of which latter Foundation he was a Student. His name appears in the First Class at the Final Examination in Mathematics in 1848. He married, Jan. 17th, 1856, Elizabeth Julia, eldest daughter of Sir John Jacob Buxton, Bart., of Shadwell Court, Norfolk, and his wife Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Montague Cholmeley, of Easton Hall, Grantham. The following children have been born to them: John Montague, now of Magdalene College, Cambridge, Lieut. 4th Batt. West Yorks. Regt., born Dec. 31st, 1860 Walter, Lieut. 1st Batt. S. Yorks. Regt., born Nov. 17th, 1861 ; Edward Collingwood, of Trinity College, Cambridge, born March 2nd, 1863; Hugh Robert, born April 21st, 1864, died Jan. 6th, 1865; Philip Bertie, born Dec. 17th, 868. Their daughters: Mary Gertrude, Cicely Winifrid, Margaret Isabella, Alice Mildred, and Winifrid Julia; a sixth daughter only survived her birth a few hours.
Mrs. Stanhope died at Bournemouth, Sept. 30, 1880, and was buried at Cawthorne, Oct. 6th.
For many years Mr. Stanhope has taken a most active and prominent par in magisterial and county business; he has been Captain of the 1st West Yorkshire Yeomanry Cavalry; is Colonel of the 4th Administrative Battalion of West York Rifles; a Deputy Chairman of the West Riding Quarter Sessions; Vice-Chairman of Aire and Calder Canal Co., &c., &c.
He has four times contested the South West Division of the West Riding in the Conservative interest, and was first returned as Knight of the Shire to the Commons House of Parliament, July 8th, 1872, at an uncontested election on the resignation of Lord Milton.
He was first defeated in 1865 along with Mr. Christopher Beckett Denison:
1865 : Nomination, at Wakefield, July 21st; Declaration of the Poll, 24th:
- Lord Milton - - 7,258
- H. F. Beaumont - 6,975
- C.B. Denison - - 6,884
- W. S. Stanhope - - 6,879
At this Election there were riots at Rotherham and Wath, the Cavalry being called out to quell them. 1868: Nomination, at Wakefield, Nov. 24th; the Declaration of the Poll, Nov. 26th
- Lord Milton - 8,810
- H. F. Beaumont - 7,943
- W: S. Stanhope - 7,935
- L. R. Starkey - 7,621
1872: Unopposed Return of Mr. Stanhope, July 8th; proposed by Mr. Rowland Winn, M.P., seconded by Mr. L. R. Starkey. 1874 : Declaration of Poll, February 11th:
- W. S. Stanhope - 9,705
- L. R. Starkey - 9,639
- W.H. Leatham - 8,265
- H. F. Beaumont - 8,146
1880: Declaration of the Poll, April 10th
- Hon. H. W. Fitzwilliam - 11,385
- W. H. Leatham - 11,181
- W.S. Stanhope - 10,028 - 10,391
- L. R. Starkey - 10,028
Mr. Stanhope is joint Lord of the Manor of Horsforth, Silkstone, Gawber, Thornton, and Skelmanthorpe, with estates situated in the Parishes of Cawthorne, Silkstone, Penistone, Clayton West, Scissett, Thurgoland, Hoylandswaine, Gawber, Barnsley, Denby, Cumberworth, Horsforth, Calverley, Denholme, &c. He is returned in what has been called the “Domesday Book" of 1873 as possessing 11,357 acres with a rental of £11,070. Mr. Stanhope is Patron of the Vicarages of Cawthorne, Horsforth, and Hoyland-Swaine. Towards the new church now being built at Horsforth, of which Mrs. Stanhope laid the Memorial Stone, he has been a very large contributor, besides giving the site, and the Church and Vicarage of Hoyland-Swaine were built almost entirely at the cost of the different members of the Stanhope family at Cannon Hall and Banks, Mr.and the late Mrs. Stanhope taking the most active part and interest in the work, as well as giving largely towards it. Mr. Stanhope's younger brother, John Roddam Spencer-Stanhope, Esq., late of Hillhouse, Cawthorne, now of Villa Nuti, Flotence, has page 38 for many years devoted himself to art, and been a conspicuous exhibitor in the Royal Academy, and especially ever since its establishment in the Grosvenor Gallery. He was born Jan. 21st, 1829, and married, Jan. 1859, Elizabeth, third daughter of John King, Esq., of Preston and Andover, Hants., and relict of George Frederick Dawson, Captain in the Army. The daughters of the late Mr. a Lady Elizabeth Stanhope are Anna Maria Wilhelmina, who was married by Bishop Longley in Cawthorne Church, March 25th, 1853, to Percival Andree Pickering, Esq., Barrister-at-law, then Recorder of Pontefract, and afterwards Q. C., Attorney-General for the County Palatine of Lancaster, and Judge of the Passage Court, Liverpool; Eliza Anne, who married, June, 1858, the Rev. Richard St. John Tyrwhitt, M.A., of Oxford, and died Sept. 1859; Anne Alicia; and Louisa Elizabeth, who died March 13th, 1867, aged 35.
