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Translation:Zohar/Genesis

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Zohar by Rabbi Shimon bar Yochai
Genesis

Genesis / בְּרֵאשִׁית[edit]

Bereisheet / בְּרֵאשִׁית[edit]

Corresponding to Volume 1 Pages 15a through 59a of the Zohar:

[15a] With the beginning of the manifestation of the King's will, that is, when the King desired to emanate and create the world, a hard spark made an engraving upon the supernal light. This hard spark, which emanated from the most concealed of all concealed things from the secret of the Endlessness Light took a shapeless form. The spark was then inserted into the center of a circle that was neither white nor black nor red nor green, nor any color at all. When it began its measurements, it created colors that shone into the empty space and the engraving. From within the spark - This hard spark - a fountain spouted, from which the shades down below received their colors.

From the most concealed of all concealed things, from the secret of the Endlessness Light, emanated two faces: One cleaved and the other did not cleave. Its atmosphere was unknown until forceful blows split Atik, and a concealed supernal point shone. Beyond this point, nothing is knowable and, because of this, it is called by the name Beginning, which means the first of the sayings.

"And they who are wise shall shine like the brightness of the firmament, and they who turn many to righteousness like the stars for ever and ever" (Daniel 12:3). "And they who are wise" alludes to the souls of the righteous, "the brightness of the firmament" to the illumination of the upper three Sefirot, which are revealed when combined with the attribute of mercy. The atmosphere of the brightness that is most concealed of all concealed things merged with this point and shone into it. Then this Beginning which is Arich Anpin expanded into a head and body, and made a chamber for its honor and glory. There, inside the chamber, Arich Anpin planted a holy seed to bring forth souls for the benefit of the world. This is the secret of, "So the holy seed is its immovable stump" (Yeshayah 6:13).

The brightness that it sowed for its honor is similar to the purple seed of the silkworm, for the worm encases itself within its own silk. And from that seed, is prepares for itself a chamber for its own glory and for the benefit of all. With this Beginning, the concealed unknown One created the chamber, and this chamber is called by the name 'Elohim.'

This is the secret of the words: "In the beginning Elohim created" (Beresheet 1:1). This chamber is the brightness from which all ten sayings were created, according to the secret meaning of the expansion of the point from that hidden brightness. Thus, if the word "created" applies to it, no wonder it is written, "And Elohim created man in his own image" (Beresheet 1:27).

The brightness, which is Arich Anpin, is the secret of the Beginning, because its name is the first of all. The Holy Name Eheyeh is engraved upon the sides of Arich Anpin. The name Elohim is engraved on the crown. And this is the secret of Asher, which is a concealed chamber, and is the beginning of the revelation of the secret of the Beginning. The word Asher consists of the same letters as Rosh (Eng. 'head') but in reverse order, as the letter Resh which is the first letter in Rosh is the last letter in Asher. This shows that it is the Rosh that came out of resheet (Eng. 'beginning'), which is Arich Anpin. Therefore, it emerged from the aspect of the head and was formed as a headless body.

After the point and the chamber were established as one, Beresheet which is Arich Anpin includes a lofty beginning to the light of Chochmah. Later, the appearance of the chamber changed and it was called a house (Heb. bayit) and the supernal point was called the head (Heb. rosh). They were included in each other through the secret of the Beginning, because combining the words Bayit and Rosh forms the term Beresheet. This was so as long as Bayit and Rosh were as one, as long as there was no manner of habitation in the house; as long as Chochmah was not clothed with Chassadim, which reveals the four colors of the house. But it was sown for the purpose of habitation and, once it was inhabited, it was called by the name 'Elohim' hidden and concealed.

The brightness was concealed and hidden until the children came inside it in order to beget and the house stood expanded to contain what was established through the holy seed. As long as it had not conceived, the expansion of the house to make it habitable had not occurred, nor was it yet called by the name 'Elohim.' Rather, they both are still part of Beresheet ("In the beginning"). Therefore, everything is considered as if it is included within Arich Anpin; that is, the Beginning. After it became known by the name 'Elohim,' it gave birth to the generations that came from the seed sown within it. He asks, What is that seed and replies: The seed is the engraved letters, which are the secret of the Torah, referring to Zeir Anpin, which emanates from that point which is Arich Anpin.

That supernal point, which is Arich Anpin, sowed inside the chamber which is Yisrael-Saba and Tevunah the secret of the three vowels: Cholam, Shuruk and Chirik. So they are combined into one secret, a Voice that emerges from the joining of the three vowels. When the voice came forth, its female counterpart came with it. She included all the letters as it is written: "the heaven" (Beresheet 1:1); that is, the voice and its Female principle. This voice, which is the secret of the heaven, is the last name of Eheyeh, which is the brightness that contains all the letters and colors in this manner.

Until now, this is the secret of "Hashem our Elohim, Hashem" (Devarim 6:4). These three grades correspond to the supernal secret in the verse: "In the beginning Elohim created" And so the term "in the beginning" is an ancient secret, namely Chochmah that is called Beginning. The term "created" alludes to a concealed secret, from which everything else expands. Elohim's secret meaning is sustaining everything that exists below. The term "the heaven" alludes to the union of the male and female, and it is forbidden to separate them, but rather one should combine them, for they are the secret of the voice and the utterance Yud Hei Vav Hei - Adonai, which are united into one.

(The particle Et (the) is created by combining the letters Aleph and Tav, which are the first and last letters of the alphabet.) Thus, Et includes all the letters from beginning to end. Afterwards, the letter Hei was added to Et, so all the letters would be united with Hei. This formed the word Atah (Eng. 'you', Aleph-Tav-Hei.) Thus, the verse reads: "And you do preserve them all" (Nechemyah 9:6). Et is the secret of Adonai and is so called. Heaven is Yud Hei Vav Hei, which is superior to the name Adonai, for Zeir Anpin, called "the heavens" and also called "voice," is the secret of the name of Yud Hei Vav Hei. And his Female principle, called 'Et' and 'speech,' is the secret of the name Adonai.

The word Ve'et (Eng. 'and the') alludes to the establishment of the Male and Female Principles. Ve'et is the secret of Vav-Yud Hei Vav Hei, and both are as one. The earth is the name Elohim, equivalent to the supernal, which is fit to issue fruit and offspring. This name is included in three places and defined in many ways. Up until now, it is the secret of the most secret of mysteries, which was engraved, built, and established in a concealed manner according to the hidden meaning of one single verse.

Beresheet is formed of the segments BaraSheet (he created six), because from one end of the heaven to the other, there are six branches that extend from the secret of the sublime with the expansion of Bara (created). Bara expanded from within the first point, which is Arich Anpin. And here, on this first point, the secret of the name with the 42 letters was engraved.

"And they who are wise shall shine" (Daniel 12:3), like the cantillation marks that the letters and the vowels follow. They move along like soldiers following their king. The letters are the body and the vowels are the aspect of their spirit, and they all follow their intonations and attain their existence. When the tune of the cantillation marks travels along, the letters and vowels march in step with it. When the tune stops, they stop as well.

The words "And they who are wise shall shine" allude to the letters and the vowels that shine, and "the brightness" alludes to the tune of the cantillation marks. "The firmament" alludes to the expansion of the tune, namely all those intonations that flow and expand along as the tune flows. "And they who turn many to righteousness" alludes to the music of the cantillation marks that bring the journeying to a pause and enable the meaning of the words to be heard clearly. The words "shall shine" allude to the letters and the vowels that shine as one along the journeys through concealed paths. Everything expands from this. "And they who are wise (Heb. maskilim) shall shine like the brightness of the firmament" upon the pillars and sockets of that palanquin. "And they who are wise" are themselves the supernal pillars and sockets, who observe intelligently to bestow on that palanquin and its sockets all that is needed to sustain it. The pillars are Chesed, Gvurah and Tiferet; the sockets are Netzach, Hod and Yesod. This secret is hidden, as you say: "Blessed is he that considers (Heb. maskil) the poor" (Tehilim 41:2); maskil is Zeir Anpin and the poor is his Female principle. And He receives the brightness for the sake of the poor who needs it. The supernal six extremities of Zeir Anpin shall shine, for if they do not shine or illuminate, they will not be able to study the palanquin and determine what is necessary for its restoration. Were it not for the need of establishing that palanquin, they would not have received any of that light of brightness.

And they shine "like the brightness of the firmament" that rests upon they who are wise, of whom it is written: "And over the heads of the living creature was the likeness of a firmament, like the color of the terrible ice..." (Yechezkel 1:22). This is the brightness of the firmament, which shines upon the entire Zeir Anpin, which is called the Torah. The brightness shines upon the heads of that living creature that is called the palanquin. These heads, which are the pillars and sockets of Zeir Anpin, who are wise shine constantly and look on that firmament to receive the light that emanates from there. This also is the light of Zeir Anpin in its entirety, which is Called Torah. It shines forever and never stops.

"And the earth was without form and void..." The term "was" is exact in that it implies the earth's previous state, during which snow was mixed inside water. The act of the snow forming inside the water resulted in a foul substance. And afterward, a mighty fire beat upon it and refuse was formed inside it. It then conceived and became without form. The place where at first there was only filth, has become now a nest of refuse that is described as without form. It went through four stages until it became Tohu: (1) light turned into water; (2) water turned into snow; (3) snow turned into refuse with the infliction of the fire; and (4) the refuse, over time, became sufficiently distinguishable to be called without form. The words "and void" refer to the refined matter that emerged from the refuse and was set there. Darkness is the secret of the powerful fire and this darkness hovers above the formlessness, over that refuse, and is structured from it. In other words, darkness does not mean only the absence of light that is, emptiness but rather the aspect that produces emptiness, like a strong fire that burns and consumes everything it touches and leaves emptiness in its place. The reason why it is called darkness and not fire is that the burning force is not from the fire itself, but from the refuse, which is without form, over which it hovers, and from which it receives.

"And wind (also: 'spirit') from Elohim" (Ibid.) alludes to the spirit of holiness that proceeded from living Elohim and "moved over the surface of the waters" (Ibid.). This means that after this wind blew, a thin layer from the refuse was refined, just as the filth flies off and away. In this manner, it was refined, covered and purified over and over again until the foulness was left without any filth. When this formlessness was refined and purified, "a great and strong wind rent the mountains, and broke the rocks" (I Kings 19:11) Then it emerged like the wind that Elijah saw. The void was refined and purified and noise came from it, as it is written: "And after the wind an earthquake (also: 'noise')"(Ibid.). When the darkness was refined, fire was then included in its secret, as it is written: "And after the earthquake a fire"(Ibid. 12). The wind was refined and a "still small voice"was included within it.

Formlessness has neither color nor shape and is not included within the secret of shape at all. Although it may appear to have form, when we look closely it loses all form. Everything has a garment to wear except formlessness.

Void already has an image and a shape, the stones immersed inside the engraving of formlessness. When the stones emerge from within the engraving in which they were immersed, they draw down benefit to this world in the form of a garment. They draw goodness down to the world that is, straight light and force the returning light up, so that the straight light is enclothed. This is known as shaping. These stones are hollow and viscous because they are suspended in the air. At times, they are suspended in the air because they rise up and out of there, from within the engraving of formlessness. At other times, such as cloudy days, they hide and raise water from the abyss to replenish formlessness. This is when there is joy and folly, because formlessness has expanded all over the world.

Darkness is a black fire that is strong in color, because no other color can change black. It is also a red fire that is strong in its appearance, as red is the most noticeable color. It is a green fire, which is solid in form, as all forms reach perfection by the green color. And it is a white fire, which is the basis of all other colors. Darkness is strong, because it contains all kinds of fires and it attacks the formlessness. Darkness is a fire that consists of four colors, and it is usually not a dark fire except when it attacks the formlessness. This is the secret of the verse: "his eyes were dim, so that he could not see, he called Esau..."(Genesis 27:1). The face of evil is darkness, so Isaac, who was kind to evil, to Esau, was then called 'darkness,' as he rested upon it so that it may attack it.

The wind that is mentioned in the verse: "And a wind from Elohim," is a voice that rests upon the void and guides it in all it needs. This is the secret of the verses: "The voice of Hashem is upon the waters" (Psalms 29:3) and "And a wind from Elohim moved over the surface of the waters." The stones are immersed deep inside the abyss from which waters flow. This is why they are called "the surface of the waters." The wind guided and strengthened the faces, called the surface of the deep, each according to its requirements. The name Shadai dwells upon formlessness, the name Tzva'ot dwells upon the void and the name Elohim dwells upon darkness. The name Yud Hei Vav Hei dwells upon wind.

"And a great and strong wind rent the mountains...but Hashem was not in the wind..."(I Kings 19:11). The name Yud Hei Vav Hei was not in the wind because this strong wind comes from formlessness, upon which the name Shadai rests. Hence it reads, "but Hashem was not in the wind." And it explains that the earthquake came from Void, as the verse continues: "And after the wind an earthquake; but Hashem was not in the earthquake," because only the name Tzva'ot rests upon it in the secret of the Void. Hence, it is called Void. As for the fire that comes out of darkness, the scripture reads, "And after the earthquake a fire; but Hashem was not in the fire" (Ibid. 12), because the name Elohim rests upon it from the aspect of darkness. "And after the fire a still small voice," which comes from the aspect of a wind from Elohim, upon which the name Yud Hei Vav Hei rests. The verse reads "And when Elijah heard it...and went out, and stood in the entrance of the cave. And, behold, there came a voice to him, and said, 'What are you doing here, Elijah?" (Ibid. 13). He did not leave the cave at the first three aspects, only when he heard a still small voice, because the name Yud Hei Vav Hei was there. And he knew that Yud Hei Vav Hei was talking to him.

The name Yud Hei Vav Hei has four segments, namely four letters, that signify the parts of the human body and certain members namely, the limbs which are four that can become twelve. Here is the secret of the name that consists of twelve letters, which was given to Elijah while inside the cave. This alludes to the three names of Yud Hei Vav Hei. Each consists of four letters, which together add up to twelve. And this name, with its twelve letters, appears in the human body. The first appears in the head: Chochmah, Binah and Da'at; the second in the body from the top to the navel: Chesed, Gevurah and Tiferet; the third from the navel downward: Netzach, Hod and Yesod. Each part of the body is divided into four other parts, which add up to twelve.

(Genesis 1:3) "And Elohim said, 'Let there be light;' and there was light". From here, from this saying, we can begin to learn the secrets of how the world was created in details, because until now, the Creation was discussed only generally, in the verse "In the beginning Elohim created..."(Ibid. 1) After this, the description returns to the general, then the particular, and then the general again. Until now, everything was suspended in the air that was bestowed from the secret of the Endlessness Light. As soon as the force expanded inside the supernal chamber, which is the secret of Elohim, the word 'saying' is applied to it, as it is written: "And Elohim said." Before that, the word "said" is not written, because "said" means it is in detail. Although the word, "In the beginning" is also a saying, which completes the number of the sayings in the Creation to ten, "And Elohim said" is not written in it, as it is described in a general manner. The use of the word "said" means a detailed description. Therefore, the verse, "And Elohim said, 'Let there be light'" is the first of the details of the Creation of the world.

The words: "And...said" should be studied and questioned. The term "And...said (Heb. וַיֹּאמֶר)" consists of the Hebrew letters of Mi (Eng. 'who') and Or (Eng. 'light'), which is an inquiry. "And...said" alludes to a raised force, and the raising is done in silence. A light is drawn from the secret of the Endless Light; from the beginning of thought. "And Elohim said" means that now the chamber gave birth to a holy seed, with which it was pregnant, in secret. And he who was born, namely the Male and Female principles, was heard without. Whoever gave birth to him, to the Male and Female principles, did it secretly and was not heard at all. This refers to giving birth to the Mochin of the Male and Female principles while still in Binah. But as soon as he emerged from there, from Binah, a sound was heard without.

"Let there be (Heb. יְהִי) light," means that everything that comes forth and emanates in the world proceeds according to the secret of the words: "Let there be light." יְהִי alludes to the secret of Aba and Ima, which are Yud-Hei of יְהִי (Yud-Hei-Yud). The letter Yud alludes to Aba and the Hei to Ima. Afterward, the letters Yud- Hei return to the first point by adding another point, namely Yud, just like the first one as it is written: יְהִי (Yud-Hei-Yud) to institute a beginning for an expansion of something else. The terms "light" and "Let there be light," do not refer to the renewal of the light, but rather to the returning of the light that Aba and Ima already had. The expansion of this light that appears in the verse: "Let there be light (Heb. אוֹר, Aleph-Vav -Resh)" is a most hidden secret, because it was the expansion that split according to the secret of the concealment of the supernal and concealed air (Heb. אֲוִיר). The word אֲוִיר consists of the letters Aleph-Vav -Yud-Resh and is Arich Anpin. It was split in such a way that there is nothing really renewed in the name Yud Hei Vav Hei. Rather, the perfection that was there before the splitting is now revealed. It first split and produced one concealed point from within its own mystery. It revealed the point Yud. As a result of this removal of the Yud from Avir, what is left of the original word אֲוִיר is Or, which is from the secret of the concealed air.

When the first point, which is Yud, proceeded from Arich Anpin, its light shone upon it according to the sense of 'reaching yet not reaching'. Once the point expanded, the light was revealed, and this is the secret of the Or (light) that has remained from Avir (air). This refers to the light that has existed at first in Binah, when it was in the head of Arich Anpin. It then disappeared when it came out of the head. Now it has returned to it and remains there. The light has gone; it has disappeared and is now hidden. And one point remains in Binah, where the light of Chochmah always reaches in a hidden manner. The "reaching yet not reaching" shines in the manner of the first point that has emerged from it. As a result, they are all linked to one another and illuminate one another.

When it ascends to the head of Arich Anpin, they all rise up and cling to it. Then it is as if "reaching." It is treasured in the place of the Endless Light, which is Arich Anpin, and everything becomes one. The point that was in the light, and transformed it into air, is now completely light. It expanded, and from this expansion illuminated the seven letters of the alphabet, which were not yet solid but were still moist. Later darkness came forth and seven other letters of the alphabet came out. The firmament then came forth and stopped the dispute between the two sides. In it there issued eight other letters, which added up to 22 in all. Seven letters from the right side and seven letters from the left side jumped on the firmament and were all engraved on it, where they remained moist. As the firmament congealed, so did the letters. They were engraved and assumed their intended shapes. And there the Torah was inscribed, referring to Zeir Anpin which is called the Torah, to shine outward on the lower beings.

The phrase: "Let there be light" alludes to the name great El, according to the secret of he who issues from the primal air. Hence, it is written: "Let there be (Heb. yehi)," implying the Sefirah of Chesed of Zeir Anpin called 'great El.' The phrase: "And there was (Heb. וַיְהִי)" refers to the secret of the darkness that is called 'Elohim.' And it is called 'light' after the left was combined with the right because the name Elohim extends from the secret of the name El, which is Chesed. Thus, the name Elohim is the aspect of Chesed as well. And the right was included within the left, and the left within the right.

The verse: "And Elohim saw the light, that it was good" (Genesis 1:4) implies the central pillar of Zeir Anpin, which is the Sefirah of Tiferet in it. The phrase: "That it was good" said about Tiferet means that it shone up and down in all directions, namely to all the Sefirot: Netzach, Hod, Yesod and Malchut. Tiferet of Zeir Anpin is the secret of the name Yud Hei Vav Hei, which includes all directions, right and left, front and back, up and down. The words, "And Elohim divided the light" mean that he prevented the dispute between right and left, so that everything may be perfect.

