Statesman's Year-Book 1913/Retrospect 1861-1911

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1861. Death of the Prince Consort.

1864. Fenians in Ireland.

1865. Death of Palmerston; Russell Prime Minister.

1866. Derby's third administration.

1867. Reform Act.

1868. Disraeli succeeds Derby; resignation; Liberal Government returned.
Gladstone's first administration.

1871. Disestablishment of Church of Ireland.

1874. Fall of Liberal Government; Disraeli's second administration.

1875. Purchase of Suez Canal shares.

1876. Queen Victoria proclaimed Empress of India.
Public excitement over "Bulgarian atrocities."

1878. British administration established in Cyprus.

1880. Gladstone's second administration.

1882. Murder of Lord F. Cavendish and T. H. Burke in Phoenix Park, Dublin.

1885. Redistribution Act.
Liberal Government resigns; Salisbury's first administration.

1886. Gladstone's third administration; Irish Home Rule Bill, defeat of Government; Salisbury's second administration.

1887. Queen Victoria's Jubilee.
First Colonial conference.

1888. Parnellite Commission.

1892. Gladstone's fourth administration; Irish Home Rule Bill (1893).

1894. Lord Rosebery succeeds Gladstone as Prime Minister.
Inter-Colonial Conference (Ottawa).

1895. Salisbury's third administration.

1897. Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee.

1898. Death of Gladstone.

1900. Salisbury's fourth administration.

1901. Death of Queen Victoria : accession of King Edward VII.

1901–3. Acute lingual, fiscal and constitutional questions in Malta : constitution amended, 1903.

1902. Mr. Balfour succeeds Salisbury as Prime Minister.
Colonial conference.

1903. Introduction of tariff reform propaganda by Mr. Chamberlain.

1904. Outrage on British fishing vessels on Dogger Bank by Russian Baltic squadron (referred to international commission).

1905. Mr. Balfour's Government resigns; Campbell-Bannerman's administration.

1907. Colonial conference.

1908. Resignation (and death) of Campbell-Bannerman; Mr. Asquith Prime Minister.

1909. Budget thrown out by House of Lords, but Liberals returned at general election.

1910. Mr. Asquith's second administration.
Death of King Edward; accession of King George V. Conference on constitutional question (Parliament Bill); its failure.
General election : return of Liberals.

1911. Imperial conference.


I. African.

Union of South Africa, and Rhodesia.

1860. First railway opened in Cape Colony.

1871. Annexation of Basutoland to Cape Colony; Griqualand constituted a colony.

1877. Kaffir war (peace, 1878). Annexation of Transvaal.

1878. Invasion of Bechuanas into Griqualand repulsed.

1879. Zulu war; insurrection in Transvaal

1879–81. War with Basutos; defeated.

1880. Transvaal Boers claim independence. South African republic formed.

1881. Boer war. Battle of Majuba.

1883. Temporary self-government in Basutoland; colonial government later resumed.

1884. Convention establishing South African republic.

1885. Bechuanaland declared British territory.

1889. Incorporation of British South African Company (Southern Rhodesia).

1895. Establishment of Bechuanaland Protectorate.
Swaziland Convention.

1895–6. Jameson Raid.

1896–7. Cecil Rhodes administrator, with Earl Grey; Matabele rising (Rhodesia).

1899. Constitution of N.E. Rhodesia and (1900) of N.W. Rhodesia.
Boer ultimatum, followed by—

1900. South African War.
Annexation of Orange Free State (Orange River Colony) and of Transvaal.

1902. Martial law rejtealed.
Death of Rhodes.

1904. Ordinance permitting Chinese labour.
Death of ex-President Kruger.

1910. Union of South Africa established; first parliament opened (S. Africa Act, Imp. Parliament, 1909).

Other African Territories
(with adjacent islands).

1872. Gold Coast (Dutch settlements) transferred to Gt. Britain.

1873–74. Sir Garnet Wolseley's operations against Ashantis (W. Africa).

1878. Walfisch Bay proclaimed British territory.

1882. National African Company incorporated (chartered in 1886 as Royal Niger Company).

1884. Walfisch Bay annexed to Cape Colony.

1885. Protectorate declared in Somaliland.
Responsible government in Mauritius.

1888. Foundations of Imperial British East Africa Company (concession of territory by Sultan of Zanzibar).
Gambia separated from Sierra Leone as independent colony.

