The Perth Gazette and Western Australian Journal/Volume 1/Number 3
His Honour the Lieutenant Governor has thought proper
in the Perth Gazette and Western Australian Journal, signed
communications made to those persons to whom they may
BY COMMAND OF HIS HONOUR THE LIEUTENANT GOVERNOR. to direct, that all public communications, which may appear
with any Official Signature, are to be considered as Official
PETER BROWN, COLONIAL SECRETARY
Surveyor General's Office Perth,
10th January, 1833.
The Lieutenant Governor in Council has granted the following Town Allotments.
C 1, Alexander Collie
F 12, William Nye
G 8, William Birch
H 20, Robert Moore
N 5, John B. Pettit
X 5, Edward G. Collinson
X 6, Mary Lucile Birkett
N 9, Thomas Morris
All, William M. Carew
A 94, George Williams
117, Valentine Pickey
158, William Jones
159, William Jones, Junior
5, William Lamb
55, 56, William Heard
250, John Duffield
355, Richard Morrell
401, Lydia C. Duffield
416, Charles Hole Duffield
407, Richard Maxworthy
408, William Dixon
409, William Dixon
96, 97 James Solomon,
207, W. N. Clark, and C, Spyers,
206, W. N. Clark and C. Spyers,
404, Lowis, Houghton, and Yule,
405, Louis, Houghton, and Yule
s406, Louis, Houghton, and Yule,
L James Solomon, (suburban)
417, Marshall Mac Dermott,
S 12, Alfred Hillman,
No. 83, Alfred Hillman,
B 7, Alfred Hillman,
J. S. Roe,
Colonial Secretary's 0ffice
January 18th, 1833.
DEED OF GRANT.
The Title Deeds of the Grants of the undermentioned Individuals having passed the Executive Council, are now in this Office for delivery on Application:—viz
1 . .. . Marshall Mc Dermott. .. . No. 5
2 . ... William Lamb. No. 6
3 . .. F. C. Irwin, and
W. H. Mackie.No, 9
4-William Nairn. No. 10
5 ... . James Mc Dermott.No. 1
6 . .. . Mary Hodges.No. 2
7 . .. . Henry Willey Reveley. . No. 6
8 . ditto.ditto.No. 7
9 .. . James Mc Dermott.No. 3
12 .... James Solomon. No: 8
PETER BROWN, Colonial Secretary.
NOTICE is hereby given that Mr. John Purkis, and James Perie Watts have applied at this Office for permission to leave the Colony: per "Governor Bourke."
By Command of His Honour
Colonial Secretary's Office
Perth, January 17th 1833
FOR THE CAPE OF GOOD HOPE.
To Sail on the 24th Inst.
The fine Brig Cornwallis, Captain Henderson. For Freight or passage apply to
A MAIL for England via the Cape of Good Hope, Per Cornwallis Captain Henderson, will be closed on the 24th Inst.
TO BE SOLD BY PUBLIC AUCTION,
At Mr. Duffields, Fremantle.
On Tuesday, the 22nd January 1833.
At 6 o'clock in the evening.
All the landed property belonging to Mr. J. Duffield, particulars of which are given in hand bills. Also will be sold by Auction in about a months time all Mr. Duffields moveable property.
All Persons having any claim on Mr. Duffield, are requested to send in their accounts, and all persons indebted to him are requested to settle their accounts without delay.
J. A. DUTTON, Auctioneer.
SALE BY PUBLIC AUCTION. CHARLES SMITH, AUCTIONEER
On Tuesday next the 22nd. Inst. AT THE JETTY PERTH.
A quantity of fine Sydney Flour, Manilla Hats, Candles, Sydney Beef, &c.
January l5th 1833,
All persons indebted to or having any claims against Mr. William Samson, of Fremantle, are requested to send in their accounts forthwith, as Mr Samson is upon the point of leaving the Colony for a short period.
Fremantle, 15th January 1833.
Wanted on Loan, the sum of £300 one half in Stores, and the other in Cash. The security offered, consisting of real and improved property in this Colony, is unexceptionable.
For particulars apply to W. N. Clarke Solicitor, Fremantle.
January 16th. 1833.
AT THE STORES, OF THE UNDERSIGNED.
Perth, and Fremantle, Jan. 17th, 1833.
Ale in hogsheads,
Irish Prime Mess Pork,
Snuff in Canisters,
Spades, Pick Axes,
Ladies' and Gentlemen's Gloves,
An assortment of Cotton, and Worsted Stockings,
Men's Strong Shoes
Cart and Waggon Wheels,
Shot, Iron and Steel in Bars,
Tin Mugs, Pickles,
Pitch and Tar,
White, Black, and Green Paint,
Fine and Common Black and Green Teas,
Seeds, Stationery and Account Books,
TO BE LET with immediate possession a Dwelling house and Store, eligibly situate in High Street Fremantle, and enclosed within a stone wall. The proprietor leaving the Colony will let the Premises on most reasonable terms. All persons having any claim on the undersigned are requested to send in the same immediately, and those, indebted, will be pleased to settle, their accounts forthwith.
