Translation:Periplus of Pseudo-Scylax
[This is] Skylax of Karyanda's Periplus of the inhabited sea of Europe, Asia, and Libya, on all the individual peoples and what they are like, one after the other, and the lands, harbours, and rivers, and all the lengths of voyages, and the five inhabited islands, as well as the indiidual ones located near the mainland.
1. Pillars of Herakles. I begin from the pillars of Herakles in Europe, all the way to the pillars of Herakles in Libya, and all the way to the great Ethiopians. The pillars of Herakles are located opposite one another and are separated from one another by a day's sail. <and there are two islands there called Gadeira. The one with a city is a day's sail from the pillars of Herakles.> From the pillars of Herakles, there are many Carthaginian trading stations, clay, high tides and ocean.
2. Iberians. The first people of Europe are the Iberians, the people of Iberia and the river Iber. Then Emporion (a Greek city named Emporion). These are colonies of the Massaliotes. The voyage past Iberia is seven days and seven nights' sail.
3. Ligurians and Iberians. After the Iberians, there are Ligurians and Iberians mixed together until the River Rhodanos. The voyage past Ligurian from Emporion to the Rhodanos river is two days and one night's sail.
4. Ligurians. After the Rhodanos river, there are Ligurians until Antion. In this land there is a Greek city, Massalia, and a harbour * * *. These are colonies of Massalia. The voyage from the Rhodanos river to Antion is 4 days and four nights' voyage. From the pillars of Herakles to Antion, all the land is well-equipped with harbours.
5. Etruscans. The Etruscans live between Antion and the city of Rome. The voyage is four days and four nights' sail.
6. Kyrnos. The island of Kyrnos is located opposite Etruria. The voyage from Etruria to Kyrnos takes a day and a half. On this route, there is an inhabited island, called Aithalia, and many other islands which are not inhabited.
7. Sardinia. The voyage from the island of Kyrnos to the island of Sardinia takes a third of a day. There is an uninhabited island in between. From Sardinia to Libya is a voyage of a day and a night, while the voyage to Sicily from Sardinia takes two days and a night. I now return to the mainland at the point where I turned aside to Kyrnos.
9. Olsoi. The Olsoi come after the Latins. The voyage past the Olsoi is one day's sail.
11. Saunitai. The Saunitai come after the Campanians. The voyage past the Saunitai is half a day's sail.
12. Lucanians. The Lucanians come after the Saunitai and continue until Thouria. The voyage past the Lucanians is 6 days and 6 nights' sail. Lucania is a peninsula. In this country there are the following Greek cities: Poseidonia, Elea, Laos (a colony of Thourioi), Pandosia, Terina, Hipponion, Mesma, Rhegion (which is both the tip of the peninsula and a city).
13. Sicily. Opposite Rhegion is the island of Sicily, which is separated from Europe by a distance of 12 stadia, between Pelorias and Rhegion. There are the following barbarian peoples in Sicily: Elymians, Sicans, Sicels, Phoenicians, Trojans. These are the barbarians, but Greeks also live there. Pelorias is a peninsula of Sicily. From Pelorias, the Greek cities are: Messene (and harbour), Tauromenion, Naxos, Katane, Leontinoi (Leontinoi is 20 stadia up the Teria river), the Symaithos river and the city of Megaris, and the Xiphonian harbour. After the city of Megaris is the city of Syracuse, and there are two harbours there, one of which is inside the walls, the other of which is outside them. After this is the city of Eloros and the peninsula of Pachynos. From Pachynos the Greek cities are: Kamarina, Gela, Akragas, Selinous, and the Lilybaion peninsula. After Lilybaion, there is the Greek city of Himera, and after Himera, is the city of Lipara (which is an island), and the Greek city of Mylai (and harbour). From Mylai to Lipara island is a voyage of half a day. [And Sicily is triangular, with each side measuring roughly 1500 stadia.] I now return to the mainland at the point where I turned off. After Rhegion, there are the following cities: Lokroi, Kaulonia, Kroton, the Lakinian temple of Hera and the island of Kalypso, where Odysseus lived with Kalypso, and the Krathis river, and Sybaris and the city of Thouria. These are the Greeks in Lucania.
14. Iapygia. After Lucania, there are the Iapygian people, until Mount Orion on the Adriatic Sea. The voyage past the Iapygians is six days and six nights sail. Greeks live in Iapygia and their cities are: Herakleion, Metapontion, Taras (and harbour), and Hydrous at the mouth of the Adriatic or Ionian Sea.
15. Saunitai. After Iapygia, from Orion, are the Saunitai people. Among this people there are the following languages or dialects: Laternioi, Opikoi, Kramones, Boreontinoi, Peuketians. They stretch from the Tyrrhenian Sea to the Adriatic. The voyage past the Saunite land is two days and a night's sail.
16. Ombrikoi: After the Saunite people, are the Ombrikoi. There is a city here, Ankon. These people honour Diomedes, because it benefited from his good deeds, and there is a temple dedicated to him. The voyage past Ombrika is two days and a night's sail.