1890. Anglo-German convention. Uganda under I.B.E.A. Co. Protectorate over Zanzibar.

1891. Protectorate declared in Nyasaland (British Central Africa).

1893. Evacuation of Uganda by I.B.E.A. Co.

1894. Protectorate declared in Uganda.

1895. I.B.E.A. Co. wound up; protectorate declared in East Africa.

1895–96. Expedition against Ashantis (W. Africa); residency established at Kumasi; death of Prince Henry of Battenberg during return from expedition.

1895–97. Fighting in Nigeria.

1899. Transfer of Nigeria from Royal Niger Co. to imperial government.

1899–1902. Operations in Nigeria result in occupation of 9 provinces.

1900. Division of Northern and Southern Nigeria.
Siege of Kumasi.

1902. Expedition against and defeat of Mad Mullah (Somaliland).

1903. Completion of Uganda railway.
Further operations in Somaliland (expeditionary force withdrawn 1904).
Seychelles separated from Mauritius as independent colony.

1904. War with Kano (Nigeria).

1905. Pacification of Northern Nigeria.

1907. British Central Africa protectorate officially styled Nyasaland protectorate.

1909. Southern boundary of Walfisch Bay with German territory referred to King of Spain's arbitration.

1912. Union of Northern and Southern Nigeria.}}


1861. Lord Monck Governor-General. Union of Canada, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia as Dominion of Canada.

1867. New Parliament met at Ottawa.

1868. Sir T. Young Governor-General.

1869. Hudson's Bay territories bought.

1870. Province of Manitoba created.

1871. British Columbia united to the Dominion.

1872. Lord Dufferin Governor-General.

1877. Canada and U.S. Fishery Commission.

1878. Marquis of Lorne Governor-General.

1882. Districts of Assiniboia, Saskatchewan, Alberta, and Athabasca formed.

1883. Marquis of Lansdowne Governor-General.

1885. Rebellion in North-West territories. First train from Montreal to Vancouver on Canadian Pacific Railway.

1888. Lord Stanley of Preston Governor-General.

1893. Earl of Aberdeen Governor-General.

1897. Rush to Klondyke gold-fields.

1898. Earl of Minto Governor-General.

1903 Alaska boundary treaty.

1904. Lord Grey Governor-General.

1910. Award of Hague Tribunal in Atlantic fisheries arbitration.

1911. Duke of Connaught Governor-General.
Conservative victory in election, on questionof reciprocity with U.S.A.

Other American Territories.

1866. Jamaica Government Act.

1869. Newfoundland refuses union with Canada.

1882. Royal Commission on economic condition of West Indies.

1889. Modus vivendi establislied in regard to Newfoundland fisheries.

1895. Abortive negotiations for union between Newfoundland and Canada.

1896. Royal Commission on economic conditions of West Indies.

1898–99. Hurricane in West Indies.

1899. Reciprocity treaty, West Indies and U.S.A.

1904. Anglo-French convention covering arrangements in regard to Newfoundland fisheries.
British Guiana-Brazilian boundary; King of Italy's arbitration.


1861. Serious famine. Order of Star of India constituted.

1863. War with North-west hill tribes; Death of Lord Elgin, Viceroy, succeeded by Sir John Lawrence.

1866. Famine in Bengal.

1868 War on N.W. frontier.

1870. Railway between Calcutta and Bombay finished.

1872. Assassination of Viceroy; succeeded by Lord Northbrook.

1874. Famine in Bengal; expedition against tribes on N.W. frontier.

1875. Deposition of Gaekwar of Baroda, after trial for murder; expedition against Naga tribes; visit of Prince of Wales to India.

1876. Lord Lytton Viceroy.

1877. Queen Victoria proclaimed Empress by Viceroy in India; famine in Bombay, Madras, etc.; disturbances on N.W. frontier.

1878. War with Afghanistan.

1879. Peace with Afghanistan, meeting at Kabul; rebellion of Rumpa tribes.

1880. Marquis of Ripen Viceroy.

1881. War with Waziris.

1884. Rebellion of Akha tribes.
Expedition against Kakar Pathans.
Earl of Dufferin Viceroy.

1884–86. Burmese Wars.