"And Elohim called...", etc. (Genesis 1:5). He asks: What is the meaning of "And Elohim called the light day"? He replies, This means that he called and invited it to bring forth from within that perfect light that stands in the middle, referring to Tiferet, one light. And this light is the foundation of the world, upon which all worlds are erected and from where all the souls are born. From this perfected light emerges the central pillar, the foundation of the life of the worlds, this being the day from the right side. The words: "And the darkness he called night" mean that He called and invited it, bringing forth one female from within the left side, the secret of darkness. This female principle is the secret of the moon that governs at night. For this reason, it is called night. And this is the secret of the name "Adonai" and the name "the Master of all the earth" (Joshua 3:11). The right enters into that perfected pillar in the middle, where it is included with the secret of the left; namely, Chesed of Zeir Anpin, which also includes His Gevurah and enters His Central Column, which is Tiferet. Then Zeir Anpin rises up to the primal point, which is Arich Anpin, and takes and possesses there, in Arich Anpin, Mochin, which are a thing based on the secret of the three vowels Cholam, Shuruk and Chirik which are called holy seed. For no seed can be sown for the purpose of the Mochin except according to this secret. All, referring to the illumination of the three vowels, were united in the central pillar, which is Tiferet, and it emanated the foundation (Yesod) of the world. Because of this, Yesod is called all, because it holds on to all, namely the illumination of all three Columns by the light of passion. In other words, because of the desire of the Left for the light of the Right, Yesod reconciles the Left with the Right and unites them. And because the Central Column acquires them, that Column attains both of them and bestows them both on Yesod.

The left is set ablaze by the force of might, and smells. It smelled throughout the grades, and from the glow of this fire it emanates the Female principle called moon. This blazing is considered to be darkness, because it extends from darkness. And these two sides, the right and the left, produce these two grades, one male and one female, because Yesod, which is male, emanated from the rule of the Right of Zeir Anpin. The Female principle emanates from the Left Column of Zeir Anpin. Yesod holds on to the central pillar and receives the additional light that was in it. This refers to the light of Chochmah, which is an additional light for Zeir Anpin. The central pillar, Zeir Anpin, is entirely complete by Chochmah and by Chassadim, because of the peace he brought to all sides. Thus, it has received additional light Mochin from above, namely from Arich Anpin which is Chochmah, and from all sides, namely from the right and left. From Its own Central Column, it has achieved Chassadim and Gvurot, and the joy of all the worlds is in It. This is the secret of the illumination of Chochmah that eliminates all the Klipot. And from this additional of gaiety, the foundation (Yesod) of the world issued and is called an addition. From here, Yesod, all the lower powers, spirits and holy souls of the righteous, come out according to the secret of the sacred names Yud Hei Vav Hei-Tzva'ot which means that He is a sign that appears in all his hosts. He is also called El the Elohim of the spirits, from whom all the spirits and souls of the righteous emanate.

The night, Master of all Earth, is the Female principle. She emanates from the left side, from that darkness. Because the entire desire of that darkness was to be included within the Right Column and receive light, its power was weakened. When night began to expand from the left before its structure was completed, the darkness namely the Left Column entered and merged with the Right Column, and the Right held on to it. Night then was left lacking at its end, because its source, which is the Left Column, disappeared in the Right Column and did not help it reach completion. So now there are two things lacking in the Female principle: (1) the aspect of the night, meaning darkness instead of light, and (2) her structure was not completed by the left. Just as darkness, which is the left, desires to be included within the light of the Right Column, so the Female principle, which is night, desires to be included within day. Darkness, which is the Left Column, abated its light because it had not yet completed the structure of the Female principle. Because of this, it produced the grade of the female with an incomplete structure and without light, namely with the two aforementioned defects. Therefore, the Female principle required two reforms: (1) to bring her light and free her from her darkness and (2) to complete her structure. Darkness, the Left Column, cannot illuminate unless it merges with the light of the right. And the same applies to the night, which is constructed in the left and emerges from it. It does not show any light unless it merges with the day, Yesod. The defect of the structure of the night is not completed until the Musaf (additional prayer), which is the additional light that Yesod has received from the Central Column namely, the excessive illumination of Chochmah in Zeir Anpin. And this additional light completes the structure of the Female principle. So what was added to one place is diminished in another. This means that what was added to the Sefirah of Yesod of Zeir Anpin by the Central Column, the Left Column of Zeir Anpin, has caused a diminution and lack in the Female principle. But Yesod fills up this lack with its additional light.

The Musaf, which is Yesod of Zeir Anpin, contains the secret of the supernal point, which is Arich Anpin, and the secret of the central pillar, which is Tiferet of Zeir Anpin that reconciles all sides. Because of this, two letters were added to Yesod, which are Vav and Yud, in the phrase: "And Elohim called (Heb. vayikra) the light day" (Genesis 1:5), in which the letter Vav alludes to the light of Chassadim that it received from the Central Column and the Yud to the light of Chochmah that it received from Arich Anpin. In the emanation on the Female principle, which is night, these two letters were missing. So of her it is written קָרָא, without the Vav and Yud. Of the Day, which is Yesod, it is written וַיִּקְרָא. He subtracted, in the Female principle, the letters Vav and Yud from vayikra, and so it is written of her only "he called (kara) night." Here lies the secret of the name with the 72 letters that are inscribed in the supernal crown - referring to the secret of the letters Vav and Yud.

"And Elohim said, 'Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters'" (Genesis 1:6). This phrase alludes to a detailed reform of the separation of the upper from the lower waters according to the secret of the left. Here, the dispute according to the secret of the left occurred. Until this point, referring to the first day, reference is made to the right. But on the second day, reference is to the secret of the governing of the left. Because of this, a great dispute broke out on the second day between the two sides. The left wanted to cancel the governing power of the right entirely, while the right wanted to cancel the governing power of the left entirely. The right, which is the secret of Chesed and the first day, is the perfection of all. Because of this, everything was written in the right on the first day. This means that all the seven days, which are the seven Sefirot, emerged in it and are hinted in it, because every perfection depends on the right side. When the rule of the left was aroused, its dispute with the right began and the fire of anger in that dispute became fierce. From this dispute, Gehenom was created. So Gehenom was awakened, and created by the left, and cleaved to it, which means that whoever wants to strengthen the left shall fall into Gehenom, which originates from it.

In his wisdom, Moses looked into this and learned about the work of Creation. In the work of Creation, there was a dispute between the left and the right. And in that dispute, which the left provoked, Gehenom was created and Gehenom held on to the left. The central pillar, which is Tiferet, entered between them on the third day, ending the dispute and bringing the two sides to an agreement. So Gehenom removed itself from the left and descended below. The left joined the right, and there was peace everywhere.

A similar dispute occurred between Korah and Aaron, the left against the right. Moses studied the Creation and said, 'I am one able to eliminate the dispute between right and left.' Moses tried his best to reconcile them, but the left did not want to be reconciled. So Korah become stronger and overcame Aaron. Moses said, assuredly, because of the power of the disagreement of the left, Gehenom should cling to it, just as it was in the works of Creation. Korah did not wish to be attached above, namely to the structure of holiness, and join the right, like the left on high. So assuredly, he shall descend below, down into Gehenom, because of the fierceness of his anger. As happened in the works of Creation, Gehenom came out and cleaved to the left. Moses knew that with the strength of Korah's anger, Korah would descend to Gehenom and be attached to it.

Because of this, Korah did not want Moses to settle this dispute, since it was not for heaven's sake (with pure intentions). He had no respect for the celestial glory, which is the Shechinah, and refused to acknowledge the work of Creation. This means that he denied the settlement of the Central Column. in the work of Creation. He wanted only the left to govern. As soon as Moses realized that he was denying the work of Creation and being rejected out of holiness, "Moses was much angered" (Numbers 16:15). "And Moses was much angered,"because Korah and his company refused to acknowledge him and did not allow him to settle the dispute. It is written "much," because they denied the acknowledgment of the work of Creation. So Korah denied [17b] everything above in Zeir Anpin and below in the souls, as it is written: "When they strove against Hashem" (Numbers 26:9) which is the secret of Zeir Anpin, for the damage that he did reached both above to Zeir Anpin and below to Moses. Therefore, Korah cleaved on to what he deserved; he reached Gehenom, as written, "They went down alive into Sheol" (Numbers 16:33).

Another dispute was settled like above. A dispute that rose and did not come down and was based on decency was that between Shammai and Hillel. Shammai was the aspect of the left on high, while Hillel was the aspect of the supernal right. And the Holy One, blessed be He, intervened between them and approved of them. This means that the differences and arguments between Shammai and Hillel reached them from the Central Column of above, which is the secret of the Holy One, blessed be He. This was a dispute for the sake (name) of heaven, and the heavens, Zeir Anpin, reconciled this dispute to establish both. Because of this, their illuminations continue to exist. This dispute is like the work of Creation. It is similar to what the Central Column achieved for the sake of establishing the work of Creation. But Korah denied the establishing of the work of Creation and the dispute was toward the heavens, namely Zeir Anpin, that is, the reconciling Column. And he wanted to deny the principles of the Torah, which is Zeir Anpin. Assuredly this dispute and denial was the result of the efforts of Gehenom, and its power of Judgment cleaved to Korah and he to it. Thus, he fell into Gehenom.

This secret appears in the Book of Adam. When darkness was aroused to take control, it emerged in all its might and created Gehenom within it, and Gehenom cleaved to it in that dispute. As the anger and the might of the Gevurot were calmed down, the dispute was aroused in a different manner, as a dispute of love. There were two kinds of disputes: One at the beginning and one at the end. This is the path of the righteous, which is hard in the beginning, because it is full of suffering, but ends in peace. Korah, being the left, was the beginning of the dispute between the right and the left, which was full of anger and fierceness. Each wanted to diminish the illumination of its neighbor. From this, Gehenom emerged and Korah cleaved to Gehenom. Shammai was also the aspect of the left, but at the end of the dispute between the right and the left, when anger was forgotten and the dispute of love was set in motion so as to receive approval from the heavens, which is the Column that settles the dispute.

This is the secret of the verse: "Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide..." (Genesis 1:6) This is the first dispute, aroused by anger and force, in which each wanted to overcome and annul its neighbor. The Holy One, blessed be He, wished to nullify the dispute and Gehenom was aroused until the anger and aggressiveness cooled down. Then it is written: "And Elohim made the firmament and divided..." (Ibid. 7). This division is the dispute, carried with love and friendship, which supports the world. According to this secret, (namely through the dispute of love) is carried the dispute between Shammai and Hillel namely the dividing of "And Elohim made the firmament" at the end of the dispute. On the other hand, the dispute of Korah was one of anger which is the dividing of "Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters" at the beginning of the dispute. So the dispute of Shammai and Hillel was for the sake of heaven, in which the Oral Torah, which is the secret of the Female principle, entered with love into the Written Torah, which is Zeir Anpin and called heaven. And they were in perfect union.

Division certainly applies to the left alone, as is written in relation to the second day: "And let it divide." (Ibid. 6) While of Korah, it is written: "Is it but a small thing to you, that the Elohim of Yisrael has separated you" (Numbers 16:9). It is also written: "At that time Hashem separated the tribe of Levi" (Deuteronomy 10:8). So, assuredly the separation appears only in the second day in the place of the left. You may ask: If division occurs definitely on the second day, why then is the separation mentioned about Levi, who is the third son of Jacob? It should have been associated with Simon, who is the second son of Jacob. The answer is that although Levi is the third son, according to Jacob's mind he is the second, because Reuben is not considered the first son of Leah, as at the time Jacob thought she was Rachel. So the separation is forever in the second, because after the division has occurred in the second, everything goes smoothly along the straight path in a perfect way, as it should be. This is because by the separation, the lights enclothe each other and are completed by each other.

The Havdalah (prayer of separation) that is performed at the end of Shabbat is for the purpose of separating those powers that are dominant during the days of the week from holiness that is dominant during Shabbat. With the ending of Shabbat, one aspect of Gehenom appears. It is the evil eye that desires to govern the world, just as Yisrael recite, "O Prosper it, the work of our hands" (Psalms 90:17). It emerges from that grade of the Other Side, which is called the left, and wishes to mingle with the seed of Yisrael by taking control over the holy covenant and having power to punish Yisrael.

While Yisrael perform an action, a precept, using the myrtle and the wine and recite the Havdalah, the Other Side departs from them. That side is lowered and enters into its place in Sheol, in the place where Korah and his company are, as it is written: "They, and all that appertained to them, went down alive into Sheol" (Numbers 16:33). So Korah and his company did not go down to Gehenom until Yisrael separated from them, as it is written: "Separate yourselves from among this congregation" (Ibid. 21). Here as well, the Other Side does not go to Gehenom at the ending of Shabbat before Yisrael performs the Havdalah.

So the separation (Heb. הַבְדָּלָה) is always on the second day, which is the Left Column. This refers to what has already been explained, that even the Havdalah at the ending of Shabbat is intended to separate the Other Side that extends from the Left Column. It was at the beginning of the dispute, which was aroused by the aggressiveness and anger of the left before it was calmed down and quieted, that Gehenom was created. Then were created all these angels that denounce before the Holy One, blessed be He, their Master, above, the secret of the Central Column. They disagree with his reconciliation and deviate to the left. Therefore, fire burns them up and they are consumed. And the other angels, all those who are annulled and have no support, are burned in the fire. All these have come from the power of the fire of the dispute in the beginning, on the second day. Similarly, Korah fell down into Gehenom and burned, just like those angels who burned in the fire of Nahar Dinur (Eng. 'River of Fire'). And everything follows the same manner, extending from the beginning of this dispute with the fire of anger.

"Let there be a firmament" tells us that an expansion has occurred between the two. The lower waters expanded and were separated from the upper waters, and the upper waters expanded and were separated from the lower waters by the firmament. The letters El (Aleph-Lamed) in the name Elohim (Aleph-Lamed-Hei-Yud-Mem) from the firmament up are of the right part. In other words, El always alludes to the name of Chesed, which is the right side. The name great El has expanded from within the waters and is separated from them. This means that because of the firmament, the name great El has spread upward and has separated itself from the other waters, namely the three letters Hei-Yud-Mem. This was to complete the name El and to include the upper and lower waters within each other through that expansion. And the name El of Elohim expanded, leaving only the three letters Hei-Yud-Mem. Hei-Yud-Mem then expanded down below the firmament and became the lower waters, Yud-Mem-Hei. This is the expansion into the second one, that is, Hei- Yud-Mem into Yud-Mem-Hei. The upper waters are Hei-Yud -Mem, as written, "So is this great and wide sea (Heb. hayam, Hei-Yud-Mem)" (Tehilim 104:25). Thus, Hei Yud Mem are the upper waters. If the letters Hei-Yud-Mem are in reversed order, that is, Yud-Mem-Hei, this indicates they are lower waters. Once the letters Yud-Mem-Hei were restored, they ascended and rose above the firmament and joined the name Great El and returned to the combination of the great sea (Heb. hayam), which was Hei-Yud-Mem. Then everyone, El and Hei-Yud-Mem were united as one, resulting in one name Elohim. And this name Elohim reached into many places.

The upper waters are male; the lower waters are female. At first, before they were firmly established, they were mixed, but were later separated to distinguish the upper waters from the lower waters. And to differentiate them, one is called Elohim, which is Binah, and the other is called Adonai, which is Malchut. One is the upper Hei of the name Yud Hei Vav Hei, which is Binah, and the other is the lower Hei of the name Yud Hei Vav Hei, which is Malchut. It is then written about them: "And Elohim made the firmament" (Genesis 1:7). This expansion assumed the name Elohim, for the verse: "And Elohim made" indicates that the expansion of Hei-Yud-Mem returned back to El and merged into the name Elohim and the upper waters. For the name Elohim is the upper waters [18a] and the name Adonai, the Female principle of Zeir Anpin, is the female waters. Nevertheless, since the male waters, or the letters Hei-Yud-Mem, were completed only by the female waters {namely, the Female principle of Zeir Anpin} the name Elohim expanded everywhere, {including the female waters.}

Although on the second day, the upper and lower waters were divided, the dispute between the right and the left, {which are the letters Aleph-Lamed and Hei-Yud-Mem}, did not cease until the third day, {which is Tiferet}. The third day settled the dispute between the right and the left, as the two Columns Aleph-Lamed and Hei-Yud-Mem enclothed each other, and both were established properly in their places. Because of this dispute, even though the world exists upon it, it is not written: "it was good" about the second day, because the work was not yet completed on that day. So the upper and lower waters were mingled together as one, and there was no offspring in the world until they were divided in two and distinguished as separate from each other. Only then did they bring forth offspring.

Although the separation of the lower waters from the upper waters occurred on the second day, the dispute between El, which is the Right, and Hei-Yud-Mem, which is the Left, was unresolved. Only the third day reconciled between them. Both became equal and joined them into the one name Elohim. The third day, which is Zeir Anpin, is the name, upon which is engraved Hei-Vav-Hei, to make the upper waters, Binah, equal to the lower waters, Malchut. Because the letters Hei-Vav-Hei are the secret of the two Heis with Vav between them: the upper Hei is Binah, and the lower Hei is Malchut. The Vav in between is Zeir Anpin and it completes and illuminates both sides, above in Binah and below in Malchut. This was signified by the splitting of the waters of the Jordan, where the upper waters rose in a heap and did not flow down into the Dead Sea. This is the secret of the upper Hei of the name Yud Hei Vav Hei, namely Binah. On the other hand, the lower waters which are the secret of the lower Hei, Malchut flowed down into the Dead Sea which is the secret of the lower Hei, Malchut. And Yisrael, the secret of the letter Vav, went in the middle between the upper waters and the lower waters of the Jordan. Thus Yisrael, the secret of the Vav of Yud Hei Vav Hei, received the abundance from the upper Hei and bestowed it upon the lower Hei.

Firmament is mentioned five times on the second day, and the life of the worlds, which is Yesod of Zeir Anpin, passes through them and guides the worlds through them. They all are comprised of each other. Had the Central Column not settled the dispute, neither would have included the other nor be harmonized. These five firmaments are equivalent to the 500 years to which the Tree of Life, which is Zeir Anpin, is attached to produce offspring and fruits in the world. All the waters of Creation, namely the kinds of Mochin that flow out from Beresheet, which is Arich Anpin, are divided under it and through it into the upper waters and the lower waters. King David, who is the secret of the Female principle, receives everything from Zeir Anpin. He then distributes it down to the lower worlds of Briyah, Yetzirah and Asiyah, as it is written: "And he distributed among all the people, among the whole multitude" (II Samuel 6:19). It is also written: "You give it to them; they gather it" (Psalms 104:28) and "She rises also while it is yet night, and gives food" (Proverbs 31:15).

When disagreement was aroused through the fierceness of the left, the mist of fire increased and became overpowering. The spirits produced from within that mist immediately congealed; they became dry and without any moisture. These spirits, which were male and female, produced a multitude of evil spirits. From this, all the might of the impure spirit appeared in all those strong spirits. This is the secret of the Kelipah of the foreskin. These spirits were strengthened in impurity through the violent demons. One is called a viper and the other a serpent, and these two kinds become one. The viper bears offspring every seventy years, while the serpent only every seven years. But as they are joined together, everything returned to the seven years of the serpent. Therefore, the viper begets every seven years like the serpent, and they become as if one species.

From here lies the secret of Gehenom, which has seven names, and the Evil Inclination, which also has seven names. From here, impurity expands and spreads out in many grades into the world. And everything comes from the principle of the left, which contains good and evil and thereby, makes the world habitable. From here is the secret of the Holy Name that is engraved by eighteen letters and is responsible for the bountiful rains that feed the earth, for human charity, for all our blessings, and for the general inhabitation of this world.

