to a fatal paralysis. The thrombus may be formed in gout and rheumatism, or in consequence of stagnation of the blood-current due to the slowing of the circulation in various wasting diseases. When a thrombus forms, absolute rest in the recumbent posture is to be strictly enjoined; the great danger is the displacement of the clot. An inflamed and clotted vein, if near the surface, causes an elongated, dusky elevation beneath the skin, where the vein may be felt as a hard cord, the size, perhaps, of a cedar pencil, or a pen-holder. Its course is marked by great tenderness, and the tissue which was drained by the branches of that vein are livid from congestion, and perhaps boggy and pitting with oedema. If, as often happens, the inflamed vein is one of those running conspicuously upwards from the foot—a saphenous vein (σαφής, distinct)—the patient should be placed in bed with the limbs secured on a splint in order to protect it from any rough movement. Should the clot become detached, it might give rise to sudden and alarming faintness possibly even to a fatal syncope. Thus, there is always grave risk with an inflamed and clotted vein, and modern surgery shows that the safest course is, when practicable, to place a ligature on the vein upon the heart-side of the clotted piece and to remove the latter by dissection. When, as sometimes happens, the clot is invaded by septic organisms it is particularly liable to become disintegrated, and if parts of it are carried to various regions of the body they may there give rise to the formation of secondary abscesses. In the ordinary treatment of phlebitis, in addition to the insistence on perfect rest and quiet, fomentations may be applied locally, the limb being kept raised. Massage must not be employed so long as there is any risk of a clot being detached. (E. O.*)
PHLEGON, of Tralles in Asia Minor, Greek writer and freedman of the emperor Hadrian, flourished in the 2nd century A.D. His chief work was the Olympiads, an historical compendium in sixteen books, from the 1st down to the 229th Olympiad (776 B.C. to A.D. 137), of which several chapters are preserved in Photius and Syncellus. Two small works by him are extant: On Marvels, containing some ridiculous stories about prophecies and monstrous births, but instructive as regards ancient superstitions; On Long-lived Persons, a list of Italians who had passed the age of 100, taken from the Roman censuses. Other works ascribed to Phlegon by Suïdas are a description of Sicily, a work on the Roman festivals in three books, and a topography of Rome.
Fragments in C. Müller, Frag. hist. graec. iii.; of, the Marvels and Long-lived in O. Keller, Rerum naturalism scriptures, i. (1877), see also H. Diels, “ Phlegons Androgynenorakel " in Sibyllinische Blätter (1890).
PHLOGOPITE, a mineral belonging to the group of micas (q v.). It is a magnesium mica, differing from biotite in containing only a little iron; the chemical formula is [H,K,(MgF)]3Mg3Al(SiO4)3. It crystallizes in the monoclinic system, but the crystals are roughly developed. There is a perfect cleavage parallel to the basal plane, the cleavage flakes are not quite so elastic as those of muscovite. Sometimes it is quite colourless and transparent, but usually of a characteristic yellowish-brown colour. and often with a silvery lustre on the cleavage surfaces, hence the trade name “ silver amber mica ” for some varieties. The name phlogopite is from Gr. ϕλογωπός (fiery-looking), the mineral being sometimes brownish-red and coppery in appearance. The hardness is 2½–3, and the specific gravity 2.78–2.85. The optic axial plane is parallel to the plane of symmetry and the axial angle 0°–10°. Phlogopite occurs chiefly as scales and plates embedded in crystalline limestones of the Archean formation. The mica mined in Canada and Ceylon is mainly phlogopite, and is largely used as an insulator for electrical purposes. In Canada it occurs with apatite in pyroxene rocks which are intrusive in Laurentian gneisses and crystalline limestones, the principal mining district being in Ottawa county in Quebec and near Burgess in Lanark county, Ontario. In Ceylon, the mineral forms irregular veins, rarely exceeding one or two feet in width, traversing granulate, especially near the coptact of this rock with crystalline limestone. (L. J. S.)
