THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE.
Flanders and of Boulogne, and many other headmen. And earl Robert and those who accompanied him abode in Apulia that winter. But of those who went by Hungary, many thousands perished miserably there, or on the road, and many, rueful and hunger-bitten, toiled homewards against winter. These were very hard times to all the English, as well because of the manifold taxes, as of the very grievous famine which sorely afflicted the land. This year also the nobles who had charge of this country frequently sent forth armies into Wales, and thus they greatly oppressed many, and for no purpose, but with much loss of men and of money.
A. 1097. This year king William was in Normandy at Christmas, and before Easter he sailed for this land, intending to hold his court at Winchester, but he was kept at sea by bad weather till Easter eve; and Arundel was the first place to which he came, therefore he held his court at Windsor. After this, he marched into Wales with a large army, and his troops penetrated far into the country by means of some Welshmen who had come over to him, and were his guides. And William remained there from Midsummer till near August, to his great loss of men and horses and many other things.
When the Welsh had revolted from the king, they chose several leaders from among themselves, one of these was named Cadwgan, he was the most powerful of them all, and was the son of king Griffin's brother. The king, seeing that he could not effect his purpose, returned into England, and he forthwith caused castles to be built on the marches. Then at Michaelmas, on the 4th before the Nones of October, an uncommon star appeared shining in the evening, and soon going down: it was seen in the south-west, and the light which streamed from it seemed very long, shining towards the south-east; and it appeared after this manner nearly all the week. Many allowed that it was a comet. Soon after this, Anselm archbishop of Canterbury obtained permission from the king, though against his inclination, to leave this country and go over sea, because it seemed to him that in this nation little was done according to right, or after his desires. And at Martinmas the king went over sea to
- "Headmen or chiefs." The term is still retained with a slight variation in the north of Europe, as the hetman Platoff, of celebrated memory.'—Ingram.