"And Elohim said, 'Let the waters...be gathered'" (Genesis 1:9). The words "be gathered (Heb. yikavu)" mean that the Mochin called the waters will travel in a straight line (Heb. קַו) on one level, without spreading to the right or left. Everything flows mysteriously from the secret of that primal point, which is Arich Anpin, until the light reaches and is gathered in the supernal chamber. From there it then flows in a straight line to the other grades, namely to Zeir Anpin, until it reaches that one place where everything is gathered according to the secret of male and female. He asks: And what is that place? He replied: This is the life of the worlds {namely Yesod of Zeir Anpin, which is the male who is united with Malchut, which is the Female principle. Thus, it comprises male and female together.}

The waters mentioned in the verse flow from above, {from the upper Hei of the Yud Hei Vav Hei, which is Yisrael Saba and Tevunah.} The words "under the heaven" allude to small Vav, which is Yesod of Zeir Anpin. Zeir Anpin is called great Vav, while his Yesod is called small Vav. Therefore, when the letter Vav is pronounced, two Vav's are heard. The first one is heaven, namely Zeir Anpin, and the second one is under the heaven, namely Yesod of Zeir Anpin. After the Mochin are drawn from the upper Hei which is Binah down under the heaven which is Yesod of Zeir Anpin it is written: "And let the dry land appear" (Ibid.). This is the lower Hei namely Malchut, the Female principle of Zeir Anpin because only she was revealed as dry land, while all the other grades were hidden. From within that last grade, referring to the lower Hei, Malchut, that light that was concealed was heard and revealed.

The phrase "to one place" is called Yesod because there is a connection to the union of the upper world through Yesod. The verse: "Hashem shall be one, and His Name One" (Zechariah 14:9) hints at two unions. One is the upper world that is unified in its own grades, which is the secret of: "Hashem is one" and the second is the lower world that is unified in its own grades, according to the secret: "And His Name One." The unification of the upper world by the secret of "Hashem is one" is up to Yesod. The life of the worlds, which is Yesod, is sweetened in Binah, and the upper world is connected to its unification. Because of this, it is called: "to one place," as all the grades and all the parts, gather there. And they become as one in it, without any separation at all. No grade unites there wholly save this grade, in which all the lights are mysteriously covered in one desire. Up to this point, referring to the words: "And let the dry land appear," the revealed world which is the secret of Rachel is unified with the concealed world which is Leah.

The revealed world, which is Rachel, the Female principle of Zeir Anpin who is located from his Chest downward, is similarly unified below. The revealed world is the lower world, as can be proven by reading the scriptures, where it is described in terms of seeing: "I saw Hashem" (Isaiah 6:1), "and they saw the Elohim of Yisrael" (Exodus 24:10), "and the glory of Hashem appeared (Numbers 14:10) and "As the appearance of the rainbow...so was the appearance of the brightness round about. This was the appearance of the likeness of the glory of Hashem" (Ezekiel 1:28). And it is known that the lower Female principle, who is called Rachel, is described by the words: "Glory of Hashem" and by the particle Et (the). This is the secret of the verse: "Let the dry land appear (lit. 'be seen')," because "seeing" applies only to the revealed world and not to the upper world. The verse: "As the appearance of the rainbow," which is written about the divine Chariot of Yechezkel, alludes to the life of the worlds, namely Yesod of Zeir Anpin. Therefore, it is written in the portion of Noah: "I have set My rainbow in the cloud" (Genesis 9:13), which also alludes to Yesod of Zeir Anpin, who is called the life of the worlds. The phrase "in the cloud" refers to Malchut; namely, the lower Female principle of Zeir Anpin, the revealed world of Rachel. The words "I have set" mean that he has set his rainbow in the cloud ever since the day of Creation.

[18b] That cloudy day, which is described in the verse: "And it shall come to pass, when I bring a cloud" (Ibid. 14) indicates that only then shall the rainbow be seen according to the secret of "the appearance of the likeness of the glory of Hashem," and not at any other time. Why is this so? As the left is aroused, Rachel emerges to her own aspect "and she had hard labor" (Genesis 35:16). Therefore it is said that three angels stay by her side: Michael at one side, {the right side}; Raphael at one side, {in the middle}; and Gabriel at one side, {the left side}. And from them she receives her strength to give birth. These three aspects are the colors seen in the form of the rainbow: white, red and green.

The phrase "so was the appearance of the brightness round about" alludes to the illumination that was concealed and has disappeared within the pupil of the eye. So the phrase: "This was the appearance of the likeness of the glory of Hashem" applies to the colors in the "appearance of the rainbow" and not to "the appearance of the brightness." This is because the lower union of the three colors of the rainbow corresponds with the upper union. The three names "Hashem our Elohim; Hashem," which appear in the verse: "Hear, O Yisrael" (Devarim 6:4) allude to the three colors, white, red, and green when they are concealed, invisible, and attached to one place. This is the secret of the first union in the upper world that is called one place. And the colors united in the rainbow below which are white, red and green correspond to the three concealed colors of the upper union: Hashem our Elohim Hashem. These colors of the rainbow belong to another union, which is the secret of: "And his Name One," the lower union. It is the secret of the verse: 'Blessed be the Name of the glory of His Kingdom for ever and ever (Heb. baruch shem kevod...),' that we respond after "Hear, O Yisrael," which is the lower union. The upper union indicated by the verse: "Hear, O Yisrael, Hashem our Elohim; Hashem is One" corresponds to the lower union: 'Blessed be the name of the Glory of his Kingdom for ever and ever.' Each verse contains six words.

The words "be gathered" suggest measurement by the line and the measuring; measuring is from the hard spark that is in Binah, as it is written: "Who has measured the waters in the hollow of his hand" (Isaiah 40:12). In this verse, "who" alludes to Binah. This is what is meant by: "Let the waters...be gathered." Here in the verse: "Let the waters...be gathered" is the extent of the entire Mochin of He who forms the worlds, namely Zeir Anpin, and which is hinted at in the name Yud Hei Vav Hei, fully spelled with Aleph's, as Yud-Vav-Dalet, Hei-Aleph, Vav-Aleph-Vav, Hei-Aleph. "Holy, holy, holy" (Isaiah 6:3) is the secret of the Mochin of Binah, which is also the secret of the verse: "Let the waters...be gathered." The phrase "Hashem Tzva'ot" (Ibid.) is the secret of the verse: "to one place," Yesod of Zeir Anpin that is called the life of the worlds, to which the Mochin from Binah flow according to the secret of the phrase: "to one place." The phrase: "The whole earth is full of his glory" (Ibid.) is the secret of the verse: "and let the dry land appear." This verse is the secret of the lower Hei, called the revealed world when comprised within the union of the upper world. The words "and let the dry land appear"is the secret of the engraved name of the union of Caf -Vav-Zayin-Vav, Bet-Mem-Vav-Caf-Samech-Zayin and Caf-Vav-Zayin-Vav, because the dry land which is the revealed world is included in the union of the supernal world which is the secret of "Hashem our Elohim; Hashem."

The verse: "Let the earth bring forth grass" (Genesis 1:11) is the secret of the lower union, as it is now revealing its powers in these waters that have been gathered in one place. The Mochin are drawn down into it in a concealed and a hidden manner. And from within it come forth supernal and concealed souls and holy hosts. These are formed and drawn, using the edifices of Faith, by the righteous, the men of Faith - namely the female waters - by worshipping their Master.

This is the secret of the verse: "Who causes the grass to grow for the cattle" (Tehilim 104:14). This is the living creature that crouches on a thousand mountains and for whom grass is grown every day. This grass refers to those angels who govern only for a specific time, but then must vanish immediately; because they were created on the second day, their dominion draws upon the Left Column that was created on the second day. In their dominion they wish to annul the right. They are destined to be food for this living creature, which means that nothing of their illumination is drawn down to the lower beings. Only the Female principle enjoys it, and then she burns and annuls them with it as there is fire that consumes fire, which is the dominion of the Left, called 'fire.'

In the verse: "And plants for the service of man" (Ibid.), the word "plants" refers to wheels, holy living creatures and Cherubs. The wheels (Heb. Ofanim) are the angels of Asiyah, the holy living creatures are the angels of Yetzirah and the Cherubs are the angels of Briyah. All of these are made ready and clothed by the Creator Himself. However, they are further prepared when people worship their Master with sacrifices and prayer. This is what is meant by "the service of man." The plants were predestined and prepared for "the service of man" and will be further perfected by that service, as it should be. When they are made ready by "the service of man," sustenance and food come from them to the world, as it is written: "That he may bring forth food out of the earth" (Idid.). This is what is meant: "herb yielding seed" (Gen. 1:12), which is the secret of the Mochin. The grass (hay) does not yield any seed, but is intended to be consumed by the sacred fire of the Female principle, as explained above, whereas the herb, which yields seed, is intended for the improvement of the world.

All this is to "bring forth food out of the earth," because all the improvements given to people are only for the purpose of establishing this herb out of the earth, which is the Female principle. Thus, people's service to their Master is designed to supply sustenance and food from out of the earth to this world, so that people will be blessed from above. The verse: "And fruit tree yielding fruit" (Gen. 1:11) alludes to two grades: one grade above another, which represents male and female. This means that the fruit tree is the Female principle of Zeir Anpin; "yielding fruit" alludes to Yesod of Zeir Anpin, which is male. It is said to be "yielding fruit" because all the fruit that the female yields reaches her from the male. Just as the "fruit tree," which is the Female principle, reveals the potential power that it received from the "fruit tree yielding fruit," which is the male, so it reveals her own potential as well. What is revealed from the potential of the Female principle herself? The Cherubs and pillars are revealed from her own aspect. What are these pillars? They are those that rise up in the smoke of the sacrifice and become stronger because of the offering. They are called "columns of smoke." This is the secret of the verse: "Who is this coming out of the wilderness like columns of smoke" (Song of Songs 3:6). So the Cherubs are the secret of the "herb" that she receives from the male and the "columns of smoke" are the "grass." The Cherubs and pillars exist for "the service of men," but not the "grass," which is meant for food, as it is written: "Behold now animals (Heb. בְּהֵמוֹת), which I made with you; he eats grass like an ox" (Job 40:15).

"And fruit tree yielding fruit" alludes to the forms of the male and female, and "as for the likeness of their faces, they had the face of a man" (Ezekiel 1:10). The "fruit tree" is the Female principle of Zeir Anpin and "yielding fruit" is Yesod of Zeir Anpin, the male that puts the fruit inside her. The male and female are not like the Cherubs, which are hinted at in the phrase: "herb yielding seed." The male and female have large faces with beards, whereas the Cherubs have small faces like those of babies. The face of man contains all the images, including the lion, the ox and the eagle, since they have large faces. The engraved images are imprinted on this large face just as the engravings of the Holy Name are imprinted in the four directions of the world: East, West, North and South.

Michael made a mark on the South side. And all three other faces gaze toward the face of a man - the face of a lion, the face of an ox and the face of an eagle. Michael is one of the four angels who serve the Female principle of Zeir Anpin. Therefore, he prepares the place for the mating. Because since he is the angel of Chesed, he sketches the imprint to the south, which is to the right. Man is male and female, and he is not called man unless both are included. This means that Malchut on her own, when she is not mating with Zeir Anpin, is not called man; only when they are united are they called man. This is the secret of the verse: "male and female He created them; and blessed them, and called their name man" (Gen. 5:2). So accordingly, they were together called man, but each one alone is only half a body and cannot be called man. The figures of the Chariot of Elohim are formed according to His image, namely from the face of a man, united on the south side, as it is written: "The Chariots of Elohim are twice ten thousand, thousand upon thousands (Heb. שִׁנְאָן)" (Ps. 68:18). This is the secret of the lower Chariot that is called the Chariot of Elohim.

The word שִׁנְאָן consists of the letters Shin-Nun-Aleph-Nun. Written in the scriptural verse, it includes all the images all the living creatures, which include the ox (Heb. shor), the eagle (Heb. nesher) and the lion (Heb. aryeh). For the initials of these words form the Shin-Nun-Aleph of שִׁנְאָן, and the final Nun in the word שִׁנְאָן alludes to the face of a man [19a] that is included with them. This final Nun is the secret of the expansion of male and female that are united as one. Everyone in the worlds of Briyah, Yetzirah and Asiyah, emerges from these living creatures, which are the secret of Shin'an. From them, the forms of Briyah, Yetzirah and Asiyah are born and separated, each befitting its aspect.

These living creatures are joined one to the other, so that each includes all the others. The ox, eagle, lion and man are directed by the secret of the four engraved names, which are "a great El, a mighty, and a terrible" (Devarim 10:17), to which they ascend to behold them.

The ox ascended to be guided by and gaze on the face of a man. With the ox rose one name that was crowned and engraved by the secret of the two colors, which represent the name El. After the ox was included in the name El, it turned back and the throne, which is the Female principle of Zeir Anpin, inscribed it, engraved it and received its imprint, so that it may be guided by the secret of the name El. Although the ox is of the left, it was nevertheless marked to be guided by the aspect of Chassadim in the name El.

The eagle ascended to be guided and gaze on the face of a man. Another name rose up with it to be crowned and engraved according to the secret of the two faces, the face of man and the face of the eagle, and the two colors the color of the right, which is white, and the color of the eagle, which is green so as to be guided and gaze on the crown above. The name of it is 'Great'. After this, the eagle returned and the throne, which is the Female principle, engraved and etched it. And the eagle was imprinted to be guided by the secret of this name; that is, for the attributes of the eagle are similar to those of the name Great.

The lion ascended to be guided and gaze on the face of a man above. Another name rose up with it to be crowned and engraved by the secret of the two faces and the two colors, and to be strengthened and attached to Gevurah. This is the name 'Mighty'. Then it returned and the throne, which is the secret of the Female principle of Zeir Anpin, engraved and etched it and it was imprinted so as to be guided by the secret of this name mighty. So that the attributes of the Lion, which is to the right, be like the attributes of the name mighty and the lion will be guided by the attribute of Gevurah.

The face of a man gazed on all of them, on all the faces of the living creatures, and they all rose up and gazed on it. All have risen to the face of a man above in the supernal Chariot, because it does not exist below. Then they were all depicted together in an engraving according to this drawing by the secret of a certain name, which is 'Terrible', נוֹרָא. It is written about the living creatures: "As for the likeness of their faces, they had the face of a man" (Ezekiel 1:10), because they were all included within this image of man, and this image included them.

According to this secret, the Holy One, blessed be He, is called "a great El, mighty and terrible." - הָאֵל הַגָּדוֹל הַגִּבּוֹר וְהַנּוֹרָא. These names are engraved above by the secret of the upper Chariot, which comprises four letters of the name Yud Hei Vav Hei, which is a name that includes all the other names. The combining of the lower ox within the upper lion is equivalent to the letter Yud of Yud Hei Vav Hei, and is the secret of the name El. The combining of the lower lion within the upper ox is equivalent to the letter Hei and is the secret of the name Mighty. The combining of the lower eagle within the upper lion is equivalent to the letter Vav and is the secret of the name Great. And the face of a man of above, which includes all the living creatures from below that have ascended to it, is equivalent to the lower Hei of Yud Hei Vav Hei and is the secret of the name Terrible. These images, the ox, eagle, lion and man, are engraved and carved on the throne, which is the Female principle of Zeir Anpin, and the throne is carved and decorated by them. And these likenesses were embroidered on the throne: one on the right, one on the left, one on the front and one on the back, thus corresponding to the four directions of the world. The face of the lion is imprinted on the right, which is the south wind; the face of the ox on the left, which is the north wind; the face of the eagle on the front, which is the east wind; and the face of a man on the back, which is the west wind. This is the secret of the four letters of Yud Hei Vav Hei.

When the throne, which is the Female principle of Zeir Anpin, ascends to unite with Zeir Anpin, it is imprinted with these four images, ox, eagle. Lion and man. These four supernal names carry the throne up to unite with Zeir Anpin. And the throne, namely the Female principle, becomes included within them during the union. This means that she is completed by and with these names. The throne collects and gleans, by its union with Zeir Anpin, souls and delightful pleasures. When it has collected and gleaned these delights and pleasures, it descends full, like a tree with branches on all sides and laden with fruit.

As the throne descends from the place of union to its own place, the images of the four living creatures come forth, each shaped in its own form and engraving, illuminating, shining and radiating. They scatter seed over the world. Thus they are called the "herb yielding seed" and "herb" alludes to the living creatures that sow the world with seed.

When the image of a man, which includes all the other images, issues forth, it is described as "fruit tree yielding fruit after its kind" (Gen. 1:11). Because man is both male and female, "the fruit tree" is the female and "yielding fruit" applies to the male. The phrase: "Whose seed is in itself, upon the earth" (Ibid.) teaches us that he emitted his seed for the benefit of the earth alone. So the phrase: "Whose seed is in itself" is purposely said to teach us that man should not emit his seed in vain.

The "herb" which appears in the verse: "Let the earth bring forth grass, herb yielding seed" does not yield seed. Because of this, it has no permanency and does not last like the others. This is because it has no image to be shaped and engraved into any sort of likeness or form. Instead, they are seen and not seen. All those that have not been shaped into a form or an image have no permanency. They are created and last only for a certain time and are immediately consumed by the fire that devours fire, as already explained. Then they are again created and are immediately consumed by the fire that consumes fire. This is repeated again and again every day.

A human being below, in this world has an image and a form, but he does not last forever, as do those of the angels above. The form and image of the angels above are formed in their shape without any other covering. Because of this, they are everlasting. The image of man in this world below referring to the Nefesh, Ruach and Neshamah is shaped into its form only by a covering. Because of this, man lasts only for a certain, limited, period.

Every night when a man sleeps, his spirit removes the covering and ascends. This fire that consumes fire, namely the Female principle of Zeir Anpin, consumes and burns this spirit. Later, the spirits are resurrected and reshaped in their coverings as before. Because of this, the spirits have no permanent existence, as do the images above, which is a reference to the angels of the "herb," but are burned and then renewed as before. About this, it is written: "They are new every morning" (Lam. 3:23), which refers to the spirits of human beings, which are renewed daily.

[19b] What is the purpose of this renewal? The verse concludes: "Great is Your faithfulness" (Ibid.), so it is great and not small.

The phrase: "Great is your faithfulness" means that it is for certain that the faithfulness or Faith, which is the Female principle, is great. She is able to receive all the souls of the world and include them, the upper and the lower souls, in herself. The Female principle is a great and large space that includes everything and is never full. This is the secret of the verse: "All the rivers run into the sea; yet the sea is not full" (Kohelet 1:7). The Female principle is called the "Sea" and the "rivers" are the souls. So the verse actually means that all the souls flow into the Female principle, yet she is not full. And the reason she is not yet full is because the souls run into the sea, which receives them and burns them inside it. Because of this, the sea is not yet full. Afterward, the sea restores the souls to their former state and they come into this world. This is why the verse reads: "Great is Your faithfulness."

On this day, the third day, it is written twice, "that it was good" (Gen. 1:10, 12). This day is associated with two sides, the Right Column and the Left Column. It told each side "that it was good," thereby reconciling the discord between them. This is why the phrase: "And...said" appears twice in it. Herein lies the secret of the name that is formed with the four letters, Yud Hei Vav Hei inscribed and engraved. These can add up to twelve letters that represent the four images on all four sides of the holy throne, which is the Female principle of Zeir Anpin.

"And Elohim said, 'Let there be luminaries (Heb. מְאוֹרוֹת)'" (Gen. 1:14). The word מְאוֹרוֹת is written here with defective spelling, without the letter Vav. This means that the children's disease, croup (diphtheria), was created. Because without Vav, מְאוֹרוֹת means curses, as in the verse: "The curse (Heb. me'erat) of Hashem is in the house of the wicked" (Prov. 3:33). For after the illumination of the primordial light was concealed, the skull (Heb. Kelipah) of the brain was created. This Kelipah expanded and brought forth another Kelipah. As soon as the Kelipah went forth, it ascended and descended until it reached the small face. It wanted to cleave to it and become part of its form; it refused completely to be separated from it. When the Holy One, blessed be He, created Adam, he separated it from there and the Kelipah descended below to the level of Malchut only, in order to fix it in this world, on the level of Malchut alone and not above it.