Philip H. Dod.
Fremantle January 17, 1833.
Married by special License on the 7th September, last at Preston Point by the Rev. J. B. Wittenoom, Mr. John Weavell late of Fremantle Merchant, to Sophia Daughter of the late Captain Logan, of. the 62nd Buffs, and, Sister to Lieutenant Colonel Logan of H. M. 63rd Regiment.
To the Editor of the Perth Gazette.
You will oblige me by inserting the following reply to a letter, which appeared in your last Number, calling on one of the Officers of the 63rd. Regiment to explain why Privates of that Corps are permitted to trade.The Soldiers of the 63rd Regiment stationed here, are strictly prohibited from trading; and in order to prevent their wives, when so engaged, from having any advantage over trading Settlers, they have been required from the commencement of the present year, either to give up traffic, or to relinquish the rations allowed them and their children. Those who have chosen the latter alternative are no longer under Military control; and are consequently as free as any class of Settlers, to follow what pursuit they please. None but married Soldiers are permitted here to live out of Barracks, and this only during good behaviour; an indulgence granted them at home, and in other Colonies.
The private alluded to in the letter is permitted to wear plain clothes, in consequence of being Messman to the Officers; and this is an indulgence granted to Messmen elsewhere. He is allowed, like the other married Soldiers, to reside in his own house in which his wife keeps her shop. The Messmen elsewhere are exempted from Regimental duty; this man (owing to the small force here,) is not. It is a natural and unavoidable consequence that he is frequently seen in the shop, as well as in other parts of his house; and that, at leisure times, he may be occasionally seen to assist his wife. This same individual, is alluded to have sold his ration flour at the rate of six shillings for four pounds. He declares this statement to be an utter falsehood. As to a Soldier's wife selling the rations of herself and children, should it prove advantageous to them, no commanding Officer would prevent it, and with him the decision of such points solely rests.
The quantity of flour, or other articles bought from the "Cornwallis" by the wife of this individual (for the assertion that it was bought for him or her, as they state, is a wanton falsehood,) is a point with which the public have no right to meddle. His Officers certainly have no such right. The supposition, that it is impossible for his wife to carry on any trade or business, because she can neither read or write; is contradicted by the actual experience of cases occuring within the Colony; cases so notorious, that only wilful forgetfulness can have overlooked them.
The writer of the letter referred to, evidently wishes to deceive his readers with the idea that he is advocating the cause of the Colonists at large; and that the practice which he censures is adverse to the interests of the Settlers generally. But unluckily, he defines "the Settlers" to be persons, who have come to this Colony to establish themselves in some trade or business; a definition which is strongly indicative of his own particular interests and motives, and will satisfy most of his readers, that he has really in view the interests of only a very small portion of the Settlers, of whom the great majority, it is confidently believed, will readily admit themselves to have received a decided benefit from the petty traffic carried on by the Soldiers wives at Perth; a direct benefit in point of convenience, and an indirect advantage from competition. The very few Soldiers wives who have engaged in trade in this Colony, have been distinguished for their good conduct and punctuality in matters of business, they, as well as others, have left "their friends and dear native Country," and have families to support. It is unjust, cruel and unmanly to attempt the ruin of a few industrious females, because they have prospered, (to the displeasure of interested envy and illnature,) in the pursuit of a lawful occupation, not prohibited by any law Civil or Military.
I am Sir,
Your obedient Servant
An Officer of His Majesty's 63rd Regt.
To the Editor of the Perth Gazette,
Fremantle January 13th, 1833.
In consequence of what appeared in your paper of Saturday last respecting a Meeting which took place not far from Perth, I consider it my duty to refute a statement that might prove injuriously erronious in its consequences, I beg leave to inform you Mr. L. did not send a Challenge consequently could not retract, and I take the liberty of adding whatever Mr. L's conduct might have been the proceeding evening, his behaviour on the ground was most honourable and Gentlemanly.
Mr. L's note is yet in existance, and I defy any person to construe it a challenge, or in any way animadvert, Mr. L's conduct on the morning in question, which was Wednesday and not Monday as was stated in your paper.
By given publicity to this you will greatly oblige
(Extract from the Launceston Advertiser.
22nd November. 1832.)