1886. Upper Burma annexed; all Burma included in British India.

1887. Districts in Baluchistan annexed.

1888. Black mountain expedition; Marquis of Lansdowne Viceroy.

1889. Expedition against Chittagong hill tribes.

1890. Treaty with China; expeditions against Chins and Lushais.

1891. Miranzai Valley expedition.

1892. Risings of Lushai tribes; famines; Black Mountain expedition.

1893. Risings on N.W. frontier; Earl of Elgin Viceroy; risings of Abors.

1894. Expedition against Mahsuds; demarcation of Afghan frontier (completed 1895).

1896. Famines.

1897. Tochi expedition; war in Swat Valley etc. against followers of the Mullah.

1898. Outbreak of plague—Indian plague commission; Lord Curzon Viceroy.

1899. Expedition against Chamkanni tribe; new frontier policy; tribal militias.
Raid of Bhils; famine.

1901. New frontier province; famine; expedition against Mahsuds.

1902. Expedition against Waziris; durbar for proclamation of King Edward VII as Emperor.

1905. Partition of Bengal; visit of Prince and Princess of Wales to India; Earl of Minto Viceroy.

1910. Lord Hardinge, Viceroy.

1911. Coronation Durbar by Emperor and Empress at Delhi; Capital transferred from Calcutta to Delhi; reunion of Bengal; expedition against Abors.

Other Asiatic Territories.

1867. Straits Settlements made independent of India.

1868. Sir C. J. Brooke succeeds his uncle as Rajah of Sarawak.

1881. British North Borneo Company established.

1891. British control over Federated Malay States established.

1895. North Borneo, Brunei and Sarawak constituted protectorate.

1898. Territory of Wei-hai-wei leased from China.

1898–99. Hong-Kong—extension of territory (Lantao, Kaulung).

1900. Matsalleh's rising in Borneo suppressed.


1864–5. Opposition to and promised cessation of transportation of convicts to Australia.

1866. End of Maori war in New Zealand.

1868. New Zealand Government Act.

1874. Fiji ceded to Great Britain.

1875. Maori king submits to British authority.

1882. Completion of Melbourne-Sydney railway.

1885. Federation of Australasian colonies (New South Wales and New Zealand were not included).

1891. National Australasian Federation Convention : title of Commonwealth of Australia adopted.

1900. Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act.

1901. Annexation of Cook and other Pacific Islands to New Zealand.

1901. Lord Hopetoun Governor General of Australia; first Federal Parliament.

1902. Lord Tennyson Governor-General of Australia.

1904. Lord Northcote Governor-General of Australia.

1907. New Zealand constituted a Dominion.
Lord Denman Governor-General of



1861. Secession of Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Texas; Jefferson Davis elected President of southern confederacy.
Abraham Lincoln made president at Washington; war.

1865. Slavery abolished by federal congress; Lincoln president (Mar).
Lincoln shot; Andrew Johnson president (April); end of the war (May).

1868. General pardon proclaimed.

1869. Suffrage bill abolishing race, colour and property distinctions.
Ulysses Grant president.

1876. Centennial year; great demonstrations.

1877. R. B. Hayes president.

1880. General Garfield president; assassinated; succeeded by General C. A. Arthur.

1885. Grover Cleveland president; death of General Grant.

1889. Benjamin Harrison president.

1890. Tariff Bill.

1893. Cleveland again elected president; Bering sea arbitration.

1895. Commission to settle boundary dispute between Great Britain and Venezuela.
Monroe doctrine of president widely disliked.

1896. William McKinley president.

1897. Annexation of Hawaii; international fur seal conference.

1898. War with Spain; treaty signed; cession of Porto Rico to U.S.A.

1900. McKinley re-elected president.

1901. McKinley shot; Theodore Roosevelt president.
Hay-Pauncefort treaty for construction of Panama Canal.

1902. British industrial commission received by President.

1903. Alaska boundary treaty; St. Louis exhibition.

1904. Arbitration treaty with Great Britain; Roosevelt re-elected president.

1908. Taft president.

1912. Dispute on Panama Canal Bill, providing free passage for American coast-wise shipping.
Woodrow Wilson president.

EUROPEAN POLITICS (International).

1863. Prussian aid for Russia in suppressing Polish insurrection.
Rise of Prussian and decline of French influence in European affairs; Schleswig-Holstein questions.

1864. War between Denmark and Germany.

1866. Austro-Prussian War; Victory of Prussia; Treaty of Prague.
Supremacy of Prussia in Germany; alliances with Württemberg, Baden and Bavaria.
Austro-ltalian treaty of Vienna; Austrian recognition of Kingdom of Italy.

1870–1. Franco-German war; fall of Paris, Jan. 28, treaty signed at Frankfurt-on-Main, May 10, 1871.

1872. Three Emperors' League (Dreikaiserbund; Germany, Austria, Russia).

1876. Austro-Russian agreement.

1877–8. Russo-Turkish war; treaty of San Stefano, modified by treaty of Berlin (1878), recasting Balkan frontiers; Russo-German estrangement, followed by—

1879. Austro-German defensive alliance (against Russia).
Franco-Italian dispute on French occupation of Tunis.

1882. Triple alliance (Germany, Austria, Italy).

1884. Revival of Dreikaiserbund; isolation of France.

1887. Collapse of Dreikaiserbund; Russian hostility to Germany, and birth of Franco-Russian entente.

1895–7. Armenian and Cretan questions involve action by the Powers.