The present Cannon Hall, largely rebuilt about the beginning of last century and recently enlarged, is pleasantly situate about a mile north-west of Cawthorne, fronting north and south, well sheltered with timber, and with a charming view from the terrace over a well diversfied park towards the church and village to the south-east, and over a hilly, well-wooded neighbourhood to the south. The present owner's grandfather did much by his good taste to enhance the beauty of the view by planting up and down on the horizon and on many of the more Prominent features of the landscape. In the entrance hall of the house are many interesting Greek sculptures brought home by Mr. Stanhope, and a copy of that part of the original Frieze of the Parthenon of Athens, which he was the means of recovering, and presenting to the British Museum. There is a large collection of family portraits, and sketches made in Greece, &C, by the artists who accompanied Mr. Stanhope in his travels The MS. journals of the Stanhope family go back for about a hundred and thirty years, and furnish an interesting record of one who took a prominent part in the political and social life of the close of the last century and beginning of the present, and of his son the late Mr. John Stanhope, who cared less for public life than for the elegances of literature and those classical studies and scholarly tastes which so greatly distinguished him to the last years of his life.
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There is a large ancient bow at Cannon Hall which is said to have belonged to Little John, the lieutenant of Robin Hood's band. The late Rev. Charles Spencer Stanhope gave the following traditional history of it to the Rev. Dr. Gatty, who inserts it as a note on page 3 of his Hallamshire." Oct. 5, 1865. There is a bow at Cannon Hall "said to have been the bow of Little John bearing on it the name of "Col. Naylor, 1715, who is said to have been the last man who bent it and shot a deer with it. There was also a cuirass of chain mail "and an arrow or two which were said to have belonged to Little "John, but they were lost in repairs of the house about 1780 ; but I "have heard my father say that the cuirass had been much reduced "by people stealing rings from it for memorials. Hathersage in "Derbyshire was an estate formerly belonging to the Spencer family" (see page 28) "and was left by the last Spencer to the son of his "eldest daughter, John Ashton Shuttleworth. In this churchyard was "the head and footstone of the grave of Little John; and his bows, "arrows, and cuirass, according to Ashmole, as I am told, used to "hang up in the Chancel of Hathersage Church."
Ashmole MS. 1137 : fol. 1~7. "Little John lyes buried in Hathersage Churchyard within three miles from Castleton, near High Peake, with one stone set up at his head and another at his feet , but a large distance between them. They say a parte of his bowe "hangs up in the said Church."
"From thence they have long disappeared, and a bow, &c., are "found at Cannon Hall, a seat of the Spencers, who were also "owners ot Hathersage, and this bow was always known by the name "of Little John's bow. It is of spliced yew, of great size, and above "six feet long, though the ends where the horns were attached are "broken off. The late James Shuttleworth, who died about 1826, "had the grave opened I fancy about 1780, and the only bone which "was found, beyond what instantly crumbled to dust, were thigh "bones of the extraordinary length of 28 1/2 inches. I remember, in "the year 1820, when Sir Francis, father of Sir Charles Wood, Bart., "of Hickleton (now Lord Halifax), was at Cannon Hall, on my "recounting this anecdote, sending up for the old woodman, Hinchcliffe, who told it me; and he took a two-foot rule out of his pocket page 40 and extending the little slide showed the exact length. He mentioned besides that he was the gravedigger's son, and was present at "the disinterring of the said bone." * Mr. Stanhope adds, "My brother (Mr. John Stanhope) said the bow was removed "from the Church to the Hall at Hathersage for better security.
In entering the pleasure-grounds from the park on the east side, passing over the foot-bridge, is an arch from the former porch of Silkstone Church, with the tracery of the late tower window of Cawthorne Church on your right. On our left going down the walk towards the south is a window with other masonry from Silkstone Church, the window at the bottom being the east window of Cawthorne Church previously to its former restoration or, more accurately, alteration in 1826. The arch beyond it was the entrance to Cawthorne South Porch previously to the recent restoration One of the two Fonts in the grounds came from the farm-yard of Mr. Stanhope's farm of Wheatley Hill, near Scissett
Spencer: Azure, a fesse erm. wavy between six sea-mews' heads erased ar.
Crest: A rock ppr thereon a sea-mew also ppr.
Motto : "Dieu defend le droit." ("God defends the right.")
Stanhope: Quarterly: ermine and gules.
Crest: A tower azure with demi-lion rampant issuing or, ducally crowned gu., holding between his paws a grenade firing, ppr.
Molto: "A Deo et Rege." ("From God and the King.")
Collingwood: Arg. a chevron sa. between 3 stags' heads erased of the second.
Crest: A stag at gaze, in a holly bush, proper.
Motto: "Nil conscire sibi."
Roddam: Gu. on a bend arm three cinque foils sa.
Crest: A stump of an oak tree comped, sprouting out leaves; ppr.
Motto: "Nec deficit alter."