The extraordinary panic that exists in our commercial world, and consequently affects every interest of our little body, is truly distressing. We do not pretend to foretell where it will end. Specie seems entirely to be withdrawn from circulation: nothing but notes being obtainable. It is with thedifficulty exchange of a note can be made, except at the Bank; and unless some prompt measures are adopted, the cashiers, we foresee, will be drained by the Assistant Treasurer's drafts, and every fraction of our gold and silver will be locked up in the Commissariat chests. We shall be bankrupts; with effects to pay 40s. in the pound, if required. The county of Cornwall is still wealthy; but our wealth lies in flocks and herds, and land. One measure that will aid us will be, the people exercising confidence in each other, and giving time for re-action. The present dilemma is the effect of too great an indulgence in bill trading—and the sudden check given by the Banks limiting their discounts. Time will work a cure: but not until much distress has been felt, individually and generally. When the system has become thoroughly purged, we may look forward to a more healthy state of being than has been before known. But during the process of purification, many of the members of the community w11 be lopped off: they will not be able to stand so severe a shaking. Disease, which has long lain at the core, will break out, and the sufferer will not be able to recover before it is too late to rescue himself from the torrent of distress which hurries all before it to misery. Another method which would relieve us for a period, would be the non-payment of duties; by ceasing for a time to drink spirits. For this is one great, yea, the principal draw-back at present. The merchant draws his hogsheads of rum from the bonding warehouse, and hands over payment of the duties by cheques on the bank; these go into the hands of the Treasurer, who demands and receives payment, not in notes, but in specie—gold and silver; which he pays into the Commissariat - and there it lies, under lock and key. Unless some prompt steps be taken, we can scarcely bear to reflect on the consequence to our commercial world. When once we are extricated from our present maze, may we become more thoughtful and provident for the future. Let us endeavour to shut out foreign productions; and seek supplies of our own providing. If we must drink spirits let local breweries and distilleries be encouraged: that we may reap the double advantage of saving the enormous sums paid in duties upon foreign spirits; and of consuming the produce of our own lands—barley, and so forth. The experience of the past will be dearly purchased; and we should hope, would at least, be productive of good results in future days.
IMPORTED per "Thistle" 12 kegs Butter, 86 bars Iron, 1 bale Slops, 2 cases Stationery, 3 Hardware, 1 crate Tinware, 1 bundle—1 case Haberdashery, 1 cask Crockery, 3 cases and 2 bags Shoes, 1 cask Saddles, 1 case Bridles, 2 cases Starch, 2 bundles Chairs, 79 bags Wheat, 10 tons Flour, 1¼ Pollard, 43 bushels, Bran, 63 Oats, 800 split weather Boards, 5000 Laths, 21000 Shingles, 3 bags Hams and Bacon, 6 casks Harness, 1 chest Hardware, 1 bundle Wheels, 10 bags Wheat, 1 cask Beef, 1 bag Oats, 6 hbds. Rum, 2 puncheons, 1 case Hats, 1 chain Cable, 2 bundles Leather, 6 cases Brandy, 48 casks Flour, ¼ ton cheese.
The two Natives who arrived in the Thistle from King Georges Sound, are named Manyat, and Gyallipert. Their taking, to them, so distant and dangerous a voyage, shews in a most marked manner the beneficial confidence, which an uniformly humane, and kind treatment pursued since the earliest settlement of King Georges Sound, by every rank of inhabitant towards the Natives, has instilled, not only into the minds of these individuals, but into the whole of their tribe, with whose full consent they embarked.
Yesterday morning they were taken by two gentlemen Mr. Collie, Colonial Surgeon, and Mr. Mc B. Brown, to obtain an interview with their fellow Aborigines of Swan River, who were understood to be in considerable numbers at Monger's Lake, (at the back of Perth,) in order to ascertain the feeling and understanding that would ensue between them. Mr. Monger being met near his house readily joined the party; and to his former friendship and acquaintance with the tribe (w:Yellagonga's) the speedy and amicable interview which succeeded was principally owing, as the Swan river Natives betrayed considerable diffidence to the strangers; yet they eagerly entered into conversation with Manyat and Gyallipert. The two dialects are so different as to be understood by the two parties sufficiently only, for the interchange of the names of their respective districts, and those of some of the adjoining tribes.
The scene which was highly interesting was enhanced by Gyallipert and a man named Mundee exchanging skin cloaks, and the former receiving to boot, a most hearty salutation on both sides of the face from an aged lady, as a seal of this testimony of friendship.
The arrival of these natives will lead in every probability to the ultimate establishment of an amicable intercourse with the original possessors of the country, throughout the Colony, a result most sincerely to be desired.