17. Etruscans. After the Ombrikoi, the Etruscans. They too stretch from the Tyrrhenian Sea to the Adriatic. There is a Greek city here, Spina, and a river. The journey up the river to the city is about 20 stadia. From here, the road to the city of Pisa takes three days.
18. Celts. After the Etruscans, there are the Celtic people (those who stayed behind when the rest went on campaign), stretching from the mountain passes to the Adriatic. This is the farthest point of the Adriatic Sea.
20. Istroi. After the Enetoi are the Istrian people and the river Istros. This river enters the sea * * * to Egypt. The voyage past the Istrians' land is a day and a night's sail.
21. Libyrnoi. After the Istrians are the Libyrnoi people. Among this people, there are cities by the sea: Lias, Idassa, Attienites, Dyyrta, Alouphoi, Olsoi, Pedetai, Hemionoi. They are ruled by women and they are the wives of free men, but they have children with their own slaves and with the men from neighbouring countries. Opposite this land there are islands, whose names I can state (but there are many more which are unnamed): the island of Istris (310 stadia and a width of 120), the Elektrides, the Mentorides. These are the biggest islands. Katarbates river. The voyage past the Libyrnian land is two days' sail.
22. Illyrians. After the Libyrnoi are the Illyrian people and the Illyrians dwell along the coast as far as Chaonia, which is opposite Kerkyra, the island of Alkinoos. There is a Greek city there, which is called Herakleia, and a harbour. There are also the barbarians who are called the lotus-eaters: the Hierastamnai, the Boulinoi (Hyllinoi). The Boulinoi's neighbours are the Hylloi, who say that Hyllos the son of Herakles established them, but they are barbarians. They occupy a peninsula a little smaller than the Peloponnese. The island of Sissa extends alongside the peninsula, like a straight ribbon; the Boulinoi inhabit it. And the Boulinoi are an Illyrian people. The voyage past the Boulinoi's land to the River Nestos is a long day's sail.
23. Nestoi. After the Nestos, the voyage is full of bays. This whole gulf is called the Manios. The voyage is a day's sail. These are the islands in this gulf: <Tragyras>, Krateiai, <Brattia>, and Olynta. These are 2 stadia distant from one another, or thereabouts, opposite Pharos and Issa. New Pharos, a Greek island is there and Issa island and these are Greek cities. Before reaching the Naron river, [one encounters] lots of land stretching far out to sea. And there is an island near the shore which is called Melite and another island near this which is called Black Kerkyra. One end of this island points right away from the shore, and the other end meets it, near the Naron river. It is 20 stadia from Melite and 7 stadia from the shore.
24. Manioi. After the Nestoi is the Naron river. The channel leading into the Naron is not narrow - even a trireme can sail up it, and the upstream trading post is 80 stadia from the sea. These are the Manioi Illyrian people. The area inland from the trading post is a massive marsh and the marsh stretches to the Autariatai, an Illyrian people. And there is an island within the marsh, of 120 stadia. This island is exceptionally fertile. The Naron river flows out of this marsh. From the Naron to the Arion river is a day's sail. From the Arion river <to the Rhizous river> is half a day's sail. The stones of Kadmos and Harmonia are here and their sanctuary is not far away from the Rhizous river. From the Rhizous river to Bouthoe is <half a day's sail, and the same amount to> the trading post.
25. Eels. The Eels are one of the Illyrian peoples, who border the Rhizous. From Bouthoe to Epidamnos (a Greek city), is a day and a night's sail, by road it takes three days.
26. Taulantioi. It is among the Illyrian people of the Taulantioi that Epidamnos is located, and a river flows past the city called Palamnos. From Epidamnos to Apollonia (a Greek city) is two days' journey by road. Apollonia is 50 stadia from the sea and the river Aias flows through the city from the Pindos mountains. From Apollonia to Amantia is 320 stadia. Next to Amantia, but further on towards the Ionian Sea is Orikos. From Orikia it is 80 stadia to the sea, from Amantia it is 60 stadia. The Atintanes are the neighbouring people inland from Orikia and Dexaria to Dodonia. In the Kestrian land it is said that there is a plain, called Erytheia. It is said that Geryon lived and kept his cattle there. Opposite these are the Keraunian mountains in Epeiros and a little beyond them is an island called Sason. The voyage from there to Orikos city is a third of a day's sail.
27. Orikoi. The Orikoi inhabit the land of Amantia. From the Boulinoi to this point the people are Illyrians. The mouth of the Ionian Gulf stretched from the Keraunian mountains to the Iapygian peninsula. The voyage across from the Keraunians to Hydroeis city in Iapygia is about 500 stadia; this is the mouth of the Gulf. Everything inside it is the Ionian Sea. There are many harbours in the Adriatic. The Adriatic is the same as the Ionian Sea.
28. Chaonians. After the Illyrians are the Ionians. Chaonia has good harbours. The Chaonians dwell in villages. The voyage past Chaonia is half a day's sail.
29. Korkyra. Opposite Chaonia is the island of Korkyra  and there is a Greek city on it, with three harbours associated with the city. One of these is closed. Korkyra points towards Thesprotia more than Chaonia. I now return to the mainland, where I turned aside.