When the Kelipah saw Eve clinging to the side of Adam, who represented the beauty of above, and saw in them the complete form, it flew up from its place at the level of Malchut and wanted to cling to the small faces of Adam and Eve as before. However, the guards at the gates did not allow the Kelipah to cling to them. The Holy One, blessed be He, scolded it and cast it into the depths of the sea.

The Kelipah sat there in the depth of the sea until Adam and his wife sinned. Then the Holy One, blessed be He, took the Kelipah out from the depths of the sea. It took control over all those babies, who are the small faces of people, who deserve punishment for the sins of their fathers. It wandered around the world, approached the gates of the terrestrial Garden of Eden, saw the Cherubs guarding the gates of the garden and sat down near the bright blade of the sword from which it had originally emerged.

When the bright blade of the revolving sword changed to Judgment, the Kelipah fled and wandered around the world and found babies due to be punished. It is called the bright blade of a revolving sword, because it revolves and changes back and forth between Mercy and Judgment. The Kelipah laughed with the babies and then killed them. It did this during the waning of the moon, as its light diminished. This is why Me'orot (luminaries) is spelled without the letter Vav, which means curses. When Cain was born, the Kelipah was unable to cling to him, but later it approached him, cleaved to him and bore from him spirits and flying spirits.

Adam had intercourse with female spirits for 130 years until Na'amah came. Because of her beauty, she led the sons of Elohim, Aza and Azael astray. She bore them all sorts of new kinds of Kelipah. Evil spirits and demons spread out from her into the world. They wander around the world during the night, deriding human beings and causing nocturnal pollution. Wherever they find men sleeping alone in their own homes, they hover over them and cling to them, arousing lustful desires and having offspring by them.

When the moon is restored, the letters Mem-Aleph-Resh-Tav in the word Me'orot which means curses are turned into Aleph-Mem -Resh-Tav- אִמְרַת. This is according to the secret of the verse: "The word of (Heb. אִמְרַת) Hashem is tried. He is a shield to all those who trust in Him" (Ps. 18:31). He is a shield for all those who hold fast to their faith in the Holy One, blessed be He, against all those evil spirits and prosecutors who wander through the world at the time the light of the moon is diminishing.

King Solomon penetrated the depth of the secret of the nut, as it is written: "I went down into the garden of nuts" (Shir Hashirim 6:11). He took hold of the shell (Kelipah) of the nut and looked at all its layers. He came to realize that the main pleasure of the spirits in the shell of the nut was just to cling to human beings and defile them, as it is written: "And the delights of the sons of men, women very many (Heb. שִׁדּוֹת)" (Kohelet 2:8). This means that the demons (Heb. shedim) take pleasure only in human beings.

This verse also means that male and female demons are born from the pleasure human beings enjoy during their sleep at night. It was necessary for the Holy One, blessed be He, to create and supply the world with everything, including the Kelipot, so everything can be compared to the nut. Just as the inner part of the nut is surrounded by many layers of shells, the inner parts of all the worlds are similarly surrounded by many layers above and below in the supernal worlds and in this world, as will be explained.

From the beginning of the secret of the supernal point which is Arich Anpin to the end of all grades [20a] they are all intertwined, so each and everyone is a Kelipah to the other. A Kelipah is like a covering or an outer layer, just as a shell is a covering for a fruit. The primal point (which is Arich Anpin) is the internal light, whose purity, translucency and cleanness are beyond comprehension. When the expansion spreads beyond (Arich Anpin), which is the point, this expansion of that point becomes a chamber for the purpose of covering that point. The light of that point is incomprehensible because of its great purity.

The chamber (namely, Abba and Imma) which covers the concealed point, (which is Arich Anpin), is a light that has no limits. This means that the light of the chamber is also unknown and inconceivable. Nevertheless, it is not as pure and subtle as the light of the primal point, (Arich Anpin), which is hidden and concealed. This chamber issues forth an expansion of the primal light, as it is written: "And Elohim said, 'Let there be light'; and there was light" (Gen. 1:3). This expansion, Yisrael-Saba and Tevunah, is a covering for that pure and subtle chamber namely, Abba and Imma which is more internal than Yisrael-Saba and Tevunah.

From here (Yisrael-Saba and Tevunah) on, each one expanded within the other and became enclothed by one another until all the grades enclothed one another. One was the inner part and the other the outer layer. Though one is a garment in relation to what is above it, it has also become the inner aspect of another grade, a grade that is below it. (So Abba and Imma, which are considered a garment for Arich Anpin, became the inner part and internal aspect of Yisrael - Saba and Tevunah. Thus, Yisrael-Saba and Tevunah, which form a garment for Abba and Imma, became the inner part for Zeir Anpin. Thus, Zeir Anpin which is a garment for Yisrael-Saba and Tevunah became the inner part for his Female principle.) The same thing occurred below in the lower worlds (of Briyah, Yetzirah and Asiyah. The Female principle of Atzilut is enclothed within Briyah, and Briyah within Yetzirah and Yetzirah within Asiyah. Accordingly, the Neshamah in a man is enclothed within the Ruach and the Ruach within the Nefesh and the physical body. In this image, the human being exists in this world with an inner part and an outer shell, which correspond to a spirit and a body.) All this is for the perfection of the world.

When the moon was united with the sun, the moon had its own light. But after the moon was separated from the sun, it descended to the world of Briyah and was placed in charge of the hosts of Briyah, it belittled itself and diminished its own light. So Kelipot upon Kelipot were created, one above the other, to conceal the inner part. All this occurred to complete the light of the inner part, because without a shell no fruit can be had. This is the reason why it is written: "Let there be luminaries (מְאֹרֹת)," without Vav, which means a curse, because of the Kelipot that emerge due to the diminution of the light of the moon. All this was done for the perfection of the world. Therefore, it is written: "To give light upon the earth" (Gen. 1:15), as these Kelipot emerged in the secret of the shell that precedes the fruit.

"And Elohim made the two great luminaries" (Gen. 1:16). "And...made", וַיַּעַשׂ, signifies the greatness and the full establishment of everything, as it should be. The phrase: "The two great luminaries" indicates that the two great luminaries, (which are Zeir Anpin and his Female principle) were united at first. This is the secret of the full name Yud Hei Vav Hei - Elohim, which although not openly revealed can be surmised. So the "two great luminaries" appear in a full name, even though the name Elohim shines only in a concealed way.

"And Elohim made the two great luminaries" (Gen. 1:16). "And...made", וַיַּעַשׂ, signifies the greatness and the full establishment of everything, as it should be. The phrase: "The two great luminaries" indicates that the two great luminaries, (which are Zeir Anpin and his Female principle) were united at first. This is the secret of the full name Yud Hei Vav Hei - Elohim, which although not openly revealed can be surmised. So the "two great luminaries" appear in a full name, even though the name Elohim shines only in a concealed way. The word "great" means that Zeir Anpin and his Female principle grew in greatness by this name as equals, so much so that they were called by the name that unites everything together, which is Mem-Tzadi-Pe-Tzadi Mem-Tzadi-Pe-Tzadi. Zeir Anpin received his greatness from the right one, his Female principle from the left one. In such a way, they are referred to as "the two great luminaries." These are the most supernal names that precede the thirteen attributes of Mercy. The names Mem-Tzadi-Pe- Tzadi Mem-Tzadi-Pe-Tzadi are called "great," because they became great and ascended, since they are supernal and derive from the secret of above. They benefit the world, as the worlds' existence depends on them. Similarly, the two luminaries that appear in the verse, which are Zeir Anpin and his Female principle, both rose as one, in one greatness.

The moon was not at ease with the sun because she felt embarrassed before it. The moon said to the sun: "Where do you feed your flock? Why do you make your flock to rest at noon?" (Shir Hashirim 1:7). This is as if to say: How can a tiny candle shine in the middle of the day? "Why should I be like one who cloaks himself?" (Ibid.) That is: how can I remain in shame? Then she lowered herself to be head of the lower beings, as it is written: "Go your way forth by the footsteps of the flock" (Ibid. 8). Thus, the Holy One, blessed be He, said to her, 'Go and diminish yourself.'

From then on, she had no light of her own. She had only the light she received from the sun. At first, they were united as one on the same level, but she later lowered herself from all of its grades. This means that it lost all her grades and emerged from the world of Atzilut. Although she is the head of the lower worlds of Briyah, Yetzirah and Asiyah, she is nevertheless considered to have lost all her grades, as in principle a woman has no significance unless she is together with her husband. In other words, because the Female principle is separated from Zeir Anpin, her husband, and has left the world of Atzilut to go to that of Briyah, she has brought about the loss of all her grades. Even though she has become head in the world of Briyah, she does not consider this to be significant because she is separated from her husband, who is in the world of Atzilut. The phrase: "The greater luminary" (Gen. 1:16) alludes to Zeir Anpin, who is called by the name Yud Hei Vav Hei. "The lesser luminary" (Ibid.) alludes to the Female principle, who is called by the name Elohim, the last of the grades and an end to Thought namely, an end to the world of Atzilut that is called Thought. At first, the Female principle was inscribed above in Zeir Anpin in the fourth letter of the Holy Name Yud Hei Vav Hei, because the female is the lower Hei. In other words, when she was on the same level with Zeir Anpin, she was the lower Hei of the name Yud Hei Vav Hei. But afterward, she lowered herself to be called by the name Elohim.

In spite of all this, the Female principle ascended on all sides and shone in all directions from above; that is, before she diminished herself and when she was the lower Hei in the assembling of the letters of the Holy Name, Yud Hei Vav Hei. Later, when she belittled herself, the grades expanded out from all sides, which means that she shone from the aspect of being before the lower Hei of Yud Hei Vav Hei and also from the aspect of being now the name Elohim. The grades that expanded from the aspect of her being above, from the lower Hei of Yud Hei Vav Hei, are called the "rule (of) the day" (Ibid.). The grades that expanded from the aspect of her being below, from the name Elohim, are called the "rule (of) the night" (Ibid.). The words "the stars" (Gen. 1:16) allude to countless hosts and groups of angels, who are all suspended in that "firmament of heaven" that is Yesod of Zeir Anpin and is called life of the worlds, as it is written: "And Elohim set them in the firmament of heaven to give light upon the earth" (Ibid. 17).

The kingdom of the house of David was established on this day, the fourth day, which is the fourth leg that supports the throne. It happened on the fourth day because the letters were completed and fixed in their places properly. In spite of all this, Malchut (kingdom) was not fixed properly in its place before the sixth day, because only then was the image of man completed and properly established. On the sixth day, the upper throne and the lower throne were established and all the worlds settled in their places. All the letters were set in their spheres [20b] after untying and releasing the complicated tie that existed among the letters.

The fourth day, which is the kingdom of David, was rejected by the builders, as it is written: "The stone which the builders rejected..." (Tehilim 118:22) and also "my mother's children were angry with me" (Shir Hashirim 1:6). For this light, (referring to Malchut) lowered itself and diminished its own radiance while the Kelipot were established in their places. This gave place to the emerging of the Kelipot and their rule. Thus she seemed loathsome in the eyes of the righteous that built it. Only later, when she was completed and ready for union with Zeir Anpin, was it said she "has become the head stone of the corner" (Tehilim 118:22). All those lights that shone during the 6,000 year period were suspended in this firmament of heaven to establish with them the throne of David, namely, the kingdom (Malchut) of David.

These lights of the kingdom of David shape the form below in order to prepare the form of all those that pertain to the inner form of the face of a man, because every inner form is so called, namely, the face of a man. From this, you should realize that every shape included in this expansion of the letter final Nun is called man, even though they do not actually have the face of a man. Hence, it is written: "But you...are men" (Yechezkel 34:31). You are called men, but not the rest of the idolatrous nations.

Every spirit is called man, which means that only the aspect of the light of the spirit that is enclothed within the body is called man. So the body of the spirit of the holy side is only a garment; in other words, the spirit is the actual essence of man and the body is only its covering. But on the Other Side, the opposite applies. This is why it is written: "You have clothed me with skin and flesh..." (Iyov 10:11). The flesh of man is only a garment covering the essence of man, which is the spirit. Wherever it is written the flesh of man, it hints that the essence of man is inside. The flesh is only a vestment for man, a body for him, but the essence of man is the aspect of his spirit. For the lower aspects were melted with the melting of this spirit of the face of man, and other forms were fashioned, enclothed in a different kind of garment not by that of man, but of Kosher animals. These include: ox, sheep, goats, kids of the goats, rams, deer, fallow-deer and so on. They would have preferred to be included in the vestment of the face of a man, but were not. They became vestments for others; namely, garments for the face of an ox, the face of an eagle and the face of a lion. The inner spirit of the ox, sheep and goat, is called by the same name as the body of that spirit, because the body is a vestment for that name but does not own it. The body is the flesh of the ox and the ox is the inner spirit of that body; namely, its flesh is its garment. So it is with all animals; their bodies are named after the inner spirit that is enclothed within them.

It is similar with the Other Side, which is not holy. The spirit that spreads within the idolatrous nations issues from the side that is not holy and is not the aspect of man. Therefore, it is not called by this name, as has been written: "But you...are men." The name of this spirit is defiled. It is not called man and has no share in him because it extends from the wicked man (lit. 'man without elevation'), who does not want to ascend to the face of man above. So his body, the vestment of his spirit, is impure and his flesh is defiled. The impure part, which is the spirit, is on the inside and the flesh is his vestment. As long as the spirit dwells within that body, it is considered defiled. As the spirit leaves that vestment, namely the body, neither the body nor the vestment is called impure any longer, as the impure one, that is the spirit, has departed from it.

From the lower aspects referring to animals, beasts and birds that were molded into shape by that impure spirit forms, namely private spirits, were drawn out. These were enclothed by other vestments, such as the forms of impure animals, and the Torah said of them, "These shall be unclean to you" (Vayikra 11:29). These forms include pigs and the birds and animals that belong to the Other Side. The spirit is called by that name, that is, defiled, and the body is its vestment. The body is called the flesh of the pig, because it is a pig in its inner being, in its spirit, while the flesh is a garment covering that spirit. Therefore, both aspects, those included within the secret of man and those included with the secret of the impure, are separated from and oppose each other. On the side of holiness are the spirit of man in general, and the spirits of pure animals, beasts and fowl, which are the particular. From the side of wicked man is the impure wicked man, who is considered the general aspect, and the spirits of impure animals, beasts and fowl, that are the particulars. They oppose each other. Every kind of animal stays with its own kind and does not mix with the opposite kind. Even if it does, it eventually returns to its own kind.

All the upper shining lights shine within that firmament of heaven, so that proper forms may be drawn down below, as it is written: "And Elohim set them in the firmament of heaven...to rule over the day and over the night" (Gen. 1:17). For the dominion of the two lights is a proper dominion.

"The greater luminary," (namely Zeir Anpin) rules the day and "the lesser luminary," which is his Female principle, rules the night. The secret learned from here is that the male rules by day and fills up the house with all that is needed, such as food and sustenance. As soon as night falls and the female takes command, everything in the house falls under her control, because then it is time for her dominion. As it is written: "She rises also while it is yet night and gives food to her household" (Mishlei 31:15); "she" and not "he." So the Female principle, not Zeir anpin, gives at night, as the dominion over the day belongs to the male and the dominion over the night belongs to the female.

The "greater luminary" is the sun, which has twelve openings and twelve hours, as the sun rules over the day. The "lesser luminary" is the moon, which also has twelve openings, the moon rules over the night, which has twelve hours. For this reason, it is written: "On that day Hashem shall be one, and His Name One" (Zecharyah 14:9). "One" is mentioned twice: once for Yud Hei Vav Hei, who is Zeir Anpin, "the greater luminary," and once of His Name, which is the female, "the lesser luminary." The sun together with its twelve openings becomes the thirteen attributes of Mercy. The moon together with its twelve openings also adds up to thirteen. So the sun becomes one and the moon becomes one; then it says, "Hashem shall be one, and His Name One," because the numerical value of echad (one) adds up to thirteen. Thus, the sun and the moon become one and the day and night also become one. This is why it is written: "And there was evening and there was morning, one day" (Gen. 1:5). The secret of this union is only applicable on high.

The verse: "And the stars" means that after the female has attained order in her house and retired with her husband, the maidens are left in charge of the house. The maidens who serve the female are called the stars. And the secret of the phrase "And the stars" is that the feminine principle turns control of the house over to them to deal with all the requirements of the house. That is, to prepare her for mating with the sun and to bestow the abundance of the day. This is during the darkness before dawn, when the maidens, the stars, rule, which is an inferior rule. Then darkness is doubled in the world. This is the secret meaning of, "a portion to her maidens" (Mishlei 31:15). Afterward, that is, after the mating in the darkness of the morning (before dawn breaks), the household returns to the dominion of the male during the day and everything is set properly in place. This means that the female is included within the male, according to the secret of the mating and is under his control. She reveals the light of the morning to the world, as it should be.

"And Elohim made the two great lights" (Gen. 1:16). The sun is one and the moon is the other. Because of this, the lights that ascend are called the luminaries of the light whereas those that descend are called luminaries of the fire. These luminaries of the fire are the lower grades and rule over all the weekdays. Because of this, a blessing is recited over the candle when Shabbat ends because, at that point, the luminaries of the fire are given permission to rule again. The fingers of man represent the most hidden of all grades and secrets of the supernal world, and are divided into front and back. The back of the fingers represents the external part, an allusion to the fingernails. As such, [21a] man may look at his fingernails as Shabbat ends. As they shine by the candlelight and are bright from that fire, that rules over the days of the week.

[ TRANSLATION NOT COMPLETE]

Noah / נֹחַ[edit]

Zohar Volume 1, pages 59b through 76b

[59b] "These are the generations of Noah..." (Gen. 6:9). Rabbi Chiya opened the discussion with the verses: "Your people also shall be all righteous: they shall inherit the land forever; they shall be the branch of My planting, the work of My hands, that I may be glorified" (Isaiah 60:21). Happy are Yisrael, who occupy themselves with the Torah and are familiar with its paths, through which they will merit the World to Come.

Come and behold! All Yisrael have a portion in the World to Come. Why is this so? Because they observe the covenant on which the world is established. This is as it is written in the verse: "If My covenant be not day and night, it were as if I had not appointed the ordinance of heaven and earth" (Jeremiah 33:25). Therefore, Yisrael, who has accepted the covenant (of Bris Milah and protecting the bris) and observe it, have a portion in the World to Come.

Not only this. As a result, they are called 'righteous.' We deduce from this that whoever observes the covenant upon which the world is established is called 'righteous.' How do we know this? We know this from Joseph, who observed the everlasting covenant (in the incident with Potiphar's wife), and was therefore called 'righteous.' And this is why it is written: "Your people also shall be all righteous: they shall inherit the land forever." (Rabbi Chiya thus explained the verse, "Noah was a righteous man," as meaning that Noah observed the covenant).

Rabbi Elazar said that we have learned that whenever the term "These (Heb. אֵלֶּה)" appears, it always annuls something previously mentioned. Now, it is written in the portion of Beresheet, "And a river went out of Eden to water the garden; and from thence it was parted" (Gen. 2:10). This river (corresponding to Yesod) is drawn and comes out of Eden, (which is Chochmah), and enters the garden, (Malchut), to water it from the supernal waters and bring it pleasure, making it produce fruit and seed. This gives satisfaction to everyone. The garden is pleased which brings pleasure to the river. As it is written: "Because in it He rested" (Ibid. 3). And it is also written: "And He rested on the seventh day" (Ibid. 2) (He rested in the Garden that is Malchut). This is the secret of the matter, for it produces offspring, and no other Sefirah can produce any fruit.

Come and behold: so it was with Noah below. Noah was the sacred covenant below, as (Yesod) is above. And he is called "Man of the earth". So now we have learned a secret, that Noah needed the ark so he could unite with it and preserve the seed of the whole world. As it is written: "to keep seed alive" (Gen. 7:3).