We have received Launceston Advertiser's up to the 29th. of November 1832 but they contain nothing of importance. The opinions formed of this Colony upon the representations of individuals, either interested in condemning us, or incapable of forming a proper estimate of our merits, seem to have undergone a favourable change, the Journals contain many interesting letters from this place which being written by parties of character and respectability, cannot fail to restore to us that meed of Justice to which our exertions and various advantages have long entitled us Amongst the rest, we notice a letter from His Honour the Lieutenant Governor to a friend at Graham's Town, which originally appeared in the Journal of that place, and was subsequently copied in several other periodical publications. The correctness of the statements, as well as the authority from which it emanates, will be productive we have no doubt of considerable advantage to the Colony.
A new weekly Publication under the title of the "Hobart Town Chronicle" was to be published, by Mr. Ross the Editor of the Courier, at the commencement of this year. His ability and strictly honorable principles, will not fail to gain him extensive and liberal support.
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.
We perceive thein weights and measures is as sensibly felt in the sister Colonies, as in our own. In most instances we are disposed to believe the error arises from ignorance, and not design, we think therefore, it is high time our Shopkeepers were better informed. The Launceston Advertiser observes "It is a pity amongst the bakers, some individual cannot be found to adopt the system of weighing each loaf at the counter—in presence of the customer. This open display of honest dealing would soon amply compensate, the dealer, by the increase of trade which would in consequence take place.
The fine may be instructive here!! In the mean time it is to be hoped the attention of the Legislative Council, at an early period, will be directed to the establishment of some regular Standard. In the absence of proper weights we believe dumps and half-pence are frequently used.
Arrival.—The Thistle, Capt. Liddle from Launceston.—Supercargo Mr. S. G, Henty. Passengers Mr. John Henty, and two Natives from King George sound.
Sailed 17th. the Sir Francis Mc Naughten, Captain Alley, for Timor,—Passenger Mr. Edwards
WANTON ATTACK UPON THE NATIVES.
We have been informed that a most wanton attack was made upon the Natives, in the neighbourhood of Armstrong's Point, during last week, by a party returning from Perth to Fremantle. Although unprovoked by any act on the part of the Natives they fired several rounds upon them. It is said the guns were merely charged with powder; admitting this, the attack was equally unwarrantable, and it is to be hoped will not be repeated.
CIVIL COURT, 5th January 1833.
Before G. F. Moore Esquire, Commissioner.
This was an action to recover £245, for employing an indentured Servant.
Graham v. Wright. Mr. Clarke appeared for the Plaintiff, and handed in Mrs. Weavell's Affidavit, in consequence of her continued illness. It was to this effect, that she left England in the year 1829, and that Ann Tew was previously her servant; there was a verbal agreement on leaving England, and she (Mrs. Weavell) had every reason to beleive, that it was reduced to writing on arrival here. Beleves the document, and Signature to be the writings alluded to Ann Tew broke through a window. Not aware whether she left with permission or not. She snatched a paper and burnt it, which Capt. Graham said was her agreement, but I did not think him serious.
The Commissioner—considering the Indentures sufficiently proved, the Witnesses were called.
Charles Spiers.—Recollect seeing a Notice stuck upon Mr. Samson's door, cautioning any person from hiring Ann Tew, as they would be prosecuted; it was about March 1831.
Cross-examined.—Don't know whether Mr.Wright saw the Notice.
Commissioner—to Mr. Clarke—do you rely upon the Notice? I don't know whether I am anticipating, but I may as well state, that unless you prove having given Notice to Defendant himself.
Mr. Clarke.—but I presume a Notice inserted in a public Paper.
Commissioner.—Rather a violent presumption! By no means, unless in the Gazette, and I have even my doubts about that. It is well established, that the party employing an indentured servant should have Notice himself.
Mr. Clarke.—He had Notice from me.
Commissioner.—Well then—as I observed, I am premature.
Louisa Wood.—Deposed to going with Ann Tew to Capt. Graham's at Richmond House. He asked her when she was going to pay him the passage money, she said she "had no money to pay." Witness left her there, but she did not stop all night.
The Commissioner.—I thought by hearing her talk that she did not owe him any thing.
Ann Tew.—Recollects Mr. Wright receiving a letter from Mr. Clarke as Agent for Capt. Graham, calling upon him to pay her passage money. The letter stated "knowing me to be an Indentured servant" I said I did not know any thing of the kind. Don't know what answer was given to the letter. Am still in the service of Mr. Wright.
Crossexamined, don't know how many days Capt. Graham locked me up, because I had got out. He said several times I might go where I liked. My clothes remained there until I sent for them.
By The Commissioner.—I burnt the Indentures in an old iron pot. Capt. Graham was standing out side the door went in and brought them out. Looked at them; they were drawn out the same as those he says I signed; I think it was in May 1831.