30. Thesprotia. After Chaonia are the Thesprotian people. They too live in villages and the territory also has good harbours. There is a harbour there called Elaia. Into this harbour, the river Acheron discharges. There is a marsh, Acherousia, from which the Acheron river flows. The voyage past Thesprotian is half a day's sail.
31. Kassopoi. After Thesprotia are the Kassopian people. They too live in villages. They inhabit the coast as far as the Anaktoric Gulf. The voyage past the land of the Kassopoi is half a day's voyage. From the mouth of the Anaktoric Gulf to its innermost point is 120 stadia and the mouth is 4 stadia wide.
32. Molottia. After Kassopia, are the Molottian people. They also live in villages. They extend along the sea for only a short distance, but extend a long way inland. The voyage past the land of Molottia is 40 stadia.
33. Ambrakia. After Molottia, is Ambrakia, a Greek city. It is 80 stadia from the sea. There is also a wall along the sea and a closed harbour. Greece begins there and continues until the Peneios river and the Magnesian city of Omolios, which is next to the river. The voyage past Ambrakia is 120 stadia.
34. Akarnania. After Ambrakia are the Akarnanian people, and the first city here is Amphilochian Argos then Anaktorion and a harbour, then outside the Anaktoric Gulf there are: Aktion and after this the cape and city of Leukas, with a harbour. This projects out into the Leukate, which is a promontory visible far out at the sea. This city was previously called that of the Epileukadians. But when the Akarnanians had a civil war, they received a thousand colonists from Corinth, but these colonists killed them and took their land. Leukas is now an island, since it has been cut off with a ditch at the isthmus [a strait has been dug at the isthmus]. After this is the city of Phara, and opposite this, is the island of Ithaka (with a city and a harbour). After this is the island of Kephalenia. Now I return again to the mainland where I left off. After this is the city of Alyzia and, opposite this, the island of Karnos, the city of Astakos with a harbour, the river Acheloios, and the city of Oiniadai, which is reached by sailing up the Acheloios. There are also other Akarnanian cities inland. The voyage past Akarnania is two days and nights' sail. The whole of Akarnania is well-equipped with harbours and there are many islands located opposite it, which the Acheloios is turning into part of the mainland as it silts up. The islands are called the Echinades and they are uninhabited.
35. Aitolia. After Akarnania are the Aitolian people, and these are the cities in this place: Kalydon, Halikarna, and Molykreia. Then there is the Delphic Gulf. The mouth of the gulf is 10 stadia wide and the sanctuary is above it. Then the city of Naupaktos, and there are many other Aitolian cities inland. The voyage past Aitolia is one day's sail. Aitolia borders the whole of Lokris in the interior, as far as the Ainianans.
36. Lokroi. After the Aitolians are the Lokrian people, among whom are the ones called the Ozolians, and their cities are: Euanthis and Amphissa. There are more cities of theirs inland. The voyage past the land of the Lokrians is half a day's sail.
37. Phokians. After the Lokrians are the Phokian people on the Kirrhaian plain, and the sanctuary of Apollo, the city of Delphi, and the city of Antikyra, where the best hellebore is produced. The voyage past the land of the Phokians is half a day's sail.
38. Boiotians. After the Phokians are the Boiotian people and their cities are: Korsiai, Siphai (with harbour), Eutretos, and Boiotians' Fortress. The voyage past Boiotia is less than half a day's sail.
40. Corinth. After the Megarians is the city and sanctuary of Corinth, Lechaion, and Isthmos. The Peloponnese begins at this point. The road over the isthmus from [this] sea to the sea near us is 40 stadia. The whole coast is a gulf. The voyage past the land of the Corinthians is half a day's sail.
41. Sikyon. After Corinth is the city of Sikyon. The voyage past this is 120 stadia.
42. Achaians. After Sikyon are the Achaian people and their cities are: Pellene, Aigeira, Aigai, Aigion, and Rhypes. Beyond [the strait of] Rhion are Patrai and Dyme. The voyage past the land of Achaia is 700 stadia.
43. Elis. After the Achaians, are the people of Elis and these are the cities there: Kyllene (with port), <Olympia> and the river Alpheios. There is also another collection of cities, Elis, in the interior. Opposite this land is the island of Zakynthos, on which there is a city and a harbour. The voyage past the land of the Eleians, as far as the Lepreat mountains, is 700 stadia.
44. Arkadia. After Elis, are the people of Arkadia. Arkadia stretches to the sea below Lepreon, from the interior. Their cities are in the interior and the largest ones are: Tegea, Mantineia, Heraia, Orchomenos, and Stymphalos. There are also other cities. The voyage past the land of the Lepreates is 100 stadia.
45. Messene. After Arkadia, are the people of Messene and these are the cities there: (first Messene and harbour); Kyparissos, which is 7 stadia from the sea; <first island, on which there is also a harbour>; Ithome, which is in the interior, 80 stadia from the sea. The voyage past the land of Messene is 300 stadia.