What is the ark? It is the ark (Malchut) of the covenant. And Noah and the ark below were like (Yesod and Malchut) above. The covenant is mentioned in relation to Noah, as it is written: "And I will establish My covenant with you" (Gen. 6:18). As long as the covenant was not established in Noah, he did not enter the ark, as it is written: "And I will establish my covenant with you; and you shall come into the ark." Only then does the ark become the ark of the covenant, meaning that after the ark received and accepted Noah the righteous, who is the covenant, it became the ark of the covenant. So the ark and Noah are completely above. And because the covenant above brings forth offspring, so Noah begets generations. That is why "These are the generations of Noah." This is to teach us that like the covenant above, (which is Yesod of Atzilut) Noah bore everlasting generations, because he merited the holy covenant, and Yesod of Atzilut, which is called the covenant, rests upon him.

"Noah was a righteous man." This is assuredly so, for his righteousness corresponds to (Yesod) above. That is why it is written: "the righteous are the foundation (Heb. יְסוֹד) of the world" (Mishlei 10:25), and the earth is established upon him. He is the pillar that upholds the world. And what is (Yesod)? It is the Righteous. Thus, Noah is the righteous below, among the souls. And hence it is written: "Noah was a righteous man" to teach us that the world is maintained by him. And the secret of all this is revealed in the words, "And Noah walked with Elohim" (Gen. 6:9), which means to teach us that he never separated himself from Him. And he merited being called a righteous man on earth, as did the supernal Yesod, the foundation of the world. He is the covenant of peace and the peace of the world. Thus, he is called "man of the earth". And that is why the verse is written: "Noah found favor in the eyes of Hashem" (Ibid. 8).

What is the meaning of "his generations" in the verse "perfect in his generations?" They are his descendants, who issued from him, all of whom he perfected and by whom he was also perfected. Perfect, that he was born circumcised. As it is written: "Walk before Me and be perfect" (Gen. 17:1). "In his generations" includes only Noah's descendants and not the generations in the world in general because they descended from him. (In other words, even though the verse means that he was perfect in all the generations of the world, it says "his generations" to indicate that all the generations of the world are his, as they all descend from him.)

Come and behold: from the day the world was created, Noah was destined to be joined in union with and to enter the ark. And until they were joined as one, the world had not reached a fully stable condition. And as soon as this occurred, it is written: "From these was the whole earth overspread" (Gen. 9:19). What is meant by "overspread", נָפְצָה? These words are analogous to the verse: "and from thence the river parted" (Gen. 2:10) (meaning that spreading out is similar to the supernal ark, which is the secret of the Garden). For from that point in the text onward, we find the separation and diffusion of progeny into all quarters of the world. (After they were perfected in the ark, they were able to come forth and exist in the world of separation without being annihilated, as was the generation of the Great Flood). And all is one and one is like the other. Therefore "These are the generations of Noah." "These" specifically. Only Yesod (the foundation) of the world [60a] produced the fruit that still exists in the world. Rabbi Abba approached and kissed him (R' Elazar) saying, 'The lion in his might has pierced through the rock and broke it asunder,' (i.e. it was hard to understand this but now I am able to do so). All this is certainly true, Even the measurements of the ark correspond to their roots above.

Tosefta


Why is "Noah Noah" (Gen. 6:9) written twice? Each and every righteous person in the world has two spirits. One stays in this world, while the other is in the World to Come. And so we find that the Holy One, blessed be He, named all the righteous twice: "Moses, Moses" (Ex. 3:4), "Jacob, Jacob" (Gen. 46:2), "Abraham, Abraham" (Gen. 22:11), "Samuel, Samuel" (I Shmuel 3:10) with the exception of Isaac. He is not named twice because when he approached the altar to be sacrificed, the soul that was within him in this world left him. And because it is said of Abraham, "blessed are You who resurrect the dead", so only the soul of the World to Come was returned to him. And that is why you shall find that the name of the Holy One, blessed be He, was not unified (on any righteous person in his lifetime). It was unified only on Isaac, because he was already considered as dead. He was like those who pass away from this world. The verse therefore states: "Behold, He puts no trust in His holy ones" (Iyov 15:15) because He does not unify His name on the righteous during their lifetimes.

A different explanation given is that because he was righteous, He praised him twice (Noah Noah) perfect in his generations," but if he had lived in any other generation, such as that of Abraham or Moses or King David, then he would not have been considered righteous at all. Still another explanation is that if this is what he was able to perform in a generation in which all were wicked, how much more he could have done in a generation in which all were righteous.(End of the Tosefta).

Rabbi Elazar opened his discourse "Come, behold the works of Hashem, who has made desolations in the earth" (Tehilim 46:9). "Come, behold (Heb. חֲזוּ)": what is the meaning of "behold?" It is related to the verse, "a grievous vision (Heb. חָזוּת) has been declared to me (Yeshayah 21:2). Because by His deeds, the Holy One, blessed be He, reveals his prophecy to man. And when a prophecy is revealed by preceding grievous deeds, it is called 'a grievous vision.' "Who has made desolations (Heb. שַׁמּוֹת)" assuredly alludes to names (Heb. שֵׁמוֹת), for a name is the cause of everything that happens.

The verse states: "And he called his name Noah, saying: This..." (Gen. 5:29). Why does the verse read, "saying: This?" The word "saying" refers to the Female Principle (Malchut) while "This" refers to the Righteous. It is written here and elsewhere, "This one shall comfort us" (Ibid.), "This is Hashem; we have waited for Him" (Yeshayah 25:9). Blessed are the righteous who are marked with the imprints of the ring of the King, for they are marked with His name. And He has put "names on earth, so that everything can be called by its name correctly.

The verse states: "And he called his name (Heb. אֶת) Noah," and it is also written: "And he called his name Jacob" (Gen. 25:26). Why does it not say אֶת (regarding Jacob)? Because each one refers to a different level. As it is written in the verse: "I saw (אֶת) Hashem" (Yeshayah 6:1). It does not say 'I saw Hashem,' but "אֶת Hashem." (This indicates that the particle אֶת (the) has a specific meaning). Here too, it is written of Noah: "And he called his אֶת name Noah." As for, "And he called his name Jacob," in reality his level is that of the Holy One, blessed be He, and this is why the particle אֶת is not mentioned there. But with Noah, the particle אֶת is mentioned so as to connect him with the Shechinah.

"These are the generations of Noah" (Gen. 6:9). Rabbi Yehuda began his discourse on the verse: "A good man lends with a good grace; he conducts his affairs justly" (Tehilim 112:5). He said that "a good man" refers to the Holy One, blessed be He, who is called 'good', as it is written: "Hashem is good to all" (Tehilim 145:9). And it is also stated that "Hashem is a man of war" (Shemot 15:3). He is gracious and lends to "all" (which is Yesod), to the place that has nothing of its own. That place is nourished by it (Yesod). The words, "he conducts his affairs justly" refer to the fact that it is nourished only according to justice, as it is written: "Righteousness and justice are the foundation of Your throne" (Tehilim 89:15). S(o righteousness, which is the Female Principle, is nourished by justice.)

A different meaning is that "a good man" signifies the righteous. As it is written: "Say to the righteous, that it shall be well with him (or: that he is good), for they shall eat the fruit of their doings" (Yeshayah 3:10). Rabbi Yosi said that it alludes to Noah, as it is written: "Noah was a righteous man." Rabbi Yitzchak said that "a good man" alludes to the glory of the Shabbat, because the text begins with the words: "It is a good thing to give thanks to Hashem" (Tehilim 92:2).

Rabbi Chiya said: It all amounts to the same thing, and they all said one thing, that (the righteous) produces offspring in the world. Who are the offspring of the world? They are the souls of the righteous, as they are the fruit of the handiwork of the Holy One, blessed be He. Rabbi Shimon said: When the Holy One, blessed be He, puts on His diadems, He crowns himself from above and from below: above, by the region of absolute depth (corresponding to Abba and Imma) and below by the souls of the righteous. The result is that an increment of life from above and below embraces the place of sanctuary on all sides, causing the cistern to become full and the sea to be replenished, thereby providing life to all.

It is written: "Drink water out of your own cistern, and running water out of your own well" (Mishlei 5:15). Why does it say "your own cistern" first and then "your own well," since a cistern is an empty place without water, while a well is a fountain of running water? Both are the same. But when the poor are attached to that region is called 'a cistern', with nothing of its own except what is put inside it. This is the letter Dalet (or the Female Principle when she is not connected with Zeir Anpin). And later she becomes a well filled from all sides. And what do these signify? It is the letter Hei, when she is being filled from above [60b] and flowing from below from the souls of the righteous.

A different explanation for the verse, "Drink water out of your own cistern," is that it refers to King David, who wrote: "O that one would give me drink of the water of the cistern of Bethlehem" (II Shmuel 23:15). Here, the words, "running water," refer to Abraham, and "out of (lit. 'from the midst')" refer to Jacob, who is in the center. "Your own well" signifies Isaac, who is called "well of living water." Thus, in this verse, we find a reference to both the sacred Chariot of the Patriarchs, and of King David, who joined them.

The passion of the female toward the male is only aroused when he puts the spirit into her. And the flow of Mayin Nukvin (Female Waters) ascends to meet Mayin Duchrin (Male Waters) above. And the Congregation of Yisrael conceives a longing for the Holy One, blessed be He, only when the spirits of the righteous enter her. And then do waters flow from within her, toward the Male Waters. And so, all become one passion, one union, and one tie, and this appeases everyone. And it is then that the Holy One, blessed be He, walks among the righteous.

Come and behold: all the offspring (i.e. the souls) from the Garden of Eden do not issue from the Righteous until it enters the ark and becomes one with it. And all are hidden there after which they leave it. The same applies here. Noah the righteous man did not beget any offspring to populate the world until he entered the ark and all gathered and were concealed in it, after which they came out. They emerged from the ark to multiply in the world and to survive on earth. Had they not come from the ark, they would not have endured in the world. All this was according to the divine pattern. For, just as they left the ark above, so they left the ark below. Only now was the world able to exist permanently but not before. That is why the words, "And running waters out of your well" are related to, "And Noah begot three sons" (Gen. 6:10).

"And the earth was corrupt before Elohim" (Gen. 6:11). Rabbi Yehuda asked: If it says "And the earth was corrupt," why "before Elohim"? It is because they performed their sins openly, in front of everyone's eyes. And that is why the verse states, "before Elohim."

Rabbi Yosi said: I believe the opposite. "And the earth was corrupt before Elohim" means that they did not sin openly. They sinned only before Elohim and not before man. But eventually, they also sinned openly. As it is written: "And the earth was filled with violence" (Ibid.), which indicates that there was not a place on earth that did not witness their sins. Therefore, the verse declares that they sinned in two ways, that is, in hiding and in the open.

"These are the generations of Noah." Rabbi Abba said, From the day that Adam transgressed his Master's command, all succeeding generations were called "sons of Adam." But it was not said to praise him, as much as to say, 'These are the sons of the man who transgressed his Master's command.' But after Noah had appeared, all the descendants of mankind are named after him, "the generations of Noah." And this describes Noah's descendants in an honorable sense, because he secured for us permanent existence in the world, in contrast with "the generations of Adam," which describes us in a dishonorable sense, as he caused us to be driven out of this world by bringing death to all.

Rabbi Yosi said to him: If it is really so, we nevertheless see that in a later passage it is written: "Hashem came down to see the city and the tower, which the children of men had built" (Gen. 11:5). The verse clearly states "the children of Adam" and not "the children of Noah,". Rabbi Abba replied that because Adam sinned before his Master (the verse uses his name). And it would have been better for him had he not been created than to be mentioned in the Torah in such a manner.

Rather, come and behold: it is written: "A wise son makes a glad father" (Mishlei 10:1). When a son is good, then all the people will mention his father's name with praise. But if a son is bad, they will mention his father with reproach. Now because Adam sinned and transgressed his Master's command, when (the builders of the Tower of Babel) came and rebelled against their Master, what was written about them? "That the children of Adam had built"! These are the children of Adam, the first man who had rebelled against his Master and transgressed His command. That is why the verse states that "These are the generations of Noah." These and not the former ones. Those who came out of the ark and emerged from it (are 'the generations'). They are not the generations of Adam, who came out of the Garden of Eden and did not beget there, and are therefore not destined to exist.

Come and behold: if Adam had brought generations with him from the Garden of Eden, they would have lived for generations. And the light of the moon would have never been darkened. And all would have lived forever; and not even the angels above could have stood before them and borne their light, brilliance and wisdom. As it is written: "In the image of Elohim He created him" (Gen. 1:27). But because he was [61a] the cause of the sin, he had to leave the Garden of Eden and bear children outside. So his generations did not last (because they were unfit). the cause of the sin, he had to leave the Garden of Eden and bear children outside. So his generations did not last (because they were unfit).

Rabbi Chizkiyah then asked: How could they have begotten offspring there (in Gan Eden)? Had the Evil Inclination not been drawn down on him and he sinned, he would have dwelled alone in the world and would have not begotten any offspring! The same applies to Yisrael; had they not sinned by the golden calf and drawn upon themselves the Evil Inclination they also would have never borne any offspring, and no new generations would have come into the world. The main point is that the power of mating derives mainly from the Evil Inclination. So without the Evil Inclination there can be no offspring.

He said to him: Had Adam not sinned, he would not have borne offspring from the side of the Evil Inclination, but he would have borne them from the side of the Holy Spirit. But because he produced offspring only from the side of the Evil Inclination, all the offspring of mankind are born from the side of the Evil Inclination. They have no permanent existence therefore, because the Other Side has been mixed with them....



But if Adam had not sinned and had not been driven out of the Garden of Eden, he would have begotten offspring from the side of the Spirit of the Holy of Holies. And they would have been as the supreme angels, and lived generations upon generations as angels do above. But because he sinned and begot children outside the Garden of Eden and he did not merit to beget them in the Garden of Eden, therefore they did not survive even only to take root in this world until Noah came and went into the ark. And from the ark all descending generations of mankind emerged and spread to all four corners of the earth.


"And Elohim looked on the earth, and, behold, it was corrupt" (Gen. 6:12). Why was the earth corrupt? Yes, "because all flesh had corrupted its way" (Ibid.), as has already been explained. Rabbi Chiya opened the discussion, saying, "And Elohim saw from their deeds that they had repented from their evil way" (Yonah 3:10).

Come and behold: when the people are righteous and observe the commandments of the Torah, the earth is invigorated and full of joy. And why is that? Because the Shechinah dwells upon the earth and everyone both above and below is joyous. But when people corrupt their ways, do not observe the commandments of the Torah, and sin before its Master, then it is as if they drive the Shechinah out of the world. Then the earth is left corrupt, for the Shechinah is repelled by it and does not dwell on it. Then, the earth is corrupt. And why should the earth be corrupt? Because a different spirit rests upon it, causing the corruption.

(The rest of this paragraph is a latter addition.)

Can the same be applied to the land of Yisrael as well? But we have learned that no other spirit rests upon the Land of Yisrael, and there is no other appointed angel beside the Holy One, blessed be He Himself. If so, then why was the Land of Yisrael corrupted? Come and behold: it is true that no other appointee or messenger dwells in the land of Yisrael, beside the Holy One, blessed be He, Himself, but there is one time that the evil spirit may govern the land in order to destroy people. How do we know about that? From David, as it is written: "And he saw the angel of Hashem standing between the earth and the heavens, with a drawn sword in his hand stretched out over Jerusalem" (I Divrei Hayamim 21:16) and then the land was destroyed.

Rabbi Elazar said: Even in that time it was the Holy One, blessed be He. Because what is written here, "the angel of Hashem," is analogous to "The angel who redeemed me" (Gen. 48:16) and also to "the angel of Elohim" (Shemot 14:19). For better or for worst, the Holy One, blessed be He, shall always govern this land. For the best - because the land of Yisrael was never passed on to any other supernal governor. And all the other inhabitants of the world should be ashamed of their deeds. For the worst - (Hashem rules in order) to prevent the other ministers from delighting in ruling over it. And if you will ask is it not written: "For she has seen that the heathen nations invaded her sanctuary" (Eichah 1:10) and destroyed the Temple, if really no other ministers ruled, then the Temple would not have been destroyed!

Come and behold: it is stated, "For you have done" (Ibid. 21) and "Hashem has done that which he devised" (Eichah 2:17). So you can see that it was done by the Holy One, Himself, blessed be He, and not by ministers. And furthermore, it is also stated: "And Elohim saw their deeds, in that they turned from their evil way" (Yonah 3:10). Because then the earth calls out to the higher (Zeir Anpin) and rises to an upper grade; it beautified its face, as though it were a woman beautifying herself for a man. In the same manner, the earth pleased the "King," (i.e. Zeir Anpin), for it raised righteous children for Him.

While here, what is written about the generation of the Flood that did not repent? "And Elohim looked on the earth, and, behold it was corrupt," like a wife who committed adultery and hides her face from her husband. When the sins of people multiply and they sin openly, the earth becomes brazen like a woman who has no shame. As it is written: "And the earth was defiled under its inhabitants" (Yeshayah 24:5). And so it is said, that He "looked" it was corrupt" assuredly. You may ask, why? Because "all flesh had [61b] corrupted its way upon the earth."

Rabbi Elazar went over to Rabbi Yosi, the son of Rabbi Shimon ben Lakunya, his father-in-law. As soon as he saw him, he spread carpets over planks of wood and prepared a canopy under which they both sat. His father-in-law asked him if, by any chance, he had learned from his father the meaning of the verse: "Hashem has done that which He devised; He has performed His word that He commanded in the days of old" (Eichah 2:17).

He answered: Our friends have already explained it. "He has performed His word (also: 'He tore His hem')" means that He ripped His precious cloak; "that He commanded in the days of old" means that this cloak He commanded from the supernal days of old. On the day the Temple was destroyed, He ripped His cloak, for it is His glory and perfection. And He ripped it, means that the first nine Sefirot left her and only the tenth remained.

He asks, "Hashem has done that which He devised:" Is this the way of a king to devise evil against his children even before they have sinned? And he answers him: It is like a king who had a precious vessel and was constantly afraid that it might one day break. So he used to watch it by keeping it under his eye. One day his son came along and made the king angry. So the king took his precious vessel and smashed it. That is why it says "that which He devised."

Come and behold: from the day the Temple was built, the Holy One, blessed be He, used to watch it, because it was very precious to Him. And He used to worry that Yisrael might sin and cause the Temple to be destroyed. So every time He came to the Temple, He wore a precious mantle. But when Yisrael sinned and made the King furious, the Temple was destroyed and He tore His cloak apart. That is the meaning of "Hashem has done that which He has devised..."

"His hem (Heb. אִמְרָתוֹ)" as mentioned here, (corresponds to Malchut) which was sitting before on the top of the tree (Heb. אמיר). And the King crowned Himself with it and had before Him a beautiful tree; (the tree of the souls before they came into this world). But now, after the destruction of the Temple, He tore her (meaning that the upper nine Sefirot left Malchut and only the light of Nefesh remained there). So now there is sadness before Him all over in the external houses. As the verse reads: "Behold, the valiant ones shall cry without" (Yeshayah 33:7), that is, only external ones. "And on that day Hashem Tzva'ot called to weeping, to mourning, to baldness, and to girding with sackcloth" (Yeshayah 22:12). This means that only on that day, when the Temple was destroyed (did He call). But aside from that day, there is no greater joy for the Holy One blessed be He, than when the wicked of the world, who provoke Him, are removed from this world. As it is written: "And when the wicked perish there is joy" (Mishlei 11:10). So in each generation, when judgment is executed on wicked people, there is joy and songs before the Holy one, blessed be He.

