Howard, John Eliot (DNB00)

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HOWARD, JOHN ELIOT (1807–1883), quinologist, son of Luke Howard [q. v.], the meteorologist, was born at Plaistow, Essex, 11 Dec. 1807. Throughout his life he was connected with his father's chemical manufactory at Stratford. His first paper, a report on the collection of cinchona in the British Museum made by the Spanish botanist Pavon, was published in 1852. In the following year he joined the Pharmaceutical Society, and in 1857 the Linnean Society. Being specially interested in quinine he purchased at Madrid, in 1858, the manuscript 'Nueva Quinologia' and the specimens of cinchona belonging to Pavon; employed a botanical artist to illustrate them, and published in 1862 the sumptuous 'Illustrations of the "Nueva Quinologia" of Pavon, and Observations on the Barks described.' Howard's second great work, 'The Quinology of the East Indian Plantations,' published in 1869, was the result of his examination of the bark of all the forms of cinchona introduced into India from the Andes by Markham, Spruce, and Cross. For this he received the thanks of her majesty's government, and in 1874 was elected a fellow of the Royal Society. Howard took considerable interest in gardening, and especially in hybridisation as bearing upon cultivated cinchonas, and was the author of numerous scientific papers, chiefly on quinology. He also gave addresses on both science and revelation at the Victoria Institute, of which he was a vice-president. He died at his house, Lord's Mead, Tottenham, Middlesex, 22 Nov. 1883, and was buried in Tottenham cemetery. Weddell dedicated to him the genus Howardia of the Cinchonaceæ. He married Maria, daughter of W. D. Crewdson of Kendal, and left a large family.

Like his father he was a member of the Society of Friends. He published in early life several religious tracts, such as 'The Doctrine of the Inward Life,' 1836; 'Justification by Faith,' 1838; and 'An Address to the Christians of Tottenham,' 1839.

[Trans. Essex Field Club, iv. 8-11, with portrait; Proc. Linn. Soc. 1883-4, p. 35; Gardener's Chronicle, 1883, ii. 701; Royal Society's Cat. iii. 450, vii. 1023.]

G. S. B.