46. Lakedaimon. After Messene, are the people of Lakedaimon and these are the cities there: Asine, Mothone, Achilleios harbour and opposite this Psamathous harbour. The temple of Poseidon, Tainaros, projects out into the sea between the two of these. Then Las (city and harbour); Gytheion in which there is a naval yard, and a fortress, then the river Eurotas, the city of Boia, and Cape Malea. [Kythera]. Opposite this is the island of Kythera with a city and harbour. Opposite this is the island of Crete. After the aforementioned Cape Malea, is Side (city and harbour, Epidauros (city and harbour), Prasia (city and harbour), [Methana] <Anthana> (city and harbour). There are also other cities of the Lakedaimonians. In the interior is Sparta and many other cities. The voyage past the land of the Lakedaimonians is three days' sail.
47. Crete. Opposite Lakedaimon is the island of Crete, for Lakedaimon is the closest part of Europe. But the journey from Lakedaimon to the closest point of Crete, where the city of Phalasarna is located, is a rapid sail of a day. Heading away from the Phalasarnans is the promontory [called] the Ram's forehead. The voyage in the direction of the south wind leads to Libya, and to the Haliades of the peninsula of the Cyrenaeans, is a voyage of a day and a night. Crete is 2500 stadia long, but it is narrow, and is stretched out from west to east. Some of the Greeks who live on Crete are colonists of the Lakedaimonians, some of the Argives, some of the Athenians and some from everywhere else in the rest of Greece. Some of them are also autochthonous. There are many cities on Crete. Starting at Cape Korykos, the most westerly city is the aforementioned Phalasarna and its enclosed harbour; then Polyrrhenia, whose territory stretches from the north coast to the south coast; then the Diktynnaion, a sanctuary of Artemis, on the north coast, in the land of Pergamia and Hyrtakina to the south; Kydonia and its enclosed harbour on the north coast, and Elyros city in the interior, with Lissa city and harbour near the Ram's Forehead [on the southern coast]; to the north the land of Apteraia, then Lampaia, which extends to both coasts, and the river Mesapios is in its territory. Then Osmida. After Osmida is Eleuthernai on the north coast and Sybrita on the south. Then to the north is Panormos city and harbour, with Phaistos to the south. To the north, Oaxos and Knossos, and to the south, Gortyn, Rhaukos. Then in the interior, Lyktos, which extends to both coasts. Then to the north is Mount Kadiston and the harbour there is Olous and Pan. Praisos extends to both coasts. [Granos]. Itanon is the cape of Crete pointing to the east. There are also other cities in Crete, such that it is called Hekatompolis.
48. Cyclades islands. These are the inhabited Cyclades, opposite the Lakedamonian land: Melos and harbour, then Kimolos, then Oliaros, then Sikinos, which is also a city, then Thera, then Anaphe, then Astypalaia. I now return to the mainland at the point where I turned off.
49. Argos. After Lakedaimon, is the city of Argos and within its territory is Nauplia and a port. Inland there is, also, Kleonai, Mycenae, and Tiryns. The voyage past the Argive territory is a circuit (for it is the so-called Argolic Gulf) of 150 stadia.
50. Epidauros. After Argos is the territory of Epidauros, which extends along the gulf for 30 stadia. After the Epidaurian land is Halia (with its harbour). This is at the mouth of the Argolic Gulf. The voyage past it is a hundred stadia.
51. Hermion. After this is the city of Hermion and its harbour. The voyage past this is 80 stadia. After Hermion is Skyllaion, the cape of the Gulf bordering the Isthmos. Skyllaion is part of Troizen. Its counterpart is Cape Sounion, which is in Athenian territory. Opposite this is Belbina island and its city. From the mouth of this Gulf in to the Isthmos is 740 stadia. And this Gulf is itself very straight at the mouth.
52. Troizenia. After Hermion is the city of Troizenia and its harbour. The voyage past it is 30 stadia. After this is the island of Kalauria, with a city and harbour. The voyage past it is 300 stadia.
53. Aigina. Opposite this is the island and city of Aigina, with its two harbours. And I return to the mainland at the point where I turned off.
54. Epidauros. After Troizenia is the city of Epidauros and its harbour. The voyage past Epidauros' territory is <1>30 stadia.
55. Corinthia. After Epidauros, is the eastern part of the territory of the Corinthians, and the fort of Kenchreiai and Isthmos, where the sanctuary of Poseidon is. Here the Peloponnese ends. The land beyond the Isthmos also belongs to the Corinthians, and there is the fortress of Sidous and another fortress, Kremyon. The voyage past the Corinthian territory to the Megarians' borders is 300 stadia.
56. Megara. After the Corinthians' territory is the city of Megara, along with the harbour and fortification of Nisaia. The voyage past the territory of the Megarians to the Iapis (which is the border of the Athenians' territory) is 140 stadia.