And if you claim that we learned that there is no joy before the Holy One, blessed be He, when He passes His judgment on the sinners, come and behold: when judgment is delivered on the wicked, there is joy and exultation before Him, because they are removed from this world. But, when is there joy? When the time that He has waited for them (to repent) is over, and they have not returned to Him from sinning. But if judgment is delivered on them before their time has come, and the measure of their sins has not yet been completed, it is, as it is written: "the iniquity of the Emorite is not yet full" (Gen. 15:16) (i.e. they can still repent); thus, there is no joy. And there is grief before Him because of their destruction.

But, you might ask: If their time has not come yet, then why should judgment be delivered on them? Because it is they who inflict the punishment on themselves, as the Holy One, blessed be He, would never punish them before their time has come. Because they associate with Yisrael in an effort to harm them, He passes His Judgment on them and entirely removes them from the world before their time is up. And now there is grief before Him (because He destroyed them before their time). This is also the reason why He drowned the Egyptians in the sea and destroyed the enemies of Yisrael in the days of Yehoshafat. They were all destroyed before their time because they harmed Yisrael.

So only when the time that He waits for them is completed, and they do not mend their ways, is their destruction a cause for joy and exaltation before Him. The only exception was the time when the Temple was destroyed, because even though their time for angering Him had expired, there was no joy before Him. From that time onward, there has been happiness neither above nor below.

"For in another seven days, I will cause it to rain upon the earth forty days and forty nights" (Gen. 7:4). Rabbi Yehuda said: What is the meaning of these forty days and forty nights? These forty days are to strike the wicked of the world, as is written: "forty strikes he may give him, and not exceed" (Devarim 25:3), corresponding to the four winds of the world. As each one has ten (there are thus 40). For man was created from the four winds of the world. So, the verse continues: "And every living substance that I have made will I destroy from the face of the earth." Forty strikes are needed to destroy the world.

Rabbi Yitzchak was visiting Rabbi Shimon, and he asked him about the verse that states: "And the earth was corrupt [62a] before the Elohim" (Gen. 6:11). Now, if it was man who sinned and was corrupt, what was the earth's sin? Rabbi Shimon answered, as it is written: "for all flesh had corrupted his way upon the earth" (Ibid.) and, also, "And the land was defiled, therefore I do punish its iniquity upon it" (Vayikra 18:25). So it is mankind that sins. But if you ask what is the sin of the earth, you should know that mankind constitutes the essence of the earth. If mankind corrupts it, it becomes corrupted. This is proven by the verse: "And Elohim looked on the earth, and, beheld it was corrupt, for all flesh had corrupted its way upon the earth."

Come and behold: all of man's sins and corruption can be atoned for by repentance. But by the sin of spilling his seed on the earth, man corrupts himself and the earth as well. And of such a person, it is written: "The stain of your iniquity is before Me," (Yirmeyah 2:22) and "For You are not an El that has pleasure in wickedness, nor shall evil sojourn with You" (Tehilim 5:5). (For the sin of spilling seed, He does not accept his repentance) except after great penitence. It is also written that "Er, Judah's firstborn, was wicked in the sight of Hashem; and Hashem slew him" (Gen. 38:7), as was already explained elsewhere.

He asked him: Why did the Holy One, blessed be He, bring His Judgment on the world, punishing them with water and not with fire or something else? Rabbi Shimon replied that there is a secret behind this. As they corrupted their ways, the upper waters and the lower waters were unable to join as the male and the female ought. Anyone who corrupts his ways also corrupts the male and female waters. So, they were punished by water, just as they had sinned. These waters were boiling and they skinned them alive, just like they corrupted their ways in boiling water, one Judgment for another. "All the fountains of the great deep broke open" (Gen. 7:11), refers to the lower waters, while "and the windows of heaven were opened" refers to the upper waters. (They were punished by) both upper and lower waters.

Rabbi Chiya and Rabbi Yehuda were walking on their way. Reaching some great mountains, they found human bones that belonged to the generation of the Flood. They walked alongside one of these bones, which measured three hundred steps. Astonished, they said to each other: This clarifies what our friends have said, that they did not fear the Judgment of the Holy One, blessed be He, as is written: "They said to El, depart from us, for we desire not the knowledge of Your ways" (Iyov 21:14). So what did they do? They clogged the fountains of the deep with their feet. But the waters were too hot, and when they could no longer bear it, they slipped, fell on the ground, and eventually died.

"And Noah begot three sons" (Gen. 6:10): Rabbi Chiya said to Rabbi Yehuda: Come and let me tell you what I have heard about this. It resembles a situation in which a man mates with his wife once, and then two or three children are born. Each one is different from the other in his ways and character: one is virtuous, one is wicked, and one is average. So there are three strands of the spirit that stretch out, fly, and are included within three worlds (Briyah, Yetzirah and Asiyah).

Come and behold: the Neshamah emerges (from male and female of Atzilut), and it passes through mountains of separation (into Briyah, Yetzirah and Asiyah). There, the Ruach connects to the Neshamah. The Neshamah descends further down toward and the Nefesh, joins the Ruach, and they all connect with each other. Rabbi Yehuda said: The Nefesh and the Ruach are included one with the other (when someone is born). The Neshamah resides in a man's ways. The Neshamah resides in a secret compartment, whose location is unknown.

A person who comes to purify himself is aided with a holy Neshamah. He is then purified, sanctified, and called holy. But if he does not merit and does not come to purify himself, then only two grades - Nefesh and Ruach - are open to him; for him, there is no holy Neshamah. Not only that, but if a person comes to defile himself, then he is defiled and loses heavenly support. Therefore, each person is judged according to his ways. That is why if a person repents and comes to purify himself, he will get the support again.

Tosefta

We are the high ties of the greatest of fortresses. (Ties corresponds to Nefesh, Ruach and Neshamah). Therefore, the eyes and the ears are open (Chochmah and Binah). A voice from the voices descends from above and smashes mountains and rocks. Those who see, yet do not see, and who have become hard of hearing and have difficulty seeing; who do not see, do not hear, and do not know how to understand the one located and included between the two, they are pushed out.

They cling to these two (Chochmah and Binah). While the one, the best of craftsmen, (on who all Mochin depend) does not reside among them, they do not enter among the holy books. Because all those who do not have [62b]

THIS PARSHA IS NOT COMPLETE YET

Lech Lecha / לֶךָ לְךָ[edit]

Corresponding to Zohar I pages 76b to 96b

"Get you, out of your country..." (Gen. 12:1). Rabbi Abba opened the discussion with this verse and to explain the reason why Abraham merited that the Holy One, blessed be He, would say this to him rather than to any other person of his time. "Hearken to me, you stout-hearted, that are far from righteousness" (Yeshayah 46:12), (i.e.) how hard are the hearts of the wicked, who see the paths and the ways of Torah, yet do not observe them. And the hearts of the wicked are stout, as they do not repent and turn back to their Master. (This is why) they are called stout-hearted. The verse, "that are far from righteousness," (means) they keep themselves far from Torah; this is why they remain "far from righteousness.".

Rabbi Chizkiyah commented "Since they draw themselves away from the Holy One, blessed be He, therefore they remain far away from Him. And because of this they are called stout-hearted. They "are far from righteousness." (because) they do not wish to come closer to the Holy One, blessed be He. And because of this, they "are far from righteousness." Because they are far from righteousness, they are also far from peace; they can have no peace. As it is written, "There is no peace, says Hashem, to the wicked" (Yeshayah 48:22). And why is that so? Because they "are far from righteousness," they have no peace!

Come and behold, Abraham indeed succeeded in his desire to get closer to the Holy One, blessed be He. As it is written, "You love righteousness and hate wickedness" (Tehilim 45:8). Because he loved righteousness and hated wickedness, he therefore came closer to righteousness. Therefore, it is written, "Abraham my beloved" (Yeshayah 41:8). Why "my beloved?" Because it has been said about him, "You love righteousness." This is the love toward the Holy One, blessed be He, whom Abraham loved [77a] more than anyone else of his generation, who were "stout-hearted" and "far from righteousness," as has already been explained.

Sitrei Torah

We have learned that because of the strong desire of the King (Binah) a great and strong tree (Zeir Anpin) was planted. Among the supernal plants (the Sefirot of Binah) this tree is planted. It turns between twelve borders, and its leg expands to the four winds of the world. Its journeys were measured at five hundred Persian miles. The desires of these Persian miles come on Him. So when He awakens, all awaken with Him, and no one is capable of diverting His will. After that, all are united and join His will. He arises from above and descends throughout His journeys to the sea. He fills the sea, as He is the source of all the lights of that spring. Underneath Him, all the waters of the Beginning of the Creation are divided. The watering of the Garden depends on Him.

All souls of the world come forth from Him. These souls enter the Garden and descend into this world. When a soul leaves it receives seven blessings so that it may be a father to the body being rightly elevated. Thus, it is written, "Now Hashem said to Abram" (Gen. 12:1). This is the divine supernal soul. It is considered the father of the body and elevates to the level of the divine image, by the Chassidim that are drawn as it elevates and reaches Abba and Imma.

When the soul is ready to descend to this world, the Holy One, blessed be He, makes it swear to perform the precepts of Torah and do His bidding. And He gives each soul one hundred keys of blessings for each and every day, so that it may complete the supernal grades, which reach the numerical value of Lech Lecha (lit. 'Get you out') (equaling 100). All of them are given to it so that it may cultivate the Garden, to till it and to keep it. "Your country" is the Garden of Eden. The verse, "and from your kindred" (means) from the body, that is called 'the Tree of Life'. And it includes the twelve supernal tribes, which are the secret of the twelve borders. The verse "and from your father's house" refers to the Shechinah. "Your father" means the Holy One, blessed be He. As it is written, "He who steals from his father or his mother, and says it is no transgression..." (Mishlei 28:24). "His father" is none other than the Holy One, blessed be He, and "his mother" is none other than the Congregation of Yisrael. The words, "to the land that I will show you," refer to this world, to which the soul is sent.(End of Sitrei Torah).

Rabbi Yosi opened the discussion by saying, "How lovely are Your dwelling places, Hashem Tzva'ot" (Tehilim 84:2). How important it is for people to observe the works of the Holy One, blessed be He! All people do not observe and are not aware of what keeps the world in existence. Nor are they aware of what keeps them in existence! When the Holy One, blessed be He, created the world, He made the heaven from fire and water. At first, these elements mingled together without freezing. Only later, by means of the Supernal Spirit, did they freeze and solidify. Then (the Heavens), planted the world, (called "Nukvah"), to be established upon supports (these are the Three Columns of Nukvah). And the supports stand only by the help of the Spirit. When that Spirit is gone, the supports are loosened and they quake, and the world is shaken. This is the meaning of, "Who shakes the earth out of its place, and its pillars tremble" (Job 9:6). And everything is established upon Torah, for when Yisrael are busy with Torah, they elevate (Mayin Nukvin (lit. 'Female Waters') to Zeir anpin and Nukva), and draw the Central Column, (which is Torah). Then the world is established, and the pillars and the supports are perfectly situated in their places.

Come and behold, When midnight is aroused, and the Holy One, blessed be He, enters the Garden of Eden to enjoy the company of the righteous, all the trees in the Garden of Eden sing and praise Him, as it is written, "Then shall the trees of the forest sing for joy at the presence of Hashem" (I Chronicles 16:33).

A crier comes forth and forcefully calls, "You, mighty, holy men! To him among you who has allowed the spirit to enter, and his ears to hear, who has eyes open to see and who has a heart that is open to know! When the spirit, which is the source of all spirits, arouses the sweetness of the soul, a voice comes from there, which is the source of all voices, and disperses all forces to the four corners of the world. One goes up to one side, one descends to the other side. Another enters in between the two. Two are crowned by (becoming) three. And three enter the one. One produced colors. Six of them descended to one side and another six descended to the other side. All six become twelve. The twelve become twenty-two. The six are included within the ten. The ten exist as one.

Woe to those who slumber as sleep covers their eyes sockets. They do not know and are unable to observe how and in what condition they shall awaken on the Day of Judgment [77b] when they shall be visited upon to settle the account when the body is defiled and the soul floats on the afternoon air, going up and down, but the gates do not open for it. They are thrown around like the pebbles in the hollow of a sling. Woe to them. Who shall ask about them when they shall not arise to this place of pleasure? In the place where the righteous have pleasure, they shall be missing. They shall be passed on to the angel Dumah, go down and not rise. They are described by the words, "As the cloud is consumed and vanishes away, so he who goes down to Sheol shall come up no more" (Iyov 7:9).

when they shall be visited upon to settle the account when the body is defiled and the soul floats on the afternoon air, going up and down, but the gates do not open for it. They are thrown around like the pebbles in the hollow of a sling. Woe to them. Who shall ask about them when they shall not arise to this place of pleasure? In the place where the righteous have pleasure, they shall be missing. They shall be passed on to (the angel) Dumah, go down (to Gehenom) and not rise. They are described by the words, "As the cloud is consumed and vanishes away, so he who goes down to Sheol shall come up no more" (Iyov 7:9).

At that hour (midnight) a flame is awakened from the North and strikes the four corners of the world. It descends and touches the rooster between its wings. As the flame awakens it, it crows. But the only ones who awaken to the calling of the rooster are the truly righteous, who delve to the study of Torah. Then the Holy One, blessed be He, together with all the righteous in the Garden of Eden, listen attentively to their voice. As it is written, "You who dwell in the gardens, the companions hearken to your voice, cause me to hear it" (Shir Hashirim 8:13).

What is written before the verse, "Hashem said to Abram..."? The words, "And Haran died before his father Terah" (Gen. 11:28). What does he want to inform us? (During his father's lifetime) this cannot be, for had he no other person until that day died during his father's lifetime beside Haran? When Abraham was thrown to the fire, Charan was killed. Because of this, they left Ur of the Chaldeans...

Come and behold, It is written, "And Terach took Abram, his son, and Lot, the son of Haran...and they left with them from Ur of the Chaldeans" (Gen. 11:31). "And they left with them," when it should have been written, "with him," (i.e. Terach)? If, as it is written, "And Terach took..." why "with them"? Terach and Lot left with Abraham and Sarah, who really wanted to depart from among the wicked. Only after Terach saw that Abraham his son was saved from the fire did he return to follow Abraham's wishes. As a result, Terach and Lot "left with them."

And when they left "to go to the land of Canaan" it was because they desired to go there. From this we learn that whoever asks to be purified will be helped. Come and behold that this is so! Because the words, "to go to the land of Canaan," are immediately followed by the words, "Now Hashem said to Abram, 'Get you out'." So before his desire was awakened, it was not yet written, "Get you out." Therefore, he who asks and wakes on his own from below is helped from above, because without awakening from below there is no awakening from above.

Come and see, Nothing is aroused above before it is first aroused below, so that what is aroused above rests upon it. The secret is that the black flame does not hold on to the white flame before it is aroused. As soon as it is aroused first, the white flame immediately rests upon it. This is so because the lower one has to be aroused first.

Therefore it is written, "Do not keep silent, Elohim; do not hold your peace, and be still, El" (Tehilim 83:2), so that the white flame will never cease to exist in the world. "You who make mention of Hashem, take no rest" (Isaiah 62:6) so that there will always be awakening from below on which that from above should come and rest upon it. Therefore, when a person first arouses the awakening from below, the awakening from above is aroused. Come and behold, It is written, "and they went out with them from Ur of the Chaldeans." Immediately, "Hashem said to Abram..." (meaning, he received help from above).

"Now Hashem said to Abram, Get you out (lit. 'go for you')..." According to Rabbi Elazar, the phrase "Go for you," means "for yourself." Go out for yourself, to fulfill yourself and complete your grade. "Get you out," for you must not stay here among the wicked. The secret (behind the words) "Get you out" [78a] is that the Holy One, blessed be He, inspired Abraham with the spirit of wisdom. He knew how to judge the spirits (also winds) of the civilized world. He observed them, weighed them in the scales, and knew how to connect them to the powers entrusted to govern the inhabited places on earth.

is that the Holy One, blessed be He, inspired Abraham with the spirit of wisdom. He knew how to judge the spirits (also winds) of the civilized world. He observed them, weighed them in the scales, and knew how to connect them to the powers entrusted to govern the inhabited places on earth.

When he reached the middle point of civilization, he weighed it in the scales, but could not reach any conclusion. He tried to see and to know what sort of power governed that place, but could not conceive it. He weighed a few more times before realizing that the whole world sprouts from that place and is established upon it. He observed carefully, and measured, so as to understand the subject, and concluded that the supernal force above it could not be measured, that it is deep and hidden, and that it does not resemble the different parts of the inhabited land.

He watched attentively, weighed, and realized that the middle point of the inhabited world is the point from which the whole world moves out to all its corners. Similarly, he knew the power that now prevails over the point. All other powers that govern the corners of the world originate from that point and all (the Sefirot) hold to it. Then "they went out with them from Ur of the Chaldeans, to go to the land of Canaan." (Gen. 11:31).

He continued to observe, weigh, and examine in an effort to determine the nature of that place, but he was unable to understand it so as to cleave to it. He saw the strength of that place and realized that he could not understand it, and therefore immediately, "they came to Charan, and dwelt there" (Gen. 11:31).

Why did Abraham (delay in Charan and not leave there immediately, "to go to the land of Canaan," as it is written, "And they dwelt there"?) Abraham knew and checked all the governors and rulers of the world that had dominion over the entire civilized world. And he was examining all those who govern and rule over the directions of the world's inhabited land, all those that have dominion over the stars and the constellations. He learned how they exercise their power over one another. In considering all the inhabited places in the world, he did well. But when he reached that place (the point of Malchut) he saw the force of the depths. And he could not withstand it. As soon as the Holy One, blessed be He, noticed his awakening and his passion, He immediately revealed Himself to Abraham and said, "Get you out" in order to learn about and perfect yourself.

The words "Your country" referred to that side of the inhabited world to which he was attached. "and from your kindred", from that Wisdom with which you study your horoscope, determined by watching and examining the moment, hour, and time of your birth, and the planet and the sign under which you were born. All of this is related to the illumination of the left side and is not included within the right. The verse, "And from your father's house," (means) and never look upon your father's house again (and never seek to discover) if the root of your success in the world is from your father's house. Therefore, "Get you out" of this wisdom and this observance.

Come and behold, It is indeed so! Because they had already left Ur of the Chaldeans and were in Charan, why should He say to him, "Get you out of your country, and from your kindred?" For he has already left Ur of the Chaldeans, which is his country and family. Therefore, the main point has to be, as previously stated. "To the land that I will show you" - "I will show you" what you were not able to conceive and were not able to know about the power of that land, which is deep and hidden.

"And I will make of you a great nation..." (Gen. 12:2). "And I will make of you" is related to the verse, "Get you out." "And I will bless you" is related to the verse, "from your country." "And make your name great" is related to the verse, "and from your kindred." "And you shall be a blessing" is related to the verse, "and from your father's house."

Sitrei Torah

(There are seven blessings in this passage) One, "And I will make of you a great nation"; two, "and I will bless you"; three, "and make your name great"; four, "and you shall be a blessing"; five, "And I will bless them that bless you"; six, "and curse him that curses you"; and seven, "and in you shall all families of the earth be blessed." And after he received these seven blessings, it is written, "So Abram departed, as Hashem had spoken to him." (Meaning he went) down to the world, as he was commanded to do. Immediately, "Lot went with him." This is the serpent that was cursed and caused the world to be cursed. The scriptures call the serpent by the name Lot, because Lot means 'a curse' in Aramaic. The serpent was cursed and brought curses on the world. So he accompanies the soul during its stay in this world. And the serpent stands at the opening, in order to mislead the body. And this is why the soul will not start fulfilling the mission it was commanded to perform until it has completed thirteen years in this world. Because from the twelfth year onward, the soul is aroused to fulfill its task. Therefore, it is written, "and Abram was seventy five years old" (Gen. 12:4) and seven and five equals twelve.

