Stanley, Henry (DNB00)
STANLEY, HENRY, fourth Earl of Derby (1531–1593), eldest son of Edward Stanley, third earl of Derby [q. v.], by his first wife, Katherine, daughter of Thomas Howard I, second duke of Norfolk [q. v.], was born in September 1531, and was christened on 4 Oct. (Letters and Papers of Henry VIII, v. 576). He was styled Lord Strange until his succession to the peerage. He was knighted on 20 Feb. 1546–7, at the coronation of Edward VI, to whom he became gentleman of the privy chamber. In April 1550 he was sent as a hostage to France, in company with the Earl of Hertford and other noblemen's sons, and about the same time a project was formed for marrying him to Margaret, daughter of the Duke of Somerset. According to his own statement, he was employed by Somerset to induce Edward VI to marry the duke's third daughter (Jane), to keep a watch on the young king's words and deeds, and to report any secret conferences he might have with his councillors. These proceedings formed one of the principal charges on which Somerset was condemned, though he denied them on oath at his trial (Tytler, England under Edward VI and Mary, ii. 15–25). In July 1554 Strange was appointed gentleman of the privy chamber to Philip of Spain, and on 7 Feb. following he married at the royal chapel, Whitehall, Margaret, eldest daughter of Henry de Clifford, second earl of Cumberland [q. v.] The ceremony was marked by the introduction of a Spanish game, ‘Juego de cañas,’ which has been misinterpreted as a masque, with the title ‘Jube the Cane’ or ‘Jube the Sane’ (cf. Collier, i. 146; Stanley Papers, i. 12; Machyn, Diary, pp. 82, 342). His wife was granddaughter of Henry VIII's younger sister, Mary, duchess of Suffolk, and thus had some claim to the crown (Bailey, Succession to the English Crown, pp. 171 et seq.; cf. art. Clifford, Henry, second Earl of Cumberland). But Strange himself kept these claims in the background, and never suffered any molestation on their account.
Soon after Elizabeth's accession he was, on 23 Jan. 1558–9, summoned to parliament as Baron Strange. In 1562 he became a member of Gray's Inn, and on 6 Sept. 1566 he was created M.A. of Oxford. On 26 Oct. 1572 he succeeded his father as fourth Earl of Derby and lord lieutenant of Lancashire. He frequently served as commissioner for ecclesiastical causes, and was an active member of the council of the north. He did not share his father's Roman catholic tendencies, and was a vigorous enemy to recusants in Lancashire. On 24 April 1574 he was elected K.G., and on 20 Jan. 1579–80 he was appointed ambassador-extraordinary to confer the insignia of the order of the Garter on Henry III of France (Cal. Hatfield MSS. iii. 39, 75, 90, 94, 96; Tanner MSS. lxxviii. ff. 22–36, 78–9, 234). On 20 May 1585 he was sworn of the privy council, and on 6 Oct. 1586 he was appointed one of the commissioners to try Mary Queen of Scots. In January 1587–8 he was made chief commissioner to treat for peace with Spain at Ostend, and on 23 March 1588–9 he was appointed lord high steward. On 14 April following he was lord high steward for the trial of Philip Howard, first earl of Arundel [q. v.] He died on 25 Sept. 1593, and was buried at Ormskirk. An engraving of an anonymous portrait of Derby, belonging to the present Earl Derby, is given in Doyle. He was patron of a company of actors who performed before the queen on 14 Feb. 1579–1580; it became more famous under the patronage of his son Ferdinando.
By his wife Margaret (1540–1596), with whom he had frequent quarrels, leading to their separation (cf. Cal. State Papers, Dom. Addenda, 1566–79, pp. 33–4, 42–3), he had four sons—Edward, who died young; Ferdinando Stanley, fifth earl of Derby [q. v.]; William, sixth earl [see under Stanley, James, seventh Earl of Derby]; and Francis, who died young.[Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1547–93, and Addenda, passim; Hatfield MSS. pts. i.–iv.; Acts of the Privy Council, 1550–88; Stanley Papers and Lancashire Lieutenancy (Chetham Soc.); Machyn's Diary (Camden Soc.); Lit. Remains of Edward VI (Roxburghe Club); Lords' Journals; Strype's Works, passim; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1500–1714; Froude's History; Collins's, Doyle's, and G. E. C[okayne]'s Peerages.]