57. Attica. After the Megarans, are the cities of the Athenians. The first place in Attica is Eleusis, where the sanctuary of Demeter is and a fortress. Opposite this is the island of Salamis, with a city and a port. Then there is the Peiraieus and "the legs" and Athens. The Peiraieus has 3 harbours. Then there is the fortress and harbour of Anaphlystos. Then Cape Sounion and its fortress, and the sanctuary of Poseidon. Thorikos, with a fortress and two harbours. Rhamnous fortress. There are also many other harbours in Attica. The voyage past the Athenians' territory is 1140 stadia; from the land around Iapis, to Sounion is 490 stadia; from Sounion to the Boiotians' borders is 650 stadia.
58. Cycladic Islands. Off Attica are the islands called the Cyclades, and these are the cities on these islands: Keos (this is a tetrapolis: Poieessa city, with harbour, Koressia, Ioulis, Karthaia); Helene; Kythnos island and city; Seriphos island, city and harbour; Siphnos; Paros, which has two harbours, one of which is enclosed; Naxos; Delos; Rhene; Syros; Mykonos, which has two cities; Tenos and harbour; Andros and harbour. So these are the Kyklades, but below these, there are these other islands to the south, part of the Scattered islands: Ios and harbour (where Homer is buried); Amorgos, which is a tripolis with a harbour; Ikaros, which has two cities. After Andros, is the island of Euboia, which is a tetrapolis. On it are Karystos, Eretria and its port, Chalkis and its port, Hestiaia and its port. From the Kenaion sanctuary of Zeus to Geraistos (the sanctuary of Poseidon), Euboia is 1350 stadia long, but in width Euboia is narrow. In the Aigaian Sea there are these islands: Opposite Eretria is Skyros and its city; Ikos, which has two cities; Peparethos, which has three cities and a harbour; Skiathos, which has two cities and a harbour. After this I return to the mainland at the point where I turned off.
59. Boiotians. After Athens, are the Boiotian people. For they also stretch down to this sea. And the first place in this land is the sanctuary of Delion, then the sanctuary of Aulis, the fortress of the Euripos, the fortress of Anthedon. Thebes, Thespiai, Orchomenos in the interior. There are also other cities. The voyage past the land of Boiotia from Delion to the borders of the Lokrians is 250 stadia.
60. Lokrians. After the Boiotians are the Lokrian people. They have the following cities opposite Euboia: Larymna, Kynos, Opous, Alope. There are also many other Lokrian cities. The voyage past the territory is 200 stadia.
61. Phokians. After the Lokrians are the Phokians. For these too stretch over to this sea. And these are their cities: Thronion, Knemis, Elateia, Panopeus. There are also other cities in the interior. The voyage past the Phokians' territory is 200 stadia.
62. Melians. After the Phokians, are the Melians and the Melieus Gulf. Within this gulf are the so-called Harbour-Dorians: Erinneos, Boion, Kytinion. Here is Thermopylai, Trachis, Oite, Herakleia, Spercheios River.
63. Malians. After the Melians, are the Malian people. There is among the Malians, first, the city of Lamia, then the city of Echinos. The Malians have other cities too, up to where the gulf narrows to touch. The Ainianes inhabit the interior above the land of the Malians, and the Spercheios River flows through them.
64. Achaians. Beyond the Malian Gulf are the Phthiot Achaian people. They are also in the Pagasetic Gulf on the left hand side as one sails in, to about halfway along the shore of the gulf. These are the cities of the Achaians: Antrones, Larissa, Melitaia, Demetrion, Thebes. There are also other cities of the Achaians in the interior.
65. Thessaly. After the Achaians, Thessaly reaches down to the sea from the interior to the Pagasetic Gulf in a narrow strip - 30 stadia. And these are the cities of Thessaly by the sea: Amphanaion, Pagasai; and in the interior: Pherai, Larissa, Pharsalos, Kieron, Pelinnaion, Skotousa, Krannon. There are also other Thessalian cities in the interior. Thessaly extends inland past the Ainians, Dolopes, Malians, Achaians, and Magnetes, as far as Tempe. The length of the Pagastetic Gulf, from the mouth to the deepest point, near Pagasai, is that of a voyage that could be completed before breakfast. Its mouth is 5 stadia [wide]. In the Pagasetic Gulf is the island of Kikynethos, with a city.
66. Magnetes. The Magnetes people are by the sea and these are their cities: Iolkos, Methone, Korakai, Spalauthra, Olizon, Isai with harbour. Outside the Pagasetic Gulf: Meliboia, Rhizous, Eurymenai, Myrai. In the interior the Perrhaibian people live, who are Greeks. Greece runs continuously from Ambrakia to this point. Generally, the whole area by the sea is similarly in Greece.
