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systems, enriched by valuable botanical and ornithological collections. Of this voyage we have further results in his Palm-Trees of the Amazon and Their Uses and Tropical Nature, dealing with the colors of bird, animal and insect life and with the geographical distribution of plants and animals, sexual selection etc. A prolonged visit to the Malay Islands (1854-62) is the source of his work on The Malay Archipelago, published in 1869. This and a volume entitled Contributions to the Theory of Natural Selection give him place alongside Darwin as an exponent of evolution—his views on natural selection and variation being, like Darwin's, an explanation of the mode of origin of existing species of animals and plants. A little volume (issued in 1889), explains his theories in regard to evolution and Darwin's work: the volume is entitled Darwinism. Two other works from his pen also throw valuable light on the evolutionary theory, viz., Natural Selection (1870) and The Geographical Distribution of Animals (1876). For these labors, Doctor Wallace received the founder's gold medal of the Royal Geographical Society, the gold medal of the Linnaean Society and the first Darwin medal of the Royal Society. Among his other published works are a volume on Australasia, contributed to Stanford's Compendium of Geography and Travel; The Wonderful Century, Its Successes and Its Failures (1898); Island Life (1880); Miracles and Modern Spiritualism (1874); Bad Times (1835); and Land Nationalization (1882). He died in London, Nov. 7, 1913. See Autobiography (1905).

Wallace, Lewis, an American general and writer, was born at Brookville, Ind., in 1827. His military service was in the Mexican War and in the Civil War, where he commanded a division at the capture of Fort Donelson, and guarded Cincinnati when besieged by Gen. Kirby Smith. In July, 1864, though defeated by General Early who was marching on Washington, his attack detained the Confederate forces until Grant had re-enforced the capital. He was governor of New Mexico from 1878 to 1881 and minister to Turkey from 1881 to 1885. His writings include The Fair God, a story of the conquest of Mexico; Life of Benjamin Harrison, The Boyhood of Christ, The Prince of India and the most popular of his works, Ben Hur, a Tale of the Christ. He died on Feb. 15, 1905.


Wallace, Sir William, the most popular national hero of Scotland, was born about 1270. While studying at Dundee, so tradition relates, he killed a young Englishman in revenge for an insult, and was outlawed. He gathered around him a band of desperate men, whom he led in attacks on the English. His followers and his successes increased until the English king recognized it as an insurrection, and sent an army against the insurgents, when most of the nobles deserted Wallace. He fled to the north, soon collected another army, and drove the English from Scotland, and was chosen guardian of Scotland in 1297. The English renewed the contest, and, the Scottish nobles again deserting, Wallace was defeated at the battle of Falkirk, 1298, and a price put upon his head. He was captured and executed as a traitor, Aug. 22, 1305, though he denied the accusation of treachery, saying he could not be a traitor to the king of England, as he had never been his subject. Consult Jane Porter's The Scottish Chiefs; Early Days of Wallace by Bute; Life by Carrick; and Tales of a Grandfather by Sir Walter Scott.

Wallachia (wŏl-lā'kĭ-ȧ). See Rumania.

Walla Walla (wŏl'lȧ wŏl'lȧ), (meaning Many Waters), Wash., a city on Walla Walla River, capital of the county of the same name, in southeastern Washington, 245 miles east of Portland, 75 miles southwest of Lewiston, Idaho, and 125 miles south of Spokane. It is the seat of a United States military post and of the state penitentiary. Here, also, are located Whitman College and a number of important educational institutions. Walla Walla is a considerable trade-center, especially for the region about (an agricultural, fruit-growing and stock-raising one), including northern Idaho and northeastern Oregon. It is situated on the Union Pacific Railroad. The city has ample waterpower and a number of manufactories, including flour-mills, foundries and machine-shops; lumber, sash, door and blind factories; iron and wire-fence works etc. Population 19,364.

Wallenstein (wŏl'lĕn-stīn), Albrecht Eusebius von, was born in Bohemia, Sept. 24, 1583. After the death of his parents, who were Protestants, he was sent by an uncle to the Jesuit College at Olmutz, where he joined the Roman church. His studies at Altdorf, Bologna and Padua resulted principally in a faith in astrology and trust in the stars. He served in the Hungarian army and on the side of the emperor in the troubles in Bohemia, securing in the confusion the large estates belonging to his mother's family and confiscated lands, which he formed into a state called Friedland; and in 1623 he was given the rank of prince. In 1626 Wallenstein raised an army of 30,000 men for Emperor Ferdinand, and joined with Tilly, the great