By Mr. Clarke.—I applied for permission to leave the Colony, it was then the Notice was stuck up.
By the Commissioner.—Capt, Graham persuaded me to sign the paper under the pretence, that I should otherwise not be allowed to stop in the Colony.
Mr. Clarke, here put a question which the Commissioner observed was certainly not a leading but a driving question, it must therefore not be repeated.
Mr. Clarke wished to put a few questions to the Defendant. He knew he need not answer them unless he liked.
The Commissioner.—I think Mr. Clarke if the questions are to answer your purpose, you will have some difficulty in persuading him, and if they are to be of service to him, it would be as well left alone.—People must not lay a trap for those who are busy on their farms. Notice might be up in any of the towns, and not come to the knowledge of the Farmer, in fact in point of law a distinct Notice must be given.
Mr. Clarke.—If Mr. Wright would have come forward in any way the affair might have been settled out of Court.
Mr. Wright.—I said you must first establish your claim.
J. Morgan, sworn,—Remembers Ann Tew being in his service about 18 Months ago, and certainly considered her at that time a free Servant. Engaged her at Fremantle a short time after she left Capt. Graham. Did not receive any Notice from Capt. Graham either verbal or written during the six months she was in his service. He never heard any thing which should lead him to suppose that she was an Indentured servant.
Crossexamined.—Not aware that Capt. Graham knew she was in my service.
By Mr. Wright.—When I sent a cart at her request for her things, to the best of my belief Ann Tew sent her own message, and they were received and placed in my boat.
Commissioner.—This leaves a strong presumption, of an acquiescence in the departure. The date of the summons was 26th October, and notice was given to Mr. Wright only three days prior, the utmost I can allow therefore is the time which elapsed between the notice, and the summons. There is a manifest difference in the liability of the servant, and the person employing, as the latter can only be held liable after proof of notice.
Damages, one shilling and Costs.
Graham v. Ann Tew.—To recover £45 for money advanced by Plaintiff for passage from England. This case was settled out of Court.
On the application of Mr. Solomon, to lay an attachment against H. R. Bond a Baliff of the Court, for illegally seizing and disposing of his property by public Auction.
The Commissioner remarked. That all the power the Court had was to dismiss him from being any further an Officer of the Court.
Mr. Solomon.—But in this Case Sir, the Officer has received an indemnity.
Commissioner.—People ought to be very cautious how they volunteer indemnities. All I can say is I should not like to be in the parties place.
Mr. Solomon.—Mr. Clarke has given the indemnity.
The Commissioner.—In order for me to take any notice of the business, an affidavit must be laid before the Court. An action would lie for trespass and not on the illegal Act; in the one case as an Officer of the Court, in the other as one of the public for doing an illegal thing.
Marrs. v. Wm. Samson.—To recover £15. 10. an overcharge on settling accounts.
It appeared Mr. Samson had sold a part of the Cargo of the 'Governor Bourke' by public Auction, but previously to the sale purchased a quantity of Flour, upon which he had charged his Commission.
Mr. Samson explained,—that the whole of the Cargo was placed in his hands for sale, and a limited price fixed; he gave him his price for the flour, and maintained that had it been put up to auction, he should have been entitled as Auctioneer to one bidding, and consequently would have been paid his auction Fees.
The Commissioner.—This appears to me a case depending entirely upon the Custom of the Trade.
Capt. Henderson, proved that it was a regular practice, if goods were placed in anhands with certain prices, to allow the Commission whether the goods were purchased by the Agent, or sold by other parties. He had frequently done it himself, and in one instance in this Colony.
J. Wood.—Had made an offer to Mr. Samson previously to the purchase, and considered him the Agent. He was under the impression it was to be advertised for sale. Saw the list which was made out and. Flour was in it.
Commissioner.—As this is a case of usage I shall take till tomorrow to give my Judgment.
Verdict for the Defendant, with costs.
COLONEL HANSON'S PAMPHLET.
The town of York was established whilst I was at Perth: a Township upon the banks of a River, beyond the Darling Range, (which by the way I have just mentioned as the scene of Mr. Moore's and Mr. Dale's excursions)—I could give you a sketch of it's position relatively with the low country, but it would be unbecoming in me to trench in the slightest degree upon the province of Mr. Roe, the Surveyor General. He is well known to the public as the very able assistant of Captain King, the Australian Maritime Surveyor, and he will I trust shortly give the world a general Map of this very interesting Colony.
This said town of York, was thriving fast when I came away—the communication had been thoroughly established. A road was also projected between the Swan River and King George's Sound, the latter place having been abandoned as a penal settlement, and attached to the Government of Western Australia.