67. Makedonia. After the Peneios river, there are the Makedonian people and the Thermaic Gulf. The first city in Makedonia is Herakleion, then Dion, Pydna (a Greek city), Methone (a Greek city) and the Haliakmon river, Aloros city and the river Lydias, Pella city with the royal palace in it, and reaches it by voyaging up the Lydias river. Then the Axios river, the Echedoros river, Therme city, Aineia (Greek). Then Pallene, a long cape stretching out into the sea, and these are the Greek cities on Pallene: Potidaia, which blocks the isthmus in the middle, Mende, Aphytis, Thrambeis, Skione, Kanastraion is the cape and sanctuary of Pallene. Beyond the isthmos are these cities: Olynthos (Greek), Mekyberna (Greek), Sermylia (Greek) and the Sermylic Gulf. Torone (Greek city) with harbour, Dion (Greek), Thyssos (Greek), Kleonai (Greek), Mount Athos, Akrothooi (Greek), Charadrous (Greek), Olophyxos (Greek), Akanthos (Greek), Alapta (Greek), Arethousa (Greek), Lake Bolbe, Apollonia (Greek). There are also many others in the interior of Makedonia. The coast is full of bays. The voyage around the bays is two days' sail. After Makedonia is the Strymon river. This forms the border between Makedonia and Thrace.
68. Thrace. Thrace extends from the Strymon river to the Istros River on the Euxine Pontos. These are the Greek cities in Thrace: Amphipolis, Phagres, Galepsos, Oisyme and other Thasian trading posts. Opposite these is the island of Thasos, with a city and two ports, one of which is enclosed. I now return to the point where I turned off. Neapolis, below this Daton (a Greek city which Kallistratos the Athenian founded), and the River Nestos, Abdera city, Koudetos river, and Maroneia. Opposite this is the island of Samothrace and harbour. Opposite this on the mainland are the trading posts Drys, Zone, the river Hebros, on which is the Douriskos fortress, Ainos city and harbour, fortresses of the Ainians in Thrace. Melas Gulf, Melas river, the trading post of Deris, Kobrys, which is a trading post of the Kardians and another one called Kympasis. Opposite the Melas Gulf is the island and city of Imbros, the island and city of Lemnos. I return to the mainland at the point where I left off.
After the Melas Gulf is the Thracian Chersonese and these are the cities on it: Kardia, Ithe, Paion, Alopekonnesos, <Drabos>, Elaious, Madytos, Sestos at the mouth of the Propontis, which is 6 stadia [wide]. Beyond the Aigospotamoi river is: Kressa, Krithote, Paktye. Up to this point is the Thracian Chersonese. From Paktye to Kardia over the neck [of the peninsula] from sea to sea is 40 stadia on foot. There is also a city in the middle, called Agora. The length of the Chersonese from Kardia to Elaious (for this is the longest dimension) is 400 stadia.
After the Chersonese, there are these Thracian fortresses: firstly White Point, then Teiristasis, Herakleia, Ganos, Ganiai, New Fortress, Perinthos (city and harbour), Daunion fortress, Selymbria (city and harbour). From here to the mouth of the Pontos is 500 stadia. The region around the Bosporos until you come to Hieron is called the "Voyage up". At Hieron the mouth of the Pontos is 5 stadia wide. These are the Greek cities on the Pontos in Thrace: Apollonia, Mesembria, Odessopolis, Kallatis and the river Istros. The voyage past Thrace from the Strymon river to Sestos is two days and two nights' voyage, then from Sestos to the mouth of the Pontos is two days and two nights' voyage, then from the mouth to the Istros river is three days' and three nights' voyage. The entire voyage along the Thracian coast from the river Strymon to the river Istros is seven days and seven nights' voyage.
69. Skythia. Taurians. After Thrace are the Skythian people and these are the Greek cities among them: Tyras river, Nikonion city, Ophiousa city. Next to Skythia, the Taurian people inhabit a peninsula of the mainland. This peninsula projects into the sea. Greeks live on the Tauric peninsula and these are their cities: Chersonesos trading post, Ram's Forehead, Tauric Cape. After these are the Skythians again and these are the Greek cities in this place: Theudosia, Kytaia and Nymphaia, Pantikapaion, Myrmekeion. A direct voyage from the Istros to Ram's Forehead is three days and three nights' sail, but a voyage along the coast takes twice this time, because it is a bay. In this bay there is an island, an uninhabited island, called White, sacred to Achilles. From Ram's Forehead, the voyage to Pantikapaion is a day and a night's sail. From Pantikapaion to the mouth of Lake Maiotis is 20 stadia. Lake Maiotis is said to be the halfway point [as one sails around] Pontos. In Lake Maiotis, as one sails in, the Skythians are on the left, for they stretch from the Outer Sea, past the Tauric peninsula, up to Lake Maiotis.
70. Syrmatai. After the Skythians are the Syrmatai people and the river Tanais, which forms the border between Asia and Europe.
71. The whole voyage from the Pillars of Herakles in Europe. Assuming that the person sails around the bays, sticking to the coast and, wherever we have written "nights", calculating as days instead, and where we have written stadia, treating 500 stadia as equivalent to a day's voyage, then the voyage past Europe including half the voyage around Pontios (that is to say, to Lake Maiotis) comes to 153 days. And the largest rivers in Europe are the Tanais, the Istros, the Rhodanos.
Sizes of islands
- w:Gades, modern w:Cadiz
- There is a lacuna in the text here.
- The Greek term is "Tyrrhenoi."
- This does not seem right...
- w:Mount Circeo
- w:Elpenor was one of the companions of w:Odysseus, who died at w:Circe's palace after he fell off the roof.
