In England the highest education is given at the ancient universities of Oxford and Cambridge, the former having 22 colleges and 3 private halls, and the latter 17 colleges and 1 hall; the university of Durham, founded in 1831, with a college of medicine, and since 1871, a college of science at Newcastle; the university of London founded in 1836 and reorganised in 1900 so as to be a teaching as well as an examining body, with 24 colleges or schools giving instruction in 8 faculties; the Victoria University (Manchester), founded in 1880; the Birmingham University, founded in 1900; the Liverpool University, founded in 1903; the Leeds University, founded in 1904; the Sheffield University, founded in 1905; and the Bristol University, founded in 1909. There are also University Colleges at Exeter, Nottingham (founded 1881), Reading (started with the establishment of art classes in 1860), and Southampton (founded 1850). There are special Agricultural Colleges at Carlisle, Cirencester, Glasgow, Newport (Shropshire), Kingston-on-Soar (Derby), Wye (Kent), Uckfield (Sussex), and Ripley (Surrey). The university of Wales, founded in 1903, has 3 colleges (Cardiff, Aberystwyth, and Bangor). In Scotland there are 4 universities, viz., at St. Andrews, founded 1411; Glasgow, 1450; Aberdeen, 1494; Edinburgh, 1582. The Carnegie trust, founded in 1901 with a capital of 2,000,000 £., has an annual income of 100,000 £., of which half is devoted to the equipment and expansion of the Scottish Universities and half to assisting students. In Ireland is the university of Dublin, founded 1591. In 1909 was founded in Dublin the National University of Ireland, and in Belfast the Queen's University of Belfast. The former has 3 constituent colleges, viz., the University Colleges of Cork, Galway, and Dublin. The following table gives the approximate number of teachers and students of the Universities in the United Kingdom mainly for 1912:—
|London Internal||884||290 |
|London External||—||950 |
|Total for England||2,434||15,940|
|Total for Scotland||525||7,910|
|Dublin, (Trinity col.)||110||1,100|
|Total for Ireland||280||1,700|
|Grand Total (approximate)||3,369||26,800|
- Undergraduates; the matriculations numbered: Oxford, 1,040; Cambridge, 1,156.
- Comprising 69 "Appointed Teachers" and 815 "Recognised Teachers."
- Registered students.
- Also 250 evening and occasional students.
At most of the Universities and University Colleges women students are admitted on equal terms with men. There are, however, several colleges exclusively for female Students:—Bedford, Royal Holloway, and Westfield Colleges in London; Newnham and Girton (160 students) Colleges in Cambridge; Lady Margaret Hall, Sommerville College, St. Hugh's College, and St. Hilda's College, in Oxford.