Newton, Charles Thomas (DNB01)

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NEWTON, Sir CHARLES THOMAS (1816–1894), archæologist, second son of Newton Dickinson Hand Newton, vicar of Clungunford, Salop, and afterwards of Bredwardine in the same county, was born in 1816. He was educated at Shrewsbury School (then under Samuel Butler), and at Christ Church, Oxford (matriculating 17 Oct. 1833), where he graduated B.A. in 1837 and M.A. in 1840.

Already in his undergraduate days Newton (as his friend and contemporary, Ruskin, tells in Præterita) was giving evidence of his natural bent; the scientific study of classical archaeology, which Winckelmann had set on foot in Germany, was in England to find its worthy apostle in Newton. In 1840, contrary to the wishes of his family, he entered the British Museum as assistant in the department of antiquities. As a career the museum, as it then was, can have presented but few attractions to a young man; but the department, as yet undivided, probably offered to Newton a wider range of comparative study in his subject than he could otherwise have acquired.

In 1852 he was named vice-consul at Mytilene, and from April 1853 to January 1854 he was consul at Rhodes, with the definite duty, among others, of watching over the interests of the British Museum in the Levant. In 1854 and 1855, with funds advanced by Lord Stratford de Redcliffe, he carried on excavations in Calymnos, enriching the British Museum with an important series of inscriptions, and in the following year he was at length enabled to undertake his long-cherished scheme of identifying the site, and recovering for this country the chief remains, of the mausoleum at Halicarnassus. His residence in the Levant was further marked by researches at Cnidus and Branchidae, both of which resulted in important gains to the nation, and by the disinter- ment of the famous bronze Delphian serpent in the Hippodrome at Constantinople. In 1860 he was named consul at Rome, bat was the following year recalled to take up the newly created post of keeper of Greek and Roman antiquities at the British Museum. On 27 April 1861 he married the distinguished painter, Ann Mary, daughter of Joseph Severn [q.v.], himself a painter and the friend of Keats, who had succeeded Newton in Rome; she died in 1866 at their residence, 74 Gower Street, Bloomsbury [see Newton, Ann Mary].

Newton's keepership at the museum was marked by an amassing wealth of important acquisitions, which were largely attributable to his personal influence or initiation. Thus in the ten years 1864-74 alone he was enabled to purchase no less than five important collections of classical antiquities : the Farnese, the two great series of Castellani, the Pourtales, and the Blacas collections, representing in special grants upwards of 100,000l.; only those who know what labour and tact are involved in the capture of even the smallest 'special grant' can appreciate what this implies. Meanwhile his work in the Levant, bringing to the museum the direct results of exploration and research, was being continued by his successors and friends : Biliotti in Rhodes, Smith and Porcher at Gyrene, Lang in Cyprus, Dennis in Sicily, in the Cyrenaica, and around Smyrna, Pullan at Priene, Wood at Ephesus were all working more or less directly under Newton on behalf of the museum.

Of his own work as a scholar in elucidating and editing the remains of antiquity, the list of his writings given below is only a slight indication; nor was this confined to writing alone. In 1855 he had been offered by Lord Palmerston (acting on Liddell's advice) the regius professorship of Greek at Oxford, rendered vacant by Dean Gaisford's death, with the definite object of creating a school of students in what was then a practically untried field of classical study at Oxford. The salary, however, was only nominal, and Newton was obliged to decline the post, which was then offered to and accepted by Benjamin Jowett [q. v. Suppl.] In 1880, however, the Yates chair of classical archaeology was created at University College, London, and by a special arrangement Newton was enabled to hold it coincidently with his museum appointment. As antiquary to the Royal Academy he lectured frequently. In the latter part of his career he was closely associated with the work of three English societies, all of which owed to him more or less directly their inception and a large part of their success; the Society for the Promotion of Hellenic Studies, at the inaugural meeting of which he presided in June 1879; the British School at Athens, started in February 1885; and the Egypt Exploration Fund, which was founded iii 1882. In 1889 he was presented by his friends and pupils, under the presidency of the Earl of Carnarvon, with a testimonial in the form of a marble portrait bust of himself by Boehm, now deposited in the Mausoleum room at the British Museum; the balance of the fund was by his own wish devoted to founding a studentship in connection with the British school at Athens. In 1885 he resigned the museum and academy appointments, and in 1888 he was compelled by increasing infirmity to give up the Yates professorship. On 28 Nov. 1894 he died at Margate, whither he had gone from his residence, 2 Montague Place, Bedford Square.

In 1874 Newton was made honorary fellow of Worcester College, Oxford, and on 9 June 1875 D.C.L. of the same university; LL.D. of Cambridge, and Ph.D. of Strasburg in 1879; C.B. on 16 Nov. 1875, and K.C.B. on 21 June 1887. He was correspondent of the Institute of France, honorary director of the Archaeological Institute of Berlin, and honorary member of the Accademia dei Lincei of Rome.

He was editor of the 'Collection of Ancient Greek Inscriptions in the British Museum' (1874 &c. fol.), and author of numerous other official publications of the British Museum; also of a treatise on the 'Method of the Study of Ancient Art,' 1850; a 'History of Discoveries at Halicarnassus, Cnidus, and Branchidæ,' 1862-3; 'Travels and Discoveries in the Levant,' 1865; 'Essays on Art and Archæology,' 1880; and of many papers in periodicals, among which may be specially noted a 'Memoir on the Mausoleum' in the 'Classical Museum' for 1847.

[Revue Archéologique, 1894, xxr. 273; Times, 30 Nov. 1894; National Review, January 1895, p. 616; Classical Review, 1895, p. 81.]

C. H. S.