And then the soul can be seen in this world, because it comes from the "five years," which are the five hundred parasangs of the Tree of Life. "And seventy years" refers to the same tree, which is the seventh among the grades, namely, the Nukva, which is the seventh Sefirah among the seven Sefirot: Chesed, Gevurah, Tiferet, Netzach, Hod, Yesod and Malchut. And then the soul is acknowledged as the offspring of Zeir Anpin and the Nukva. Then the soul departs from the filth of the serpent and enters to the holy work. And so it is written, "when he departed out of Charan" from the wrath and aggression of the Satan, who until now had ruled over the body by deceiving it.

The Orlah (lit. 'foreskin') rules over the tree for three years. In the human being, the first thirteen years are called the "Orlah years." After the body has lived these years, the soul is aroused to fulfill its holy task. It then receives full control over the body and inspires the goodwill necessary to overcome the serpent. And then the serpent will not be able to control the body as it did before. As it is written, "And Abram took Sarai his wife..." (Gen. 12:5). This refers to the body, which in comparison to the soul is like the female toward the male. "And Lot his brother's son" refers to the serpent that does not completely leave the body because the clinging of the body is not entirely gone from it. Nevertheless, the arousal of the soul strikes it always, warns and reproves it, and forces it to obey so that it cannot take control any more.

"And all their substance that they had gathered..." refers to the good deeds that a person performs in this world because of the awakening of the soul. "And the souls (Nefesh) that they had made in Charan...", that Nefesh, which at first was attached to the foreskin of the body and clung to it and which later was amended (by the Neshamah). So after thirteen years, when the Neshamah is aroused to amend the body, both amend that Nefesh that participated in the harsh (judgments) of the serpent and its evil desires. As it is written, "and the Nefesh that they had made in Charan..." the reason this is written in the plural is because it refers to the Neshamah and the body, which together amend the Nefesh, the Neshamah by awakening the body, and the body by its good deeds. With all of this, the Neshamah continues to attack the serpent in order to break it, so that it will surrender and be enslaved under the influence of repentance. Therefore, it is written, "And Abram passed through the land to the place of Shechem" (Gen. 12:6), because Shechem is the dwelling place of the Shechinah. And that is because the power of the serpent has already been completely broken by the Neshamah.

(End of Sitrei Torah)

Rabbi Shimon says that the verse, "And I will make of you a great nation," is (the illumination of the right side; that "and I will bless you" is the left side; that "and I will make your name great" is the Central Column; and that "and you shall be a blessing" is from the side of the land of Yisrael. So here is a throne that has four legs, all of which were included in Abraham. From here onward, the blessings are for the others who are replenished from here, as it is written, "And I will bless them that bless you [78b] and curse them that curse you, and in you shall all families of the earth be blessed."

Rabbi Elazar was sitting before his father, Rabbi Shimon, together with Rabbi Yehuda, Rabbi Yitzchak, and Rabbi Chizkiyah. Rabbi Elazar asked Rabbi Shimon why is it written, "Get you out of your country, and from your kindred" in the singular? Since they all left (Ur Casdim) to go to (Canaan), why was Abraham not told that they all should go? Terach was an idol worshipper, but since his desire to leave with Abraham was truly aroused, and, as we have seen, the Holy One, blessed be He, desires that the wicked repent, as Terach started to leave with Abraham, why does it not say, "Go for yourself" in plural? Why does it say "Go for yourself" to Abraham alone?

Rabbi Shimon replied that Terach did not leave Ur of the Chaldeans because he wanted to repent and mend his ways, but only to save himself from all the people of his land, who wanted to kill him. Particularly after they saw that Abraham was saved (from the furnace of fire) they said to Terach, 'You were the one who misled us with these idols. Because he feared them, Terach left. When he reached Charan, he stayed, as it is written, "So Abram departed, as Hashem had spoken to him, and Lot went with him" (Gen. 12:4). Terach is not mentioned in the verse!

He opened the discussion by saying, "And from the wicked their light is withheld, and the high arm shall be broken" (Iyov 38:16). This passage has already been explained. Nevertheless, "And from the wicked their light is withheld" applies to Nimrod and the people of his generation, whom Abraham left, since he was "their light"; "the high arm shall be broken" alludes to Nimrod.

Another explanation of the verse, "And from the wicked their light is withheld," is that it applies to Terach and his household, and "their light" is Abraham. The verse does not say 'the light,' but "their light," that was among them. "And the high arm shall be broken" applies to Nimrod, who misled the whole world into following him. And this is why it is written, "Get you out," so that the light may shine for you and for all who will descend from now and henceforth.

Furthermore, (Rashbi) then discussed the verse, "And now men see not the bright light which is in the clouds; but the wind passes, and cleanses them" (Iyov 37:21). "And now men see not the bright light": when? At the time when the Holy One, blessed be He, said to Abraham, "Get you out of your country, and from your kindred, and from your father's house." "The bright light which is in the clouds" (this is Abraham) because the Holy One, blessed be He, wished to attach Abraham to the supernal Light and have him shine there. "And the wind passes, and cleanses them" refers to Terach and all the people of his town, all of whom afterwards repented. As it is written, "and the souls that they had made in Charan" (Gen. 12:5). The verse, "And you shall come to your fathers in peace" (Gen, 15:15) - Terach had repented, for the Holy One, blessed be He, would not have said this to Abraham otherwise.

Rabbi Elazar said, Come and behold, It is not written, "So Abram left, as Hashem had spoken to him," but rather that Abram "departed (lit. 'went') (Heb. וַיֵּלֶךָ)," as it is written, "Get you out" (Heb. לֶךְ לְךָ). This is so written because they had already left, as it is written, "and they went out with them from Ur of the Chaldeans to go to the land of Canaan." Therefore, it is written, "departed" rather than "left."

"As Hashem had spoken to him..." - according to all the promises He gave him. The words, "and Lot went with him," mean that Lot accompanied Abraham to learn from his behavior. Even so, Lot did not learn much. Rabbi Elazar said, Happy are the righteous who study the ways of the Holy One, blessed be He, in order to follow them and be in awe of Him, in awe of that day of judgment when man will have to account for his deeds before the Holy one, blessed be He.

He opened the discussion, saying, "He seals up the hand of every man; that all men whom He has made may know His work." (Iyov 37:7). This passage has already been explained. But [79a] come and behold, When the days of man are over and he is about to leave this world, on that day when the body is broken and the soul has to leave it, then that person is permitted to see what he has not been able to see when the body was in control, and he understands things completely.

come and behold, When the days of man are over and he is about to leave this world, on that day when the body is broken and the soul has to leave it, then that person is permitted to see what he has not been able to see when the body was in control, and he understands things completely.

Three messengers stand over him and take an account of his days and his sins and all that he has done in this world. And he openly admits everything, and after that he signs it with his hand. As it is written, "He seals up the hand of every man...". And all (both deeds and sins) are signed with his hand, so a man can be judged for all of his actions in this world, the early and the recent, the old and the new - not even one of them is forgotten. Therefore, it is written, "that all men whom He has made may know His work." Just as all of the actions he committed in this world were together in body and in spirit, so he must account for them together in body and spirit, before he leaves this world.

Come and behold, just as the sinners are stiff-necked in this world, so are they stiff-necked when they are about to leave this world. Therefore, blessed is that person who studies the ways of the Holy One, blessed be He, while in this world, so that he may follow them. But the wicked person, even though he sees these righteous people, stiffens his neck and refuses to learn from them. This is why the righteous man must hold on to him and not let go, even though the wicked person "stiffens his neck." The righteous man should hold him tight by the hand and not leave him alone, because if he lets him go, the wicked person will go and destroy the world.

Come and behold, We see examples in the case of Elisha who thrust away Gehazi, and in the case of Abraham and Lot. As long as Lot was with Abraham, Lot did not associate with the wicked. But as soon as he left him, it is written, "Then Lot chose him all the plain of Jordan...and pitched his tent toward Sodom" (Gen. 13:11-12), followed by "And the men of Sodom were wicked and sinners before Hashem exceedingly" (Ibid. 13).

Rabbi Abba said 'You noted that it is written, "Abram went," rather than 'Abram left,'. This is well; but at the end of the verse, it is written, "when he departed out of Charan..."' Rabbi Elazar responded that it is written "out of Charan", but the main departure was that from the land of his birthplace, which had already occurred. This is not the same as the departure from Charan that is mentioned together with "Get you out." So we may say here "when he left Charan."

"And Avram took Sarai his wife" (Gen. 12:5). Here, "took" means that Abraham persuaded her to come with soft words, because a man cannot take his wife to another country without her agreement. Similarly, it is written, "Take Aaron" (Num. 20:25) and "Take the Levites" (Num. 3:45). This is why "And Abram took"; he persuaded her with words, telling her how evil were the ways of their generation. Therefore it is written, "And Abram took Sarai his wife."

"And Lot his brother's son," What did Abraham see that made him take Lot with him? He foresaw through the Holy Spirit that David shall issue from him in the future. The words, "and the souls that they had made in Charan," refer to the male and female converts whose souls they amended. Abraham converted the men, while Sarah converted the women. Therefore, the verse is written as if they had "made" them.

Rabbi Abba said, If so, then there were a lot of people (i.e. alot of converts). Can we say that they all left with him? Rabbi Elazar responded, Indeed so! And because of this, all the people who went with him are called [79b] "the people of the Elohim of Abraham" (Tehilim 47:10). And he traveled through the country with no fear, as it is written, "And Abram passed through the land."

"the people of the Elohim of Abraham" (Tehilim 47:10). And he traveled through the country with no fear, as it is written, "And Abram passed through the land."

Rabbi Abba said to him, If it had been written, 'and souls that they had made in Charan,' then he would have agreed. But, he said, it is written, "and the (Heb. אֶת) souls," in which the particle אֶת serves as an addition to the merits of those souls that went along with him. Because he who leads his friend to meritorious conduct benefits always from that conduct and the benefit never leaves him. How do we know this? Because it is written, "And the souls that they had made in Charan." The merit of these souls accompanied Abraham.

Rabbi Shimon asked, when the Holy One, blessed be He, first revealed himself to Abraham, why did He start with 'Get you out'? Until that time, the Holy One, blessed be He, had not spoken with Abraham. Therefore, why did He start with "Go for yourself"? Because the Hebrew words for "Go for yourself," which are לֶךְ לְךָ, have a numerical value of 100. By using these words, the Holy One, blessed by He, gave Abraham a hint that he would have a son in his hundredth year.

But come and behold, All that the Holy One, blessed be He, performs on earth is done according to Wisdom. Because Abraham was not yet attached to the Holy One, blessed be He, properly, He said to him "Go for yourself." This is a hint for that place and position that Abraham was expected to reach and that would bring him closer to the Holy One, blessed be He. This is why it is written, "Go for yourself." And that is the first grade that Abraham was to attain in coming to the Holy One, blessed be He.

But Abraham could not reach that grade and hold on to it until he entered the land of Yisrael, because that is where this level is achieved. It was similar with David, about whom it is written, "David inquired of Hashem, saying, Shall I go up to any of the cities of Yehuda? And Hashem said to him, 'Go up.' And David said, Where shall I go up? And Hashem said, 'to Hevron'" (II Shmuel 2:1). Since Saul had died, and David was fit to receive the kingship, why then did he not receive the kingship over Yisrael immediately?

Everything, however, occurs by the secret of Wisdom. David was not ready to receive the kingship until he had connected himself to the Patriarchs buried in Hebron, through whom he was to receive the kingship. Therefore, he remained in Hevron for seven years, until he was fit to receive the kingship properly. Thus, everything occurred by the secret of Wisdom so that his kingship would be properly established! The same applies to Abraham; he did not achieve complete fulfillment with the Holy One, blessed be He, until he entered the land of Yisrael.

See, it is written, "And Abram passed through the land." Why "passed through (Heb. וַיַּעֲבֹר)" instead of 'went'! This is an allusion to the Holy Name by which the world is sealed that contains 72 engraved letters, all of which are within that name. (וַיַּעֲבֹר (Vav-Yud-Ayin-Bet-Resh) consists of two parts Resh-Yud-Vav (numerically=216) and Ayin-Bet (=72) that refer to the 216 letters and 72 names). Thus, it is written in one place, "And...passed through," while it is written in another, "And Hashem passed by (Heb. וַיַּעֲבֹר) before him and proclaimed..." (Shemot 34:6) [just as there it is speaking of the Holy Name of Ayin-Bet (72), so too vaya'avor here is a reference to the Holy Name of Ayin-Bet (72)].

In the book of Rabbi Yesa Saba (the elder), it states, It is written, "And Abram passed through the land," while elsewhere it is written, "I will make all My goodness pass before you" (Shemot 33:19). It gives a hint about the holiness of the land, which emanates from a supernal place in all its proper goodness. "To the place of Shchem to the plain of Moreh" - from one side to the other side, as was befitting. "And the Canaanite were then in the land,". It has been explained that at that time the curse of the evil serpent dominated the land, and the world was cursed. As it is written, "Cursed be Canaan; a servant of servants shall he be to his brethren" (Gen. 9:25), and also "you are cursed above all cattle" (Gen. 3:14). When Abraham came close to the Holy One, blessed be He, it is written, "And Hashem appeared to Abram" (Gen. 12:7), now was revealed to him that which he did not know, because of the profound force that governed the land. Thus appeared to him what [80a] had been concealed from him, and he was able to understand it.

what had been concealed from him, and he was able to understand it....

Then "he built an altar to Hashem, who had appeared to him." Why were the words "who had appeared to him" added? Because here the grade, which was in dominion over the land, appeared to him. He entered it, rose through it, and was established in it.

"And he moved from there to the mountain" (Gen. 12:8), where he recognized the mountain of Hashem and all the grades planted on that place. "And pitched his tent" (Heb. אָהֳלה) which alludes to the Nukva, as 'אָהֳלה' is not spelled with a Vav but with a Hei. Thus he spread a curtain and received the kingdom of heaven, along with all the grades that come from it. He then knew that the Holy One, blessed be He, rules over all, and he built an altar. There were actually two altars, because here the Holy One, blessed be He, appeared to him as the ruler over all. He now acquired knowledge of the supernal wisdom, which he had not previously attained. He therefore built two altars one for the grade that appeared and one to the grade still hidden.

Come and behold, It is written first, "and there he built an altar to Hashem, who had appeared to him," and later just "and there he built an altar to Hashem," without adding "who appeared to him." And all this is according to the secret of Wisdom. Abraham was then crowned from grade to grade, until he ascended to his own grade. This is the meaning of "And Abram journeyed, going on still toward the Negev." This is the south, Abraham's portion. "Going on still," grade after grade, until he reached the south, where he was properly attached. He then ascended to the south's grade, that is, he deserved to be a Chariot of Chesed of Zeir Anpin called 'south.' After Abraham was crowned with his grades in the Holy Land and entered the holy grade, that is, the grade of Chesed, and the aspect of the hidden world, then it is written, "And there was famine in the land" (Gen. 12:10), they were not sure how to approach the Holy One, blessed be He, as in the secret of the verse "not a famine for bread, nor a thirst for water, but for hearing the words of Hashem" (Amos 8:11).

"And there was famine in the land" because until then the power ruling over the land did not supply the land with strength and nourishment. This occurred because (the Nukvah) was not completely built and not established. When Abraham saw that the power appointed over the land did not supply it with might and holy strength as it merited, then "Abram went down to Egypt to sojourn there" (Gen. 12:10). How did Abraham know (that the land still needed correction)? From the verse, "To your seed I will give this land." Abraham then knew that the only way to amend the land was through the holy grades of his descendants. Abraham then understood the secret of Wisdom - the land will not be properly mended in holiness, except as we have said. He therefore went down to Egypt, from there to correct that which was lacking.

Sitrei Torah

The Holy One, blessed be He, alluded to the supernal Wisdom through Abraham and Isaac; Abraham is the Neshamah of Neshamah, (referred to as 'the light of Chayah'). Sarah is the Neshamah, and Lot is the serpent, the spouse of Samael. The holy Ruach is Isaac; the Holy Nefesh is Rivkah. The Evil Inclination is the bestial Nefesh. And concerning this King Solomon said in his wisdom, "Who knows whether the spirit of man goes upwards, and the spirit of the beast goes downwards" (Kohelet 3:21). The bestial Nefesh is the Nefesh that comes from the side of the Evil Inclination.

And this is what they meant by saying that the Neshamah of Neshamah rests upon a person who feels awe and has Wisdom. The Neshamah reaches a person in Binah, as it is written, "And to man He said, Behold the fear of Hashem, that is wisdom (Heb. חָכְמָה)" (Iyov 28:28). The Neshamah comes to a person through repentance, which is called 'Binah' and 'Sarah'. The Ruach is called 'the voice', and is also called 'Da'at.' And this is drawn down to a person who raises his voice in Torah. (The Ruach is) also called the written Torah, and all the positive deeds come from the mental Nefesh.

In a similar way, the Holy One, blessed be He, created the body from the four elements namely, Fire, Air, Earth and Water, which correspond to the Neshamah of Neshamah, the Neshamah, the Ruach, and the Nefesh. Water which is the aspect of the male refers to the sweet waters of holiness. The contrasting bitter waters represent the Evil Inclination. The holy fire which is the aspect of the female. There is the foreign fire, to which the words "that he come not at all times to the holy place" (Vayikra 16:2) apply. And this is the female of the Evil Inclination. The holy Ruach is the aspect of the Male, similar to the Ruach that comes from the Sefirah of Da'at. The unholy Ruach, which is the Evil Inclination. As it is written, "for out of the serpent's root shall come forth a viper" (Isaiah 14:29). There is holy Earth, similar to the Nefesh that comes from the left side of Da'at. And in contrast, there is an Unholy Earth.

Therefore, the Neshamah, which is repentance, (Binah) attacks and overcomes the serpent by the power of enslavement that belongs to repentance. And it drags the serpent to the synagogue and the learning academies. And the four elements expand to 22 letters, Aleph-Chet-Hei-Ayin (throat); Bet-Vav-Mem-Pe (lips); Gimel-Yud-Caf-Kof (palate); Dalet-Tet-Lamed-Nun-Tav (tounge); Zayin-Samech-Shin-Resh-Tzadik from the teeth. [These five vowels of articulation of the mouth are equivalent to Keter, Chochmah, Binah, Tiferet, and Malchut, which are the four elements of Water, Fire, Air and Earth. This is why he says that the four elements, which are the secret of the five vowels of articulation of the mouth, expand to 22 letters]. (End of the Gilayon)

The verse, "And Abram passed through the land to the place of Shechem," alludes to the synagogue, the place where the Shechinah resides. As it is written, "Moreover I have given to you one portion (Heb. שְׁ'כֶ'ם')" (Gen. 48:22), (Shechem) is the Shechinah, which is fit for (Yosef), as he is called 'righteous.' Because righteousness (i.e. the Shechinah) does not reside anywhere else but in the righteous (Yosef). This is the meaning of "to the place of Shechem," (i.e. the shul). "To the plain of Moreh" alludes to Torah-learning academies, where they teach and instruct Torah to the public.

"And the Canaanite was then in the land" means that the Evil Inclination was sweetened and amended in spite of itself, in the body because it has many names. "Was then in the land" is certainly against its will. The serpent is not yet completely removed from the body. Therefore, because the body is still attached (to the serpent), the "Canaanite was then in the land." The soul is properly established in this world, so that we can merit receiving it after it leaves the world. If a soul has merit, it returns to the place from whence it came. As it is written, "To the place of the altar, which he had made there in the beginning" (Gen. 13:4), and "to the place where his tent (Heb. אָהֳלה) had been at the beginning..." (Ibid. 3). אָהֳלה is spelled with an additional Hei (representing the Shechinah).