A most difficult and enterprising journey had been accomplished a short time before I arrived, between the Swan River and King George's Sound—it was conducted by Captain Bannister, late of his Majesty's Service, and a few other fearless individuals who accompanied him. The distance between the two places as the Crow flies, is about 250 miles, but as they had no other guide than a compass, and no correct means of ascertaining their situation, by Astronomical observations, they unhappily deviated from the straight route, and when it is remembered what mountains and forests they had to traverse on their journey, it cannot be matter of astonishment to find, that they reached the South coast of New Holland, 80 miles to the Westward of their destination. Their cattle all died from fatigue, and they were themselves reduced to subsist entirely on shell fish, picked up from the rocks. Happily they fell in with a tribe of good, humane natives from King George's Sound, by whom they were generously succoured, and conducted at length to the end of their eventful and enterprising journey—worn down to the last extremity poor fellows, by famine, fatigue, and all their concomitant evils. Bannister however is now as fresh as ever; and perfectly ready to start upon a second excursion of the same nature. He has written a very interesting account of his journey, and he describes the country generally which he passed over, as equal in beauty and fertility to any country in the world.
A fishing establishment has been formed at Rottenest Island, which promises to furnish an excellent article for exportation. The Snapper, a fish about the size of a Cod, is caught in great abundance upon the coast, and when cured is I think equal to any salt fish I ever tasted. The Salmon is also an excellent fish for the same purpose, which is I believe caught in the Swan River. A small Dock yard near Perth is also giving proofs of Maritime Science, under the auspices of Governor Stirling. Two vessels are now on the stocks, one of them I believe is private property, but the other, of about fifty Tons burthen, is intended as a Government Schooner, to ply between the capital, and the minor settlements on the coast.
I attended the second or third market day after my arrival at Perth, and bought fine fresh butter for 4s. 6d. a pound—potatoes for 9d. and vegetables at the same scale of price. In short during my stay there for two months, I neither heard or dreamt of any want, and I will appeal to those friends who occasionally breakfasted with me, whether I had not on my table as excellent a meal as they would wish to sit down to. I cannot speak of my Dinners, as my friends were too hospitable, ever to permit of my dining at home. Whilst writing on the subject of supplies, I could wish that you had seen an entertainment, given by the Governor, to the Ladies and Gentlemen of the colony. I think you would have acknowledged, that the whole affair, would have done credit to any part of the world. We quadrilled and waltzed until midnight,—sat down to a sumptuous supper laid out for a hundred and fifty people—returned to the dance, enlivened by Champagne, and seperated only, when the rising Sun began to smile upon our Orgies.
Both a Literary and Agricultural Society have been formed at Perth. I had the honor of being present at one of their meetings, and I was much flattered at being elected an honorary member. They have petitioned Government at home upon various points—one of them I believe suggests the means of obtaining manual labour, and this is the only point upon which I venture to differ with my worthy friends at the Swan. I do differ though, after having seen the splendid public works, which have been erected, and are now in progress, at the Sister colony of Van Dieman's land—erected by means of Penal labour.
The inhabitants of the Swan River may justly pride themselves, on the individual respectability of each emigrant, and it is certain that they may sleep safely with all they possess, under a "Wicket opening with a latch;" but if a man embarks on a project of this description, with the view of benefiting his family, and of establishing himself in a new Country, he surely does not intend to live like Robinson Crusoe, for five and twenty years in a wilderness, and gradually subside into a country labourer, without endeavouring to restore to his Wife and family, as large a portion as he can, of the luxuries and comforts they have quitted. This picture may be somewhat overdrawn, but I maintain that until Cart and Carriage roads of communication are constructed, there will be no sort of enjoyment to the Settler, beyond the mere animal pleasure of eating and drinking, and superintending the management of his own farm. I have heard it said, that Government intend sending out some thousands of poor labourers, to perform the work that may be required of them, but let me ask in reply who is to pay these labourers their hire. We all know the Settler will have but limited means to defray the expence, and if he has means at all, he will surely apply the labour to his private property, where he is certain to reap personal and immediate advantage from it. Even to preserve roads in repair, after they are first formed, is not only expensive in itself, but it requires also that the countries through which they pass, shall be well peopled, and capable of affording the necessary labour. If therefore the horror of having Convicts within sight of a man's property, shall operate so forcibly with my friends at the Swan, as to prevent them from being sent to the Colony at all, I really do not see that the Settlers have any prospect of solid enjoyment, beyond their own rural habitations, for a very long time.
If the Indian Governments could be prevailed upon to send a few hundreds of their transported Convicts, to form public roads on the Swan River, the aid they would afford would be most invaluable, and the climate, though cold in winter, would not I am certain be unhealthy. The expence of maintaining them would be inconsiderable to the Government, and as the line of black and white would be a very marked distinction, I do not see, that the Settler, under this arrangement, would have cause to dread the slightest contamination to Society.