1899. First Hague Conference on armaments, etc.

1901. Hague arbitration court established.

1904. Anglo-French entente.

1906. Moroccan question, conference of Algeciras (settlement, 1909).

1907. Anglo-Russian agreement.

1908. European crisis on Austrian annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, following Bulgarian declaration of independence (annexation accepted by Powers signatory to Berlin treaty, 1909).
Franco-German "incident" at Casablanca, Morocco; reference to Hague tribunal (settled, 1909).
International Naval Conference in London (conclusion and declaration, 1909).

1911. Franco-German treaties (Moroccan questions; adjustment of colonial frontiers in West Africa).


1861. New constitution proclaimed; common parliament.

1867. Dual monarchy established.

1877. Bosnia and Herzegovina occupied.

1905–7. Culmination of dissension between Hungary and the Crown.

1907. New agreement between Austria and Hungary.

1908. Annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

1908. Diamond jubilee of Emperor Francis Joseph.

1900. Bosnian constitution promulgated.

Balkan States and Turkish Empire.

1863. Prince William of Schleswig-Holstein proclaimed King of Greece as George I.

1864. Annexation of Ionian Islands to Greece.

1866–7. Insurrection in Crete; Turkey refuses to give up island.

1868. Assassination of Prince Michael of Servia; Prince Milan IV succeeds.

1871. Settlement of Black Sea question.
Decree incorporating Tunis with Turkish Empire.

1873. Opening of railway to Adrianople and Constantinople.

1876. Deposition of Sultan Abdul-aziz; proclamation of Murad V; deposed in same year and succeeded by Abdul Hamid II.
Servia and Montenegro and Russia declare war on Turkey.
New Turkish constitution proclaimed (in abeyance, 1878–1908).

1877. Deposition of Prince Milan of Servia by Turkey.

1878. Insurrections in Crete, Thessaly, etc.; peace of San Stefano with Russia; Cyprus ceded to Great Britain; Berlin conference and treaty; Bulgaria created an autonomous principality tributary to Turkey; Independence of Montenegro and Rumania and Servia; Eastern Rumelia created a province.

1879. Treaty of peace with Russia.

1880. Cession of Dulcigno to Montenegro.

1881. Turko-Greek Convention; Thessaly ceded to Greece.
Prince Charles of Rumania nominated as King.

1882. Prince Milan of Servia proclaimed King.

1885. Revolution in Eastern Rumelia; union with Bulgaria; Servo-Bulgarian war (peace, 1888).

1886. Peace of Bucharest; Bulgarian prince Governor-General of East Rumelia.

1887. Prince Ferdinand of Bulgaria elected Prince of Bulgaria.

1893. Opening of isthmian canal, Corinth.

1895–6. Armenian revolution and massacres.

1897. Greco-Turkish war.

1899. Abdication of King Milan of Servia; his son Alexander succeeds.

1903. Military revolution in Servia, assassination of King and Queen; King Peter Karageorgevich proclaimed.
Macedonian revolutionary movement; severe repression by Turks.
Bagdad railway begun.

1903–5. Macedonian reform schemes discussed between Powers and Turkey.

1905. Aden boundary question settled between Great Britain and Turkey.
International financial control scheme accepted by Turkey after naval demonstration by Powers.

1908. Bulgaria declares independence; prince assumes title of tsar (recognised 1909).
Hejaz railway opened to Medina.
"Young Turks'" revolution; constitution of 1876 revived.

1909. Counter-revolution in Constantinople; Sultan Abdul Hamid deposed; his brother proclaimed as Mohamed V.
Bulgarian agreements with Russia and Turkey.

1910. Montenegro proclaimed a kingdom.

1911. Turkey at war with Italy; loss of Tripoli.

1912. War on Turkey by Balkan allies (Bulgaria, Servia, Montenegro, Greece).

Egypt and Sudan.

1869. Inauguration of Suez Canal.

1869–73. Sir Samuel Baker's operations in Upper Nile region.

1875–7. War with Abyssinia.

1879. Khedive deposed by the Sultan of Turkey; Tewfik succeeds.

1881. Insurrection of the Mahdi (Mahomed Ahmed of Dongola).

1882. Political crisis in Egypt; bombardment of Alexandria; war with Arabi Pasha; capture of Tel-el-Kebir; abolition of Anglo-French control.