- The w:Volsci
- w:Pandosia (Bruttium)
- w:Terina (ancient city)
- w:Vibo Valentia
- w:Reggio Calabria
- Pelorias is w:Punta del Faro, 12 stadia is a bit over 2 kilometres.
- w:Elymians, w:Sicans, w:Sicels, w:Phoenicians. The Trojans are usually identifed with the Elymians in ancient sources
- w:Messina, w:Taormina, w:Naxos (Sicily), w:Catania, w:Lentini
- w:Megara Hyblaea
- w:Syracuse, Sicily
- w:Helorus and w:Capo Passero
- w:Kamarina, Sicily, w:Gela, w:Agrigento, w:Selinunte, w:Marsala
- w:Himera, w:Lipari, w:Milazzo. Several significant Phoenician cities are skipped over.
- w:Caulonia (ancient city)
- w:Capo Colonna
- w:Calypso (mythology)'s island is called w:Ogygia; there are no islands along this stretch of the Italian coast
- w:Crati river, w:Sybaris and w:Thurii were two successive settlements on the same site.
- w:Heraclea Lucania, w:Metapontum, w:Taranto, w:Otranto.
- w:Spina. The river is the w:Po
- "campaign" is a reference to the w:Roman–Gallic wars and/or the [[w:Celtic settlement of Eastern Europe ]]
- w:Adriatic Veneti
- w:Eridanos (river of Hades)
- w:Corfu, identified with the island of the w:Scheria which appears in Homer's Oddyssey
- The w:Cetina?.
- These people are a subset of the "Illyrians" as described above, as are 24-27.
- The Krateiai are presumably w:Drvenik Veli and w:Drvenik Mali. The other islands are w:Trogir, w:Brač, w:Šolta
- w:Hvar and w:Vis
- i.e. w:Pelješac?
- w:Melite and w:Korčula
- i.e. somewhere around w:Metković
- w:Autariatae; the marsh is the w:Hutovo Blato.
- The w:Ombla
- w:Bay of Kotor
- w:Apollonia (Illyria)
- w:Aoös river
- w:Geryon was a mythical giant with three bodies, whose home is usually located on an island in the Atlantic ocean. For his tenth labour, Herakles killed him and stole his cattle.
- w:Ceraunian Mountains, w:Sazan Island
- w:Iapygia, the heel of Italy
- w:Ammoudia, Preveza
- w:Acheron, one of the rivers of the Underworld.
- w:Ambracian Gulf
- w:Pineios (Thessaly), w:Omolio. Ps.Skylax thus excludes Macedon from his definition of Greece.
- w:Amphilochian Argos, w:Anaktorio
- w:Lefkada (city)
- w:Phara - otherwise unknown.
- w:Kalamos (island)
- w:Achelous River
- w:Echinades; this does not seem to have actually happened.
- w:Gulf of Corinth
- i.e. w:Delphi (which however is much further east, not in Aitolia)
- As distinct from the Opuntian and Epiknemidian Lokrians on the eastern coast of central Greece - see 60. below.
- w:Kirra, Phocis
- w:Corinth, w:Lechaio, w:Isthmus of Corinth. The sanctuary is w:Isthmia.
- The Aegean Sea or the Saronic Gulf, if "us" means Athenians.
- w:Pellene, w:Aigeira, w:Aegae (Achaea), w:Aigio, w:Rhypes
- w:Patras, w:Dyme, Greece. The strait of Rhion separates the w:Gulf of Patras to the west from the w:Gulf of Corinth to the east.
- w:Kyllini, Elis, w:Olympia, Greece, w:Alfeios.
- w:Tegea, w:Mantineia, w:Heraia, Arcadia, w:Orchomenus (Arcadia), w:Stymfalia.
- One of the w:Messenian Oinousses?
- w:Asine (Laconia), w:Methoni, Messenia, , w:Porto Kagio
- w:Tenarus and w:Temple of Poseidon (Tainaron)
- , w:Gytheio, w:Eurotas (river), , w:Cape Maleas
- , w:Epidaurus Limera, , w:Methana
- w:Gramvousa peninsula
- Temple of Diktynna / w:Britomartis
- In the w:Amari Valley
- w:Panormos in w:Rethymno (regional unit)
- w:Anogeia, w:Knossos
- Near w:Dafnes
- Modern town of the same name is inland from w:Sitia
- w:Itanos (city)
- "with a hundred cities"
- w:Milos, w:Kimolos, w:Antiparos, w:Sikinos, w:Santorini, w:Anafi, w:Astypalaia. These are the southern band of Cycladic islands, which were inhabited by Dorian Greeks.
- w:Argos, w:Nafplio
- w:Archaies Kleones, w:Mycenae, w:Tiryns.
- w:Argolic Gulf
- The modern Cape Skyli.
- i.e. w:Saronic Gulf
- w:Agios Georgios (island)?