The Season of the year at which possession was first taken of the Swan River, may be said to have proved one of it's greatest misfortunes. The Governor and public functionaries arrived in the very depth of Winter, when few or no Tents were provided for their accommodation, and no sort of covering had been prepared on shore. They landed in the first instance at Garden Island, about nine miles by water from Fremantle, and the season even for Winter, being unusually severe, the poor Ladies and Children, were all of them exposed to the most harrassing privations, and obliged frequently to sleep under Umbrellas, as their only covering from the Rain. Merchant ships with all sorts of supplies, flocked at the same period to Gage's Roads. It was in vain I understand that Governor Stirling represented the insecurity of the anchorage, the Masters persisted in braving the dangers of the season, and the consequence was inevitable, that a great many merchant Ships were successively driven on shore. It is unnecessary to dwell upon the unfavourable impression, which the public must have received, from these unlooked for misfortunes. The inclemency of the seasons—the dangers of the place, and the sufferings of the first adventurers, were all of them magnified in a manner that is scarcely credible. One Gentleman well known in the Colony, had freighted a ship with property of every description, to become an extensive proprietor of land; but having unfortunately touched at the Cape of Good Hope, for refreshment, he was there shewn so gloomy a picture of the settlement, and told such unfounded tales of their misery and distress, that he actually sold off the whole of his live stock, and lost by that measure, the enormous sum of £8000.
The loss that was sustained by the underwriters, in the first instance, must have proved an additional source of dispraise to the Colony. Though ships may lie as safe in Cockburn Sound, as in any harbour of the World, and for six months of the year a Westerly gale is never known, yet strange to say, an impression different from the truth, appears to obtain in England, and now I am told, an insurance is not procurable at all.
It is not among the least of it's misfortunes, that so considerable a time has been permitted to elapse, without any communication with the Government at home. We were the first even to bring the intelligence to Captain Stirling, that he was promoted from Lieutenant Governor, to be Governor and Commander in Chief of Western Australia. The gratifying information, though tardy in it's arrival, produced the gladdest sentiments throughout the whole Colony.
I hope I shall be pardoned for saying, that in my humble judgment, there could not possibly have been selected, a man more fit for the arduous, irksome, and responsible situation he fills, than Captain Stirling. His firmness of character, and steadiness of purpose, under all the trying vicissitudes to which he has been exposed, is far beyond any feeble praise I can bestow. His paternal kindness and consideration, for every class of Settler, has deservedly secured him the confidence and esteem both of high and low, and he possesses at the same time so sanguine a spirit of enterprize, and so great a love of bushranging, that it is impossible to come within his ken and not feel excited by his influence. If the home authorities however, have not been as frequent in their communications, as might have been expected, the Admiral on the Indian Station, Sir Edward Owen, has done every thing in his power to cheer up their spirits—in the short space of two months, there were two Men of War, called to ascertain their wants, and there cannot be a doubt but this distinguished Officer, on his return to Europe, will bring the condition of the Colony to the particular notice of the Home authorities.
Several minor settlements have been formed, since the Establishment of Western Australia. I believe there was a party sent to Geographe Bay, immediately South of the Swan, but the anchorage was so completely exposed to Westerly winds, during the Winter season, that the place has been since abandoned. Another spot has been chosen, named Port Augusta, of which I shall have occasion to speak as I proceed. This Port is formed by the projection of Cape Lewin, and the Rocks South of it, which protects the anchorage entirely from Westerly winds, and as the winds from the Eastward are mere summer gales, I think the place will speedily establish it's own reputation.
(The writer proceeds in H. M. S. Sulphur to Hobart Town.)
On our way to Port Augusta, which we first visited, we established the exact position of a most dangerous shoal, about 15 or 16 miles from Cape Naturalist—according to Mr. Periam, the master of the Sulphur—the outer Breaker bears from the Cape about N. b. E. and extends about ¾ of a mile. This would be a fatal shoal for any ship to strike upon. Captain Dance however says, that in bad weather the sea breaks upon it mountains high, which in the day time would give sufficient warning of its vicinity. God help the unfortunate Bark, that might strike upon it in the night.
There is also a dangerous ledge of rocks running seaward, from the land, immediately North of Cape Lewin, on which a fine ship was lost, a short time ago. How the wise acre managed to get his vessel, upon so palpable a danger, is matter of astonishment to any Man, who knows any thing of Navigation.
We arrived at Port Augusta about three days after we sailed from Cockburn Sound, and remained there about 24 hours. We found the party gradually progressing in all the arts of Colonization, and Captain Molloy, the Resident, up to his ears in business.
