Howard, Hugh (DNB00)

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HOWARD, HUGH (1675–1737), portrait-painter and collector of works of art, born in Dublin 7 Feb. 1675, was eldest son of Dr. Ralph Howard [q. v.] of Shelton, co. Wicklow. He came with his father to England in 1688, and showing a taste for painting joined in 1697 the suite of Thomas Herbert, eighth earl of Pembroke [q.v.], one of the plenipotentiaries for the treaty of Ryswyck, on a journey through Holland to Italy. He remained in Italy about three years, returning to England in October 1700. After spending some years in Dublin, Howard settled in London, where he practised for some time as a portrait-painter. He obtained, however, the sinecure post of keeper of the state papers, and was subsequently appointed paymaster of the works belonging to the crown. He was thus enabled to relinquish painting as a profession. Howard was a profound student, with a good knowledge and powers of discernment in the critical study of art. The emoluments of his various posts, added to a good private income and economical habits, enabled him to collect prints, drawings, medals, &c., on a large scale. Howard executed a few etchings, including one of Padre Resta, the collector; twenty-one drawings by him, including a portrait of Cardinal Albani, and some caricatures, are in the print room in the British Museum. Matthew Prior wrote a poem in his honour. Howard died in Pall Mall 17 March 1737, and was buried in the church at Richmond, Surrey. He made a fortunate marriage in 1714 with Thomasine, daughter and heiress of General Thomas Langston.

Howard inherited in 1728 part of Lord-chancellor West's library from his younger brother, William Howard, M.P. for Dublin. He left his collections to his only surviving brother, Robert Howard, bishop of Elphin [see under Howard, Ralph], who removed them to Ireland. They remained in the possession of the latter's descendants, the Earls of Wicklow, until December 1873, when the fine collection of prints and drawings, many of which were from the collections of Sir Peter Lely and the Earl of Arundel, were dispersed by auction. Many fine specimens found their way into the print room at the British Museum.

A portrait of Howard was painted by Michael Dahl in 1723, and engraved in mezzo-tint by John Faber, jun., in 1737.

[Redgrave's Dict. of Artists; Lodge's Peerage of Ireland, ed. Archdall; Vertue's MSS. (Brit. Mus. Addit. MS. 23076); Walpole's Anecdotes of Painting, ed. Wornum; Sale Cat. of the Hugh Howard Collection, 1873; Bromley's Cat. of Engraved Portraits, p.292.]

L. C.

HOWARD, JAMES (fl. 1674), dramatist, was ninth son of Thomas Howard, first earl of Berkshire, and was brother of Sir Robert (1618?-1698) [q. v.], of Edward Howard [q. v.], and of Lady Elizabeth, who married Dryden (Collins, Peerage of England, ed. Brydges, 1812). He was the author of two comedies. 'All Mistaken, or the Mad Couple, a Comedy,' published in 4to in 1672, was first acted at the Theatre Royal on 20 Sept. and again on 28 Dec. 1667. According to Pepys the part of the heroine Mirida was taken by Nell Gwyn, and that of Philidor by Hart (Genest, i. 72, iv. 116). Langbaine says 'this play is commended by some for an excellent comedy.' Genest says the humour is 'of the lowest species.' Howard's second comedy, 'The English Mounsieur,' published in 4to in 1674, was first acted at the Theatre Royal 8 Dec. 1666. Nell Gwyn seems to have taken the part of Lady Wealthy, Lacy that of Frenchlove, and Hart of Wellbred. Pepys was present, and described the piece as 'a mighty pretty play, very witty and pleasant: and the women do all very well; but above all, little Nelly.' Pepys saw the comedy again performed on 7 April 1668 (Pepys. Diary, iii. 25, 420). Frenchlove, the main character, having recently returned from France, he affects all the habits of that country, and is amusingly drawn (cf. Genest, i. 66, x. 253-4). Langbaine adds: 'Whether the late Duke of Buckingham, in his character of Prince Volscius falling in love with Parthenope as he is pulling on his boots to go out of town, designed to reflect on the [i.e. Howard's] characters of Comely and Elsbeth, I pretend not to determine; but I know there is a near resemblance in the characters.' Howard is also said to have converted Shakespeare's 'Romeo and Juliet' into a tragi-comedy, 'preserving both Romeo and Juliet alive.' According to Downes's 'Roscius Anglicanus,' p. 22, Howard's adaptation was acted at the theatre in Lincoln's Inn Fields by Sir William D'Avenant's company on alternate nights with the authentic version (Genest, History of Stage, i. 42). Howard's adaptation was not printed.

[Collins's Peerage; Paget's Ashtead and its Howard Possessors, p. 39; Biographia Dramatica.]

W. R. M.

HOWARD, JAMES, third Earl of Suffolk (1619–1688), born on 23 Dec. 1619, was the eldest son of Theophilus, second earl of Suffolk (1584–1640) [q. v.], by Lady Elizabeth, daughter and coheiress of George Home, earl of Dunbar [q. v.] His godfathers were James I and the Duke of Buckingham (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1619-23, p. 170). At the coronation of Charles I on 2 Feb. 1626 he was created K.B. (Metcalfe, Book of Knights, p. 186), and in February 1639, as Lord Walden, became leader of a troop of volunteer horse for the king's army. On 3 June 1640 he succeeded his father as third earl of Suffolk, and on the 16th of the same month was sworn joint lord-lieutenant of Suffolk. The parliament nominated him lord-lieutenant of that county on 28 Feb. 1642 (Commons' Journals, ii. 459). On 28 Dec. 1643 he received a summons to attend the king's parliament at Oxford (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1641-3, p. 508), and on 7 July 1646 was appointed joint commissioner from the parliament to the king at Newcastle (Commons' Journals, iv. 606). Acting on a report from the committee of safety, in September 1647, the commons decided but went no further to impeach Howard, together with six other peers, of high treason (ib. v. 296, 584). On 8 Sept. 1653 Howard was sworn as high steward of Ipswich. After the Restoration he became lord-lieutenant of Suffolk, and of Cambridgeshire on 25 July 1660. From 18 to 24 April 1661 he acted as earl-marshal of England for the coronation of Charles II (Walker, Coronation, p. 46). In the same year he became colonel of the Suffolk regiment of horse militia. On 28 Sept. 1663 he was created M.A. of Oxford (Wood, Fasti Oxon., ed. Bliss, iv. 272), and M.A. of Cambridge on 6 Sept. 1664. He was also appointed governor of Landguard Fort, Essex, gentleman of the bedchamber to the king on 4 March 1665, keeper of the king's house at Audley End, Essex, in March 1667, joint commissioner for the office of earl-marshal of England on 15 June 1673, colonel commandant of three regiments of Cambridgeshire militia in 1678, and was hereditary visitor of Magdalene College, Cambridge. In March 1681 he was discharged from the lord-lieutenancy of Suffolk and Cambridgeshire, and from attendance in the king's bedchamber (Luttrell, i. 69). He died in December 1688, and was buried on 16 Jan. 1689 at Saffron Walden, Essex (ib. i. 496). On 1 Dec. 1640 he married Lady Susan Rich, daughter of Henry, first earl of Holland, and by her,