- w:Kechries, w:Isthmia (ancient city), w:Temple of Isthmia
- w:Agioi Theodoroi
- w:Megara; w:
- A stream passing through w:Nea Peramos
- w:Eleusis; the w:Telesterion
- w:Piraeus; "the legs" are the Long Walls which linked the Piraeus to the city of w:Athens
- w:Kea (island); Pisses; Korissia; w:Ioulis; w:Kea (island)
- w:Gyaros(?); w:Kythnos; w:Serifos; w:Sifnos; w:Paros; w:Naxos; w:Delos; w:Rineia; w:Syros; w:Mykonos; w:Tinos; w:Andros.
- w:Ios; w:Amorgos; w:Icaria.
- w:Carystus; w:Eretria; w:Chalcis; w:Istiaia
- i.e. from the northwestern end to the southeastern end of the island.
- w:Skyros; w:Alonissos; w:Skopelos; w:Skiathos
- See #37 above
- w:Delium; w:Aulis (ancient Greece); w:Euripus Strait; w:Anthedon (Boeotia).
- w:Thebes, Greece; w:Thespiae; w:Orchomenus (Boeotia)
- w:Opuntian Locris
- w:Larymna; w:Kynos; w:Opus, Greece; w:Agios Konstantinos, Phthiotis.
- See #37 above.
- Near Kainourgio; near Kainourgio; w:Elateia; w:Panopeus
- w:Malian Gulf
- Near w:Bralos; w:Gravia; w:Cytinium. All of these are far inland over the mountains.
- w:Thermopylae; w:Trachis; w:Mount Oeta; w:Heraclea in Trachis (this is in fact the same as the city of Trachis); w:Spercheios.
- w:Lamia (city); w:Achinos, Phthiotis.
- w:Pagasetic Gulf
- w:Pelasgia, Phthiotis; Larissa Kremaste; Melitaia; near w:Nea Anchialos
- w:Pherae#In Thessaly, w:Larissa, w:Farsala, w:Sofades, w:Pelinnaioi, near Mt Mavrovouni, w:Krannonas.
- w:Vale of Tempe
- Presumably this is w:Paleo Trikeri
- w:Iolcus, near w:Ano Lechonia, location unknown, w:Chorto, near Ag. Andrias, location unknown.
- w:Meliboea (location unknown), w:Rhizus, w:Eurymenae, location unknown.
- w:Pineios (Thessaly)
- w:Thermaic Gulf
- w:Herakleion (Pieria), w:Dion, Pieria, w:Pydna, w:Methoni, Pieria, w:Haliacmon, w:Aloros, w:Loudias River, w:Pella.
- w:Vardar, w:Gallikos (river), w:Therma, w:Aenea (city).
- w:Kassandra, Chalkidiki
- w:Potidaea, w:Mende (Chalcidice), w:Aphytis, w:Paliouri, Chalkidiki, w:Scione, location unclear (the order of Aphytis-Thrambeis-Scione should be reversed).
- w:Olynthus, w:Kalyves Polygyrou, w:Ormylia
- w:Toroni, location unknown, near the w:Konstamonitou Monastery, w:Cleonae (Athos), w:Mount Athos, near w:Lakkoskiti, location unknown, near w:Vatopedi, w:Akanthos (Greece), location unknown, w:Modi, Thessaloniki, w:Lake Volvi, w:Apollonia (Mygdonia).
- w:Struma (river)
- w:Danube. "Euxine" and "Pontos" are terms for the w:Black Sea, meaning "the hospitable Sea".
- w:Amphipolis, w:Phagres, w:Galepsus, w:Nea Peramos, Kavala
- w:Kavala, w:Krinides (w:Callistratus of Aphidnae founded this in the 350s BC), w:Nestos (river), w:Abdera, Thrace, Kosynthos or Kompsatos, w:Maroneia
- Near w:Makri, Evros, near w:Makri, Evros, w:Maritsa, w:Doriscus, w:Enez
- w:Gulf of Saros, w:Manavgat River, near Adilhan, w:Kavakköy, location unknown
- w:Imbros, w:Lemnos
- w:Cardia (Thrace), location unclear, west of w:Bolayır, w:Alopekonnesos, near 40.3643103,26.3187441, w:Elaeus, w:Madytos (Thrace), w:Sestos.
- w:Aegospotami, w:Kressa, w:Krithotai, w:Pactya.
- w:Agora (Thrace)
- w:Leuce (titular see), w:Şarköy, Eriklice, Gazikoy, location unclear, w:Yeniçiftlik, w:Marmara Ereğlisi, w:Sultanköy, w:Silivri.
- w:Bosphorus; w:Byzantion
- w:Sozopol, w:Nesebar, w:Varna, w:Mangalia, w:Danube
- w:Dniester, w:Nikonion, w:Tyras.
- w:Sevastopol, w:Sarych, w:Crimea(?).
- w:Feodosia, near Hornostaivka, w:Nymphaion (Crimea), w:Panticapaeum (w:Kerch), also in Kerch.
- w:Snake Island (Black Sea)
- Lake Maiotis is the w:Sea of Azov; this is a substantial over-estimate of its size
- i.e. the w:Arctic Ocean
- w:Sarmatians; w:Don River (Russia)
- w:Don river; w:Danube; w:Rhone