The natives in this neighbourhood are said to be friendly, and the soil appears most productive. The Town will be built upon the face of a rising ground, looking South upon the Sea, and a few years, will possibly shew a passing stranger, one of the most picturesque little sea ports in the world. Mrs Molloy's garden abounds with choicest flowers; but I am sorry to say I am unable to describe them more particularly, than that they are all of them very fragrant, and very beautiful. The Ship having merely called to land supplies at Port Augusta, we got under weigh the following afternoon, and bent our course towards King George's Sound.
Here we were somewhat unfortunate in our progress, as we passed to Leeward of our Port during the night. A little Government Schooner, the Ellen commanded by a superb little fellow, Lieutenant Preston of the Navy, was off the harbour on our arrival, having beaten us in the passage, most lamentably. We were just able to lay up for Baldhead, the entrance to the Sound, when ye Gods! there came a "Sneezer" from the shore, as Jack would say, which made every sail grin again! I thought it would have torn the masts out of the Ship—we bore up to it however, and were kept at sea seven days longer, merely from being a mile and a half too far to the Eastward. Preston hugged the land (as Sailors say) during the night, and got into the Sound the following morning. At length however we did arrive, and, anchored the the Ship in Prince Royal Harbour, which in point of perfect safety, is equal to any port in the world. We carried in 4½ fathoms the shoalest water, and were embayed in a bason as smooth as a mill pond.
King George's Sound is a settlement that well deserves the praise I had heard bestowed upon it—it possesses every natural advantage, the most sanguine emigrant can desire, and is blessed with a climate it is impossible to eulogize too highly.
The site for the Town is well chosen, between two moderately high mountains, connected with each other, by a ridge of excellent soil, from which, water of the purest quality, is trickling down in natural and abundant rills to the Beach. It is strange to find, that King George's Sound, though so long occupied as a Penal Settlement from Sydney, exhibits at this moment hardly a vestige of Man's works—what the Convicts can have been about, during the many years they have been stationed there, it is difficult to imagine. Mr. Carew, the present Commandant, declares, that the most positive orders existed, not to erect a single dwelling House or public work, of any description, beyond the miserable Huts that were necessary for the cover of the party. What the object of such dog and manger policy could possibly have been, the high authorities in Eastern Australia can best explain. Dr. Collie, the Resident of the place, had from his very slender means, erected a comparatively comfortable little dwelling House, for the Governor and Mrs. Stirling, which they occupied on their arrival. It is close to a Government Garden, about two miles East of the town, on the slope of a long declivity, stretching down to the Sea, and commanding a most superb view of the entrance to the harbour; with Baldhead and it's gigantic cliffs frowning defiance to the South, and break sea Island stretching it's rocky protecting arms far across the anchorage.
The Government garden, under the fostering care of Dr. Collie, gives the most satisfactory proofs of what can be done in this genial and delightful climate. I am told the Penal settlement carried away with them every particle of seed they could possibly scrape together, and of course left the gardens very badly supplied. They have shewn however a very proper spirit on the occasion, by foregoing the use of Potatoes altogether, and devoting the whole of their stock to seed. The coming Crops, will amply repay them for their very prudent policy, and in the mean time, they have abundance of Cauliflowers, Cabbages, Beans, Peas, and almost every other esculent vegetable.
The good land in the immediate neighbourhood of the town, may be said to run in patches of fifty and a hundred acres. The site of the Government Garden, which I have already noticed, is of the richest possible soil. The Scotch Gardener told me, there was nothing on Earth that would not grow upon it. The vein continues down the face of the mountain, towards the sea about one hundred acres possibly, until it arrives at an extensive swamp and back water, where the soil becomes poor and sandy. Fifty acres of this rich soil, the Governor has given me a grant of, and I have called it Torrens, in memory of the steadiest and warmest friend that man was ever blessed with.
To the East of the large inlet which contains the Sound or outer anchorage, there is another harbour called Oyster harbour. The entrance to which is too shoal for vessels of any burthen, but a capital Basin for small craft. Preston took his Schooner there to smoke her, and I believe he laid in five fathoms water, within a few yards of the shore—into this harbour, a considerable river discharges itself, called French river, and the land upon it is said to be of a very fine quality. The Governor paid it a visit before I came away, and he was doubtful at first, whether Oyster harbour would not be the most eligible place for the principal Settlement—he has now decided otherwise however, and I am rejoiced that he has done so, for the advantage of a safe and capacious port to an Infant Colony is incalculable, and particularly in these stormy latitudes. Indeed I think it impossible to look upon Prince Royal Harbour, without acknowledging, that it is capable of containing half the Fleets of the world.
To be continued
Edited, Printed, and Published by CHARLES MACFAULL, at the Gazette Office, Perth
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