PHLOX (Nat. Ord. Polemoniaceae), a genus of about 30 species, mostly perennial hardy plants of great beauty, natives of North America (one occurs in Siberia), with entire, usually opposite, leaves and showy flowers generally in termina clusters. Each flower has a tubular calyx with five lobes, and a salver shaped corolla with a long slender tube and a flat limb. The five stamens are given off from the tube of the corolla at different heights and do not protrude beyond it. The ovary is three-celled with one to two ovules in each cell; it ripens into a three-valved capsule. Many of the species and varieties are tall herbs yielding a wealth of bloom throughout the summer and early autumn. These require a deep, rich, and rather heavy loam, and a cool, moist position to flourish.
The dwarf perennial species and varieties, the “ moss pinks ” of gardens, are charming plants for the rockery and as edging to beds and borders. They are trailing and tufted in habit, the branches rooting at the nodes. They succeed in poorer soil, and drier situations than the tall kinds. Seed is seldom produced. Propagation is effected by cuttings in July and early August, placed in a cold frame, and by division of the plants, which should be lifted carefully, and cut into rooted portions as required. The tufted kinds decay in patches in winter if the situation is moist and the weather mild and wet.
Phlox Drummondii and its numerous varieties are half-hardy annuals in Britain. It is a small-growing hairy plant, flowering profusely during the summer months. For early flowering it should be sown in heat in March and April and transferred out of doors in June. It succeeds if sown out of doors in April, but the flowering season is later and shorter.
The tall-growing border phloxes are divided into early and late flowering kinds respectively, the former derived mainly from P. glaberrima and P. suffruticosa, and the latter from P. maculata and P. paniculata. The salver-shaped flowers with cylindrical tubes range from pure white to almost bright scarlet in colour, passing through shades of pink, purple, magenta lilac, mauve and salmon. New varieties are obtained by the selection of seedlings. Owing to the frequent introduction of new kinds, the reader is referred to the current lists published by growers and nurserymen. The “ moss pinks, ” P. subulata and its varieties, are all worthy of a place in the alpine garden.
The varieties are relatively few. The following list includes nearly all the best kinds:—
P. subulata, pink with dark centre; Aldboroughensis, rose; annulala, bluish white, ringed with purple; atrolilacina, deep lilac; atropurpurea, purple-rose and crimson; Brightness, bright rose with scarlet eye; compacta, clear rose, Fairy, lilac; G. F. Wilson, mauve; grandiflora, pink, crimson blotch; Little Dot, white, blue centre; Nelsoni, pure white; Vivid, rose, carmine centre; all these are about 4 in. high. P. divaricata, lavender, height 1 ft.; P. ovata, rose, 1 ft.; P. reptans, rose, 6 in.; and P. amoena, rose, 9 in., are also charming alpines. P. Drummandii varieties come true from seed, but are usually sown in mixture.
PHOCAEA (mod. Fokia or Fokha) an ancient city on the western coast of Asia Minor, famous as the mother city of Marseilles. It was the most northern of the Ionian cities, and was situated on the coast of the peninsula which separates the gulf of Cyme, occupied by Aeolian settlers, from the Hermaean Gulf, on which stood Smyrna and Clazomenae. Its position between two good harbours, Naustathmus and Lampter (Livy xxxvii. 31), led the inhabitants to devote themselves to maritime pursuits. According to Herodotus the Phocaeans were the first of all the Greeks to undertake distant voyages, and made known the coasts of the Adriatic, Tyrrhenia and Spain. Arganthonius, king of Tartessus in Spain, invited them to emigrate in a body to his dominions, and, on their declining, presented them with a large sum of money. This they employed in constructing a strong wall around their city, a defence which stood them in good stead when Ionia was attacked by Cyrus in 546. Eventually they determined to seek a new home in the west, where they already had flourishing colonies, e.g.
- It was said to have been founded by a band of emigrants from Phocis, under the guidance of two Athenian leaders, named Philogenes and Damon, but it joined the Ionian confederacy by accepting the government of Athenian rulers of the house of Codrus.