1883. Major Baring (afterwards Lord Cromer) appointed Resident.

1884. Battle of El-Teb.

1885. Battle of Abuklea; Khartum surrendered; Gordon killed.

1887. Anglo-Turkish convention; H. M. Stanley's expedition for relief of Emin Pasha.

1889. Battle of Toshi against Dervishes.

1892. Death of Tewfik; Abbas succeeds as Khedive.

1896 seqq. Sir H. H. Kitchener's operations against Dervishes.

1898. Battles of the Atbara and Omdurman; Fashoda "incident" (French occupation).

1899. Sudan convention; Anglo-French agreement (Bahr-el-Ghazal, Darfur, etc.).

1902. Completion of Assuan dam.

1904. Anglo-French agreement with reference to Egypt.

1907. Resignation of Lord Cromer.

Belgium (including Belgian Congo).

1865. Death of Leopold I and accession of Leopold II.

1870. Flemish movement; otticial use of Flemish language.

1885. International Association of the Congo; recognised as independent state.

1890. Right acquired to annex Congo Free State.

1894. Revision of constitution; universal suffrage.

1899. Proportional representation established.

1908. Congo State annexed as Belgian Congo.

1909. Death of Leopold II; accession of King Albert.


1863. Annexation of Schleswig-Holstein made independent: disputes with Prussia; new constitution.

1864. Schleswig and Jutland taken by Prussia; peace treaty, giving up duchies.

1906. Death of Christian IX; accession of King Frederick VIII.

1912. Death of King Frederick; accession of King Christian X.


1870. War declared against Prussia.

1871. Fall of Paris; the third Republic; deposition of Emperor Napoleon III; Thiers president; peace.

1873. Resignation of Thiers; MacMahon president.

1875. Establishment of "The Constitution of 1875.

1879. Jules Grévy president.

1880. Annexation of Tahiti.

1881. Military expedition to Tunis; protectorate established.

1883. Occupation of ports in Madagascar (protectorate 1885, colony 1896).

1883–85. Chinese war; protectorate over Annam and Tongking.

1884. Revision of the constitution.

1885. Grévy president.

1887. Carnot president.

1888. Boulangist movement.

1893. French Guinea, Ivory coast and Benin constituted separate possessions; French Sudan a colony.

1894. Assassination of Carnot; Casimir-Périer president.

1894–5. Arrest, trial and condemnation of Captain Alfred Dreyfus for treason.

1895. Félix Faure president.

1896. Visit of Tsar to Paris (first visit of a European monarch to republican France); Franco-Prussian entente.

1899. Death of Faure; Loubet president.

1904. Anglo-French convention.

1905. Separation Law (abolishing State support of any religion).

1906. Fallières president; Anglo-French administration of New Hebrides agreed upon.

1913. Poincaré president.

German Empire.

1867. North German parliament opened.

1871. Proclamation of William I as Emperor (at Versailles, following Franco-Prussian war); first Imperial parliament; neutrality of Luxemburg guaranteed.

1884. Foundation of colonies in Kamerun, German East Africa, and New Guinea.

1888. Deaths of Emperor William I and his successor Frederick III; accession of William II.

1890. Resignation of Bismarck, chancellor; succeeded by Caprivi; Anglo-German convention (East Africa, Heligoland, etc.).

1894. Resignation of Caprivi; Prince von Hohenlohe chancellor.

1898. Treaty with China (Kiaochau). Death of Bismarck.

1901. Death of Empress Frederick.

1903–4. Herrero rising in German South-West Africa.

1904. Prince von Bülow Chancellor.

1909, Resignation of Prince von Bülow; Dr. von Bethmann-Hollweg chancellor.


1861. Establishment of Kingdom of Italy; Victor Emmanuel king; death of Cavour.

1865. Capital transferred from Turin to Florence.

1866. Alliance with Prussia; war with Austria; Venice united with Italy.

1871. Italian Government established in Rome.

1872. Convention with San Marino.

1878. Death of Victor Emmanuel II; accession of Humbert I; death of Pius IX.
"Irredentist" riots for redemption of Trentand Trieste from Austria.

1882. Death of Garibaldi.
Assab created Crown Colony.

1885. Occupation of Massawa and Beirut.

1887. Italians beaten by Abyssinians at Dogali.
Failure of movement of conciliation between Pope and King.

1889. Treaty of Uccialli, fixing boundary of Italian colony of Eritrea.

1891. Abyssinia recognised as Italian sphere of influence.

1894. War with Mahdists; revolt against Italy in Abyssinia.

1895. Conquest of Tigré.

1896. Italians routed by Abyssinians at Adowa.
Treaty recognising Abyssinian independence, and settling boundary of Eritrea.

