The New Student's Reference Work/Abbreviations

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Abbre′via′tions are used to save time in writing. In letter writing they should on the whole be avoided. Before printing was invented, however, the labor of copying and the cost and scarcity of parchment caused abbreviations to be used so freely that they are apt to be very difficult to follow. Signs, like $ or £ are not, properly speaking, abbreviations, but symbols. An abbreviation generally consists of the first part of a word, or else of the first letters of the words of a well-known phrase. Those which follow still occur frequently:

|H. M. S.||His Majesty's Ship, or Service. |- |ibid.||ibidem, in the same place. |- |i. e.||Id est, that is. |- |I. H. S.||Jesus hominum Salvator, Jesus the Saviour of men. |- |Incog.||Incognito, unknown. |- |Inst.||Instante mense, in the current month. |- |J. P.||Justice of the Peace. |- |Jr.||Junior. |- |K. C.||King's counsel. |- |K. C. B.||Knight Commander of the Bath. |- |K. C. M. G.||Knight Commander of St. Michael and St. George. |- |£||Libra, pound (British money). |- |Ib.||Pound weight. |- |Litt. D.||Doctor of Letters. |- |LL. B.||Bachelor of Laws. |- |LL. D.||Doctor of Laws. |- |M.||Monsieur. |- |MM.||Messieurs. |- |M. B.||Bachelor of Medicine. |- |M. C.||Member of Congress. |- |M. D.||Doctor of Medicine. |- |M. E.||Mining, or Mechanical, Engineer. |- |Mlle.||Mademoiselle. |- |Mme.||Madame. |- |M. P.||Member of Parliament. |- |MS.||Manuscript; plural, MSS. |- |N. B.||Nota bene, mark well. |- |Nem. con.||Nemine contradicente, no one opposing. |- |Ob.||Obiit, died. |- |Oxon.||Oxoniensis, of Oxford. |- |p.||Piano, softly. |- |Ph. B.||Bachelor of Philosophy. |- |Ph. D.||Doctor of Philosophy. |- |P. M.||Post Meridiem, afternoon. |- |pp.||Pianissimo, very softly. |- |P. P. C.||Pour prendre congé, to take leave. |- |p.||Page; plural pp. |- |pro tem.||Pro tempore, for the time. |- |prox.||Proximo mense, in the next month. |- |P. S.||Post scriptum, postscript. |- |Q. E. D.||Quod erat demonstrandum, which was to be proved. |- |Q. E. P.||Quod erat factendum, which was to be done. |- |q. v.||Quod vide, which see. |- |R. A.||Royal Academician. |- |R. I. P.||Requiescat in Pace, may he rest in peace. |- |R. M.||Royal Marines. |- |R. N.||Royal Navy. |- |R. S. V. P.||Répondez s'il vous plait, please reply. |- |R. V.||Revised Version. |- |S.||South, shilling, or saint. |- |S. P. Q. R.||Senatus populusque Romanus, the Senate and Roman People. |- |sq.||Sequens, the following; plural sqq. |- |Sr.||Senior. |- |S. S.||Steamship. |- |ult.||Ultimo mense, last month. |- |U. S.||United States; U. S. A. |- |U. S. N.||United States Navy. |- |V. C.||Victoria Cross. |- |v. or vs.||Versus, against. |}

A. B. Bachelor of Arts.
A. C. Ante Christum, before Christ.
A. D. Anno Domini, in the year of our Lord.
A. D. C. Aide-de-camp.
A. H. Anno Hegiræ, in the year of the Hegira, or since 622 A. D.
Ad lib. Ad libitum, at pleasure.
æt. ætatis, aged.
A. M. Ante Meridiem, before noon.
A. M. Master of Arts.
Anon. Anonymous.
A. U. C. Ab urbe condita, from the founding of the city of Rome.
A. V. Authorized Version.
b. Born.
B. A. Bachelor of Arts. Same as A. B.
Bart. Baronet.
B. C. Before Christ.
B. C. L. Bachelor of Civil Law.
B. D. Bachelor of Divinity.
Bp. Bishop.
B. S. or B.Sc. Bachelor of Science.
C. Centum, one hundred.
C. Centigrade.
Cantab. Cantabrigiensis, of Cambridge.
C. B. Companion of the Order of the Bath.
c. c. Cubic centimeter.
C. E. Civil Engineer.
C. M. Cy. Companion of the Order of St. Michael and St. George.
Co. Company.
Co. County.
C/O Care of.
C. O. D. Cash on Delivery.
Cr. Creditor.
Cresc. Crescendo, growing louder.
Cwt. Hundredweight.
d. Died.
d. penny.
D. C. District of Columbia.
D. C. Da capo, from the beginning.
D. C. L. Doctor of Civil Law.
D. D. Doctor of Divinity.
D. D. S. Doctor of Dental Surgery.
D. G. Dei gratia, by the grace of God.
Dim. Diminuendo, less loudly.
D. Lit. Doctor of Literature.
Do. Ditto, the same.
Dr. Debtor.
Dr. Doctor.
D. Sc. Doctor of Science.
D. S. O. Companion of the Distinguished Service Order.
D. V. Deo volente, God willing.
dwt. Pennyweight.
e. g. Exempli gratia, for example.
etc. Et cetera, and so on.
et seq. Et sequentia, and the following.
F. Fahrenheit.
f. Forte, loudly.
f. o. b. Free on board.
ff. Fortissimo, very loud.
F. R. C. P. Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians.
F. R. C. S. Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons.
F. R. G. S. Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society.
F. R. S. Fellow of the Royal Society.
G. C. B. Grand Cross of the Order of St. Michael and St. George.