1900. Assassination of King Humbert; accession of Victor Emmanuel III.

1907–8. Messina earthquake.

1911. War with Turkey; annexation of Tripoli.


1890. Death of King William III; accession of Queen Wilhelmina (Queen-mother as regent).

1894. Insurrection in Lomhok (Netherlands India).

1895–1902. Insurrection in Sumatra (Achin).

1898. Coronation of the Queen.

1899. Marriage of the Queen to Duke Henry of Mecklenburg-Schwerin.

Norway [see Scandinavia below].


1864. Boundary treaty with Spain.

1889. Death of King Luis I; accession of King Carlos.

1889–90. Dispute with Great Britain over East African territories; submission of Portugal; agreement.

1904. Portuguese-Dutch boundary in Timor settled by treaty.

1908. Assassination of the King and Crown Prince; accession of King Manuel.

1910. Revolution and proclamation of republic.


1863. Rising in Poland.

1864. End of war in the Caucasus.

1865. Turkestan created a province.

1866. Break with Pope owing to treatment of Polish clergy.
First trial by jury held.
War in Bokhara.

1867. Remains of Polish nationality abolislied by decree; amnesty for Poles; Russian-American territory (Alaska) sold to U.S.A.

1868. Samarkand taken.

1871. Conference for revision of Franco-Prussian treaty of 1856 which was not agreed to by Russia; Black Sea clauses deleted.

1873. Expeditions to Khiva, which surrendered.

1875. War with Khokand; Baltic provinces previously governed as province now brought under direct imperial administration.

1876. Khokand annexed.

1877. Russo-Turkish war.

1878. Peace of San Stefano; conference of European powers at Berlin; Balkh occupied; general disaffection towards government.

1879. Martial law established; expedition against Tekke Turkomans; various attempts to assassinate Czar Alexander II.

1880. Scheme for reform of the administration; many Nihilists executed.

1881. Czar assassinated; accession of Alexander III.
End of war with Tekke Turkomans; reforms promised; treaty with Persia.

1883. Finland granted almost complete autonomy.

1885. Russian attack on Afghans; Afghan boundary settled.

1890. Trans-Siberian railway authorised; completed 1899.

1894. Persecution in Lithuania; Imperial Committee of control subject to himself created by Czar; death of Czar; accession of Nicholas II.

1895. Russo-Persian boundary settled; agreement with England about Pamirs.

1898. Lease of Port Arthur granted by China.

1899. Severe measures against Jews; military service imposed on students; "Russification" in Finland.

1900. Banishment to Siberia much reduced; anti-Semitic riots.

1901. Famines; further student riots; great unrest and distress.

1903. Kishinev atrocities; risings against Jews; many riots.

1904. Strained relations with Japan; Russo-Japanese war; attack on Port Arthur; Battle of Liao-yang; Disturbances in Poland and elsewhere.

1905. Fall of Port Arthur; peace with Japan; riots and anarchy general; fighting between Tartars and Armenians; repressive measures; constitutional senate appointed in Finland, after serious disturbances.

1910. Russo-Japanese agreement.

Scandinavia (Norway and Sweden).

1872. Death of Charles XV, King of Sweden and Norway; accession of Oscar II.

1884. Crown Prince made Viceroy Norway.

1890–1905. Disagreements of Norway with Sweden on conditions of union.

1905. Union dissolved; kingdom of Norway recognised by Sweden after referendum and conference; Prince Charles of Denmark elected as King Haakon VII of Norway.

1907. Treaty guaranteeing integrity of Norway by Great Britain, France, Germany, Russia; death of King Oscar II of Sweden; accession of King Gustav V.


1863. War in Santo Domingo.

1864. War with Peru (peace, 1866).

1865. Santo Domingo abandoned; war with Chile (ended 1866); military insurrection in Spain.

1868. Further insurrections; General Prim forms provisional government; flight of Queen Isabella II.

1870. Abdication of the Queen; nomination of Prince Leopold of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen as King; French opposition (Franco-Prussian war follows); Prince Leopold resigns; Amadeus, Duke of Aosta, proclaimed King.

1873. Country remaining unsettled; abdication of King Amadeus; republic proclaimed; civil war.

1874. Proclamation of King Alfonso XII; conclusion of war.

1885. Death of Alfonso XII; Mercedes, princess of Asturias, succeeds.

1886. Birth of King Alfonso XIII.

1893–4. Fighting in Morocco.

1898–9. Spanish-American war; Spain evacuates Cuba, cedes Porto Rico and Philippines; Caroline and other Pacific islands ceded to Germany.

1902. Enthronement of King Alfonso XIII.


1869. Zurich adopts new constitution.

1873. Papal Nuncio expelled.

1874. Revised constitution voted; national church constituted.

1882. Opening of St. Gothard railway (tunnel preceded by that of Mont Cenis, 1870).

1890. Insurrection in Ticino.

1905. Simplon tunnel completed.


(a) Africa.


1867. War with England.

1868. Magdala burnt.

1875. War with Egypt.

1877. Johanni defeated Menelek, King of Shoa.

1879. Peace concluded.

1888. War with Italy.
Rebellion of Menelek.

1889. Italian protectorate announced (see Italy); Menelek negus.

1896. Peace signed.

1901. Expedition against Mad Mullah; English expedition to delimit boundary.

1902. Boundaries with Sudan and southwestern Eritrea settled.


1891. Hostility of Kabyle tribes; arrival of British war-ships.

1892. Peace made, with change of governor; serious risings.

1893. War between Moors and Spanish troops.

1894. Death of Muley Hazzain, Sultan; succession of Muley Abdul Aziz; peace with Spain.

1900. Twat oases occupied by French.

1901. Boundary dispute with French settled.

1902. Boundary between Algeria and Morocco settled; risings; Sultan defeated.

1903. Europeans forced to leave Fez; country in state of anarchy.

1904. Treaty between France and Spain in regard to Morocco.

1905. Further defeats of Sultan; arrival of German and British missions; French demands refused; Sultan accepts proposed conference (see further European Politics, above).

1911. Serious disturbances; relief of Fez.

(b) America.

Central America, with Mexico, Cuba, and Haiti.[2]

1863. Guatemala-San Salvador war.
Proclamation of monarchy in Mexico (Archduke Maximilian of Austria Emperor); war with France in progress; civil strife between republicans and imperialists.

1868. Ten years' war in Cuba begins.

1872. Guatemala and Honduras allied against San Salvador.

1875. First presidency of Diaz in Mexico.

1878. Convention in Cuba.

1881. French operations begun on Isthmian Canal (suspended, 1889).

1888. Costa Rica-Nicaraguan boundary settlement.

1890. Guatemala and Honduras again at war with Salvador.

1892. Prosecution of directors of Isthmian Canal.

1893. Honduras and Nicaragua at war (ended 1894).

1895. Civil war in Cuba; Guatemala-Mexican boundary settlement.

1897. Settlement of boundary dispute between Mexico and Great Britain.

1898. Cuba under American authority; (Spanish-American war).

1900. Costa Rica-Panama boundary settlement.

1902. Republic established in Cuba.

1903. Settlement of disputes between Guatemala and San Salvador.
Revolution and proclamation of republic in Panama.

1904. Panama canal rights acquired by U.S.A.

1905. Adjustment of financial obligations of Haiti undertaken by U.S.A.

1906. Civil war in Cuba; intervention and provisional government established by U.S.A.

1909. Reorganisation of republic in Cuba.

1911. Diaz resigns presidency of Mexico.

South American Republics.[3]

1864. Paraguayan troops invade Brazil; alliance of Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay against Paraguay.

1866. Chile-Bolivian boundary treaty.

1863–6. Wars of Peru and Chile against Spain; failure of Spanish operations.

1870. Final defeat of Paraguay (see 1864, above); constitution formulated.

1873. Argentine-Brazilian treaty.

1874. Secret agreement between Bolivia and Peru against Chilean encroachment.

1876. Brazilian troops finally withdrawn from Paraguay.

1879–83. Chilean wars against Peru and Bolivia; success of Chile; Bolivia cedes coast lands (1883), Peru cedes Tarapaca (1884).

1880. Buenos Ayres established as capital of Argentina (following dispute and insurrection).

1886. New Colombian constitution.

1888. Slavery abolislied in Brazil.
Dispute between Great Britain and Venezuela over gold-mining territories.

1889. Expulsion of the Emperor from Brazil; proclamation of republic. Colombia-Venezuelan boundary settlement.

1892. Civil war in Venezuela foilowed by dispute with Powers over claims by their subjects for losses.

1897. Restoration of diplomatic relations between Great Britain and Venezuela, suspended since 1887.

1899. Boundary arbitration between Chile and Argentina in Atacama and Patagonia.
British Guiana-Venezuelan boundary arbitration and settlement.

1900. Arbitration treaty between Argentina and Uruguay.
French Guiana-Brazilian boundary settlement.

1901. Colombia and Venezuela at war; defeat of Venezuelans.

1902. King Edward VII's arbitration on Chile-Argentine boundary.

1902–3. Britain and Germany and other Powers claim against Venezuela; Hague arbitration; (diplomatic relations with various Powers, however, were subsequently strained).

1903. Secession of Panama from Colombia. Argentine arbitration on Peru-Bolivian boundary (accepted, 1909); Chile-Brazilian dispute on territory of Acre settled by treaty.

1904. Arbitration on Eucador-Colombian boundary.
British Guiana-Brazilian boundary settlement.

1905. Colombian constitution modified.
Chile-Bolivian boundary treaty.

1908–9. Venezuelan action against Dutch minister; armed reprisals, arbitration and protocol of settlement.

1910. Opening of Trans-Andine tunnel. Protocol between Argentine and Uruguay for settlement of River Plate navigation questions.

(c) Asia.


1878. Understanding with Russia and refusal of relations with British, who invade Afghanistan.

1879. Gandamak treaty of peace; British occupation of Khaibar Pass and establishment of residency at Kabul.
Massacre of British at Kabul. March thither of Gen. Roberts.

1880. War continuing. Siege and relief of Kandahar; defeat of Afghans.

1884. Anglo-Afghan agreement against Russian advance; Anglo-Russian agreement.

1886. Joint boundary commission.

1893. British mission to Kabul.

1895. Afghan boundary commission; work completed.

1903. British commission on Persian-Afghan boundary question.


1863. Operations of imperialists under Col. Gordon against T'ai-ping revolutionaries.

1864. Nanking retaken by Gordon.

1870. Massacre of foreigners and native Christians at Tientsin.

1875. Accession of Emperor Kwang-su.

1876. Chifu convention with Great Britain.

1881. Treaty with Russia, consolidating Central Asian possessions.

1884. Fighting with France at Tonking; Chinese fleet destroyed at Fuchow.

1885. Peace concluded with France.

1894. War with Japan; victory of Japan.

1895. Peace concluded with Japan; cession of Liao-tung peninsula and Formosa.

1896. Settlement of Mekong valley boundary dispute.

1897. Kiaochau Bay ceded to Germany.

1898. Occupation of Port Arthur by Russia and of Wei-hai-wei by Great Britain.
Kwang-su's measures of reform crushed by Dowager-Empress; Kwang-su kept prisoner.

1900. Boxer risings; siege of Peking legations.

1901. Peace concluded with allied forces.

1903–4. British armed mission from India into Tibet; Lhasa entered; flight of Dalai Lama; treaty.

1908. Death of Kwang-su and of Dowager-Empress; accession of Hsuan Tung; Prince Chun regent.

1909. Convention settling disputes with Japan in Manchuria and Korea.

1911. Revolution.

1912. Abdication of Manchu dynasty; republic established; Yuan-Shihkai president.


1864. Combined naval demonstration of powers, owing to refusal of Japan to observe treaties.

1865. Treaties ratifled.

1668. Daimios insurrection; victory of Mikado.

1870–2 seqq. Introduction and development of European methods, etc. (first railway, 1872).

1875. New Constitution and Parliament.

1894–5. War with China.

1904–5. War with Russia; treaty of Portsmouth (U.S.A.)

1905. Anglo-Japanese alliance (renewed, 1911).

1912. Death of the Mikado; Yoshihito succeeds.


1895. Russo-Persian frontier commission.

1896. Assassination of Shah Nasr-ed-din; accession of Muzaffer-ed-din.

1902. Financial reform scheme with Belgian support.

1903. Commercial agreements with Russia and Great Britain.

1907. Death of Muzaffer-ed-din; accession of Shah Mahomed ali Mirza.

1908. Serious internal disturbances.

1909. Deposition of the Shah.

1911. Russian ultimatum; withdrawal of treasury gendarmerie from ex-Shah's property; dismissal of members of American commission.


1867. Treaty with France recognising French protectorate in Cambodia.

1874. Political constitution granted.

1893. French ultimatum and armed demonstration following encounter on the Mekong river; treaty concluded.

1904. Anglo-French agreement recognising sphere of influence in Siam.

  1. This survey extends, as a rule, over fifty years, but some events subsequent to 1911 are included. Only the more important countries are dealt with individually.
  2. Internal disorders are for the most part excluded.
  3. Internal disorders are for the most part excluded.