Now, (in this world) it is (in the middle) between rising upward and descending downward, between Bethel, (Up) and Ay (Down). If it has merit, it will rise up "to the place of the altar, which he had made..." Who is 'he' who 'had made,' and what is 'the altar'? "He had made there" applies to the Holy One, blessed be He, who had made that altar and established it upon twelve stones, "according to the number of the tribes of the sons of Jacob, to whom the word of Hashem came, saying, Yisrael shall be your name" (I Kings 18:31), for sure.

And this altar, "he had made there at first," when the upper world, which is concealed from all other worlds, was created. And Michael the High Priest stands high and sacrifices upon it the offerings of the souls (of the righteous). And since [80b] the soul ascends there and rises up, it is written, "and there Abram called in the name of Hashem" (Gen. 13:4). The soul calls there and is attached to the bundle of life.

All this happens if (the soul) merited to amend the body in this world and overcome the power of that cursed being, (the Evil Inclination, which is Lot) until it is separated from it. As it is written, "And there was strife between the herdsmen of Abram's cattle (the soul) and the herdsmen of Lot's cattle, (the Evil Inclination)" (Gen. 13:7). Because in this world, on each and every day, those camps and rulers from the side of the soul are in strife with the camps and rulers from the side of the body, and they fight with each other while all the parts of the body are trapped in agony between them, between the soul and the serpent, between those forces that fight each other every day. Thus it is written, "And Abram said to Lot" (Gen. 13:8) that the soul answered the Evil Inclination, "Let there be no strife, I pray you, between me and you, and between my herdsmen and your herdsmen." Between my camps and your camps "for we are brethren"; because the Good Inclination and the Evil Inclination are close to each other, the one to man's right and the other to his left.

"Is not the whole land before you? Separate yourself, pray you, from me..." (Ibid. 9). There are a lot of wicked men in the world; go and chase after them and leave me alone. "If you will go to the left, then I will go to the right..."; it reproves and annoys it with many fights and arguments every day, until, as it is written, "and they separated themselves the one from the other" (Ibid. 11).

Since they have separated themselves from each other, it is written, "Abram dwelt in the land of Canaan" (Gen. 13:12), the soul has settled among the righteous in a good and peaceful settlement. "And Lot dwelt in the cities of the plain", the cursed adversary went to prosecute and join the wicked in their dwellings. As it is written, "and pitched his tent toward Sodom," followed by, "And the men of Sodom were wicked and were sinners before Hashem exceedingly" (Gen. 13:13). There he dwelt and set his residence among them; he joined them, so that he could deceive them and destroy them by evil deeds.


As the adversary leaves the soul and the body is purified from that defilement, the Holy One, blessed be He, immediately takes up residence beside him, and he inherits the upper and lower portion and is delighted among the righteous. While that cursed one, referring to Lot, is among the wicked and they sin together with him until finally they cannot be redeemed from their sins. It is then written, "And when Abram heard that his brother was taken captive..." (Gen. 14:14). "And when Abram heard" refers to the soul which remained purified in the body. "That his brother was taken captive" refers to the Evil Inclination, which was taken captive among the wicked by their innumerable sins. "And he armed his trained servants, born in his own house," means the righteous men who learn Torah and are the limbs of the body, armed to join him. They number three hundred and eighteen - 248 limbs of the body and seventy that belong to the secret of the soul. The soul comes from (the Seven Sefirot of Zeir Anpin). He was armed with all these to confront those sinners to make them repent and atone for their sins.

Then, it is written, "and pursued them to Dan (also, judge)." This means he pursued them and told them about the judgment of the World of Truth and the punishment of Gehenom. And he did not allow his eyes to sleep, neither during the day nor at night, until he reproved the sinners and brought them to atone and ask for forgiveness from the Holy One, blessed be He. It is written, "And he brought back all the goods..." (Gen. 13:16), because he brought them to atone completely for their sins!

The words "And also brought again his brother Lot" mean that he even attacked that Evil Inclination until he overcame it by force against its will and weakened it, as should be. He brought them all to wholeheartedly atone for their sins, as should properly be. He reproved and reprimanded them day and night for every single sin they performed, until they repented completely.

Let us return to the first subject of this passage, where it is written, "The watchmen that go about the city found me..." (Shir Hashirim 5:7).

[Here my text is missing a few paragraphs]

[81a]...have guards stationed upon them. As it is written, "I have set watchmen upon your walls, Jerusalem..." (Yeshayah 62:6). And Michael, the High Priest, is the highest of the gate watchmen. When the soul leaves this world, if that person has merit, the soul enters the earthly Garden of Eden, which the Holy One, blessed be He, planted for the spirits of the righteous. Similarly, He created the Garden of Eden on high, where all the righteous people of the world dwell.

So when the soul leaves this world, it (first) enters the cave of Machpelah, where the opening leading to the Garden of Eden is located. Then it meets Adam and the Patriarchs who are there. If the soul is meritorious, they rejoice with it and open all the openings so the soul can enter them. If not, it is pushed outside. If it has merit it enters the Garden and sits there, it clothes itself with a garment in the image of this world and enjoys itself. [The rest of this paragraph is missing to me]

When the soul leaves this world, if that person has merit, the soul enters the earthly Garden of Eden, which the Holy One, blessed be He, planted for the spirits of the righteous. Similarly, He created the Garden of Eden on high, where all the righteous people of the world dwell.

So when the soul leaves this world, it (first) enters the cave of Machpelah, where the opening leading to the Garden of Eden is located. Then it meets Adam and the Patriarchs who are there. If the soul is meritorious, they rejoice with it and open all the openings so the soul can enter them. If not, it is pushed outside. If it has merit it enters the Garden and sits there, it clothes itself with a garment in the image of this world and enjoys itself.

4. Not translated.

The secret of all secrets is passed on to those who are wise in their hearts. There are three levels that are attached to each other, and they are Nefesh, Ruach, and Neshamah. Nefesh is the force from which the body is built. When a man is aroused in this world to mate with his wife, all parts of the body agree on this and are prepared to receive enjoyment from it. Then the Nefesh and the desire of the person indulge willingly in that act. The Nefesh is drawn down and enters the sperm that comes forth....

From the combination of that desire and the Nefesh, another power is drawn from the levels of the angels, who are called Ishim (people). They all enter as the sperm flows, and the body is then built and constructed of them. This is the first and lowest power of the three levels....

And because the Nefesh offers a sacrifice by attaching itself to the foundation of the body, which is offered as a sacrifice to atone for the Neshamah, then part of it is offered to those grades that are considered as Ishim. Because part of the Nefesh, (the Ruach of the Nefesh) is drawn down from them. As it is written, "My offering and my bread for my fire (Heb. אִשַׁי)..." (Num. 28:2), which means to the Ishim. So, because it is an offering of the Nefesh, the Ishim take their part as well. And when one leaves this world, that Nefesh never leaves the grave. And because of the power, the dead know and talk with each other.

Ruach gives existence to the Nefesh in this world. It is drawn by the arousal of the Nukvah toward the male, when they are in a state of united passion. The female is aroused toward the male because of her passion to receive from him the Ruach, just like a woman in this world who is inseminated by the power of her passion to (receive from) the man. And this is the secret of the words, "and the spirit (Ruach) shall return to the Elohim who gave it" (Kohelet 12:7). And this Ruach leaves this world and is separated from the Nefesh, (which remains hovering at the grave), and it enters the Garden of Eden of this world. There, it clothes itself with the air of the Garden of Eden, just as the supernal angels do when they come down to this world. Then, they clothe and cover themselves with the air of this world, because they were created from that spirit (Ruach), as it is written, "Who makes the winds (also: spirits) his angels" (Tehilim 104:4).

And in the midst of the Garden, there stands a pillar embroidered with many colors. And when that Ruach wishes to rise up, it disrobes from that clothing, enters to the pillar, and ascends until it reaches the place from where it came. As it is written, "and the spirit (Ruach) shall return".

And then, Michael, the High Priest, takes (the Ruach) and offers it as a sacrifice of sweet savor to the Holy One, blessed be He. And it remains there and enjoys the delicacies of the bundle of Life, "no eye had ever seen an Elohim, beside You..." (Isaiah 64:3). Afterwards, [81b] it goes down from there and returns to the earthly Garden of Eden. There, it enjoys all the delicacies, clothes itself again with that same clothing, and dwells there crowned with a crown twice as big as the one that it had possessed before.

The Neshamah is a supernal power high above the other two. It originates from the power of the male, which is the Tree of Life and ascends immediately. And these three levels are attached to one another. When they leave (the body), they all rise up and return to the places from which they came. When the Ruach leaves this world and enters the cave of Adam and the Patriarchs, they give it a letter as a sign. Then it goes to the Garden of Eden. When it arrives there, it meets the Cherubs and the flame of the revolving sword. If it is meritorious, then they see the letter, which is the sign, and open the gate for it to enter. If they do not see the letter, they reject it and do not allow it to enter.

And it dwells there some time, sitting and clothing itself in the image of this world. And on the first day of the month and on Shabbat, when it wants to rise, the righteous men who are in the Garden of Eden give it a letter as a sign. And it ascends through that same pillar, where it meets the watchmen of the walls of Jerusalem. If it is meritorious, they open the gate and it enters. If not, they take the letter away and throw it out. As it is written, "The watchmen that go about the city found me...the keepers of the walls took away my veil from me" (Shir Hashirim 5:7). (The veil) is the letter given as a sign, which has been taken away from it, by the watchmen of the walls of Jerusalem. End of Sitrei Torah.

"And Abram went down to Egypt to sojourn there" (Gen. 12:10). Why did he go down to Egypt? Because it looked like the garden of Hashem (Gan Eden). As it is written, "like the garden of Hashem, like the land of Egypt..." (Gen. 13:10). Because a river flows down on the right, as it is written, "The name of the first is Pishon; that is it which encompasses the whole land of Chavilah, where there is gold" (Gen. 2:11). So Abraham achieved knowledge and complete faith. Abraham then wanted to become familiar with all the grades that are attached below. And Egypt came from the right; from the aspect of the River of Pishon, which is the secret of Chochmah of the Right Column. Come and behold, famine only comes to the land when Mercy leaves Judgment. "And it came to pass, when he came (lit. 'caused to come') near to enter to Egypt..." (Gen. 12:11). Rabbi Elazar said that the verse says, "when he caused to come near," whereas it should have stated, 'When he came near.' Why does it say, "when he caused to come near?" This is similar to the verse, "And Pharaoh caused to come close..." (Shemot 14:10), that he brought Yisrael to come near to repentance. The same applies here, so "caused to come near" means he brought himself to come near to the Holy One, blessed be He, as should properly be. "To enter to Egypt,", to observe those grades, and keep his distance from them, as well as to keep his distance from the worshipers of Egypt.

Rabbi Yehuda said, Come and behold, Since he went down to Egypt without consent, his offspring were enslaved in Egypt for four hundred years. As it is written, "and Abram went down to Egypt. It does not say (that Hashem told him) 'Go down to Egypt!' Therefore, he was in misery all that night because of Sarah.

And he said to Sarah his wife, 'Behold now, I know that you are a fair woman to look upon'" (Gen. 12:11). Could it be that until then Abraham did not know that she was a "fair woman to look upon"? This has already been explained that until then he did not look upon the image of Sarah, because of their excessive modesty with each other. But when he "came near to enter to Egypt," she revealed herself, and he saw her.

Another explanation for why he knew is that most people are affected by the hardship of the journey, but Sarah remained beautiful and her appearance did not change. Another explanation of the words, "Behold, now I know..." is that Abraham saw the Shechinah accompanying Sarah. For this reason, Abraham felt confident and said, "She is my sister." The phrase, "my sister," has two meanings. The first is literal. The second is figurative, as in the verse, "Say to wisdom; You are my sister." (Mishlei 7:4). It also is written, "Say, I pray you, you are my sister" (Gen. 12:13). ('You' alludes here to the Shechinah). And it is also written, "speak you to us" (Devarim 5:24). In addressing the Shechinah, he said, "That it may be well with me for your sake," (for the sake of the Shechinah) and also "my soul shall live because of you," because, as a result of this, a person is elevated up to the path of life. "Say, I pray you, you are my sister..." Rabbi Yesa said, Abraham knew that all the Egyptians are lecherous. Since he knew this, [82a] how come he was not afraid for his wife and did not return back from this journey and refrain from entering there? Because he saw that she was accompanied by the Shechinah; therefore he had confidence in her and had no fear!

[THE REST OF THIS PARSHAH HAS NOT YET BEEN TRANSLATED]

Vayera / וַיֵּרָא[edit]

Corresponding to Volume 1 Pages 97a through 120a of the Zohar:

[97a] Rabbi Chiya opened the discussion, "The flowers appeared on the earth, the time of the singing of the birds has come, and the voice of the turtledove is heard in our land" (Shir Hashirim 2:12). "The flowers appeared on the earth," - when the Holy One, blessed be He, created the world, He endowed the earth with appropriate powers, so that everything was in the earth but it did not produce any fruit until Adam was created. As soon as Adam was created, everything in the earth became visible, that is, the earth began to reveal the powers and products that were implanted within it. And then it was said, "The flowers appear on the earth."

Similarly, the heavens did not give any powers to the earth until humankind appeared, as it is written, "And no plant of the field was yet in the earth, and no herb of the field had yet grown, for Hashem Elohim had not caused it to rain upon the earth, and there was not a man to till the ground" (Gen. 2:5). All the offspring and products were concealed in the earth. They did not appear, and the heavens were prevented from pouring rain on the earth because humankind did not yet exist. Because it had not yet been created, the revelation of all things was delayed. As soon as humankind appeared, however, "The flowers appeared on the earth," and all the hidden and concealed powers were now revealed.

"...the time of the singing of the birds has come" - a recital was composed of songs and praises to the Holy One, blessed be He. This was not done before humankind was created, "...and the voice of the turtledove is heard in our land." This is the word of the Holy One, blessed be He, which did not [97b] exist in the world before humankind was created. But as soon as humankind appeared, everything appeared!

After (Adam) sinned, everything disappeared from the world, and the earth was cursed, as it is written, "cursed is the earth for your sake" (Gen. 3:17), "When you till the ground, it shall not henceforth give its strength to you..." (Gen. 4:12) and "thorns also and thistles it shall bring forth to you" (Gen. 3:18).

When Noah appeared in the world, he prepared spades and hoes. Afterwards, however, "he drank of the wine, and was drunk; and he was uncovered within his tent" (Gen. 9:21). And later, the people of the world sinned before the Holy One, blessed be He. And the powers of the earth disappeared again. And so it remained until Abraham appeared.

As soon as Abraham appeared, "the flowers appeared on the earth." The powers of the earth were amended and revealed. "The time of the singing of the birds (also: 'pruning') has come," the time when the Holy One, blessed be He, told him to circumcise himself. Thus, the time was ripe for the covenant to appear in Abraham, - when he was circumcised. Only then was the verse fulfilled through him, and the word of the Holy One, blessed be He, was revealed openly to him. As it is written, "And Hashem appeared to him," after he was circumcised

Rabbi Elazar opened; this verse refers to events after the circumcision of Abraham. Before the circumcision, the Holy One, blessed be He, spoke to him only through the lower grade (i.e. a vision). The upper grades were not attached to this grade. As soon as Abraham was circumcised, "the flowers appeared on the earth." These are the lower grades, brought forth and established by the lower grade so that they may be united with all the upper grades. "The time of the singing of the birds (also: 'pruning') has come...", "...and the voice of the turtledove is heard in our land." This is the voice that comes from [98a] the innermost aspect of all. So that voice (Zeir Anpin) is heard in our land. And this is the voice that cuts the word into an utterance, thereby achieving its perfection.

Come and behold, as long as Abraham was not circumcised, only that grade dwelt upon him, as we explained. But after he was circumcised, it is written, "And Hashem appeared to him!" But it is not mentioned to whom, because it is not written, 'And Hashem appeared to Abram'! (If it were written 'to Abram,') then what greater sort of praise would there be than that which existed before he was circumcised? Because even then it was written, "And Hashem appeared to Abram" (Gen. 12:7). The words, "And Hashem appeared to him" contain a secret. (He appeared to) that grade that spoke to him. This had not happened before he was circumcised. And now the voice was revealed and was associated with speech when He spoke with him. The verse, "and he sat in the tent door" (Gen. 18:1) says "and he," but does not identify "him." The verse reveals the wisdom that all the grades rested upon that lower grade after Abraham was circumcised.

Come and behold, "And Hashem appeared to him." This is the secret of the voice that is heard and attached to the utterance (speech), and revealed through it. In the verse, "and he sat in the tent door," - alludes to the upper world, that stands over him to shine upon him. "In the heat of the day," - the right side shone. This is the grade to which Abraham cleaved. Another explanation of "in the heat of the day" - the time when one grade approached another with great passion, as Zeir Anpin approached the Nukva. Then they were described by the words, "in the heat of the day."

In explaining the words, "appeared to him," Rabbi Abba said that before Abraham was circumcised, he was blocked (from receiving the Supernal Lights). As soon as he was circumcised, everything appeared. And the Shechinah rested upon him in full perfection, as should properly be. Come and behold, "And he sat in the tent door." "He" refers to the upper world (Binah) that rests upon the lower world, (the Nukvah). When? "in the heat of the day" when the passion of a certain righteous person is aroused to rest in the lower world.

Immediately - "And he lifted up his eyes and looked, and lo, three men stood by him..." (Gen. 18: 2) Who are these three men? They are Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob (i.e. Chesed, Gevurah and Tiferet of Zeir Anpin). (He saw them) standing over that grade (Nukvha) and from them [98b] the Nukvah draws sustenance and nourishment. And then, "when he saw them, he ran to meet them," because the passionate desire of the lower grade is to cleave to (Chesed, Gevurah and Tiferet). And Her joy is to be drawn toward them. "and bowed himself toward the ground," to become and be formed into a throne for them.

Come and behold, The Holy One, blessed be He, made King David one of the legs of the supernal throne, like the patriarchs. Even though She is a throne for (the Patriarchs, how can she compete with the fourth leg of the throne?) This is so only when She is united with them for the purpose of being a leg of the supernal throne. King David received the kingdom of Yisrael in Hebron for seven years for this reason to be united with (Chesed, Gevurah and Tiferet). This has already been explained.

Tosefta


Of the verse, "And Hashem appeared to him by the terebinths of Mamre" (Gen. 18:1), why by the terebinths of Mamre and not in any other place? Because Mamre gave him good advice about being circumcised. When the Holy One, blessed be He, told Abraham to circumcise himself, Abraham consulted his friends. Aner told him, You are more than ninety years old, and you shall pain yourself.



Mamre said to him, Do not forget the day when the Chaldeans threw you into the furnace of fire and famine took over the world, as it is written, "And there was a famine in the land, and Abram went down into Egypt" (Gen. 12: 10). And you smote all those kings that your men pursued. And the Holy One, blessed be He, saved you from them all, so that nobody could do you any harm. So rise and fulfill the precept of your Master. The Holy One, blessed be He, said to (Mamre), You advised him to perform the circumcision. By your life! I shall reveal Myself to him only in your chamber. This is why it is written, "by the terebinths of Mamre." (Until here the Tosefta)

Midrash Ha'Ne'elam


The sages began their interpretation of this passage "Your oils are fragrant. For your flowing oil you are renowned" (Shir Hashirim 1:3). Our sages have taught that when the soul of a human being rises from earth to heaven, it stands in the Divine Illumination. The Holy One, blessed be He, visits it. Come and listen, Rabbi Shimon bar Yochai said, When the soul of a righteous person stands in the place where the Shechinah of His blessed Glory rests and is worthy of sitting by Her, the Holy One, blessed be He, calls upon the patriarchs. And He says to them, Go and visit so-and-so, the righteous person who has come, and welcome him in peace in My Name. And they claim it is not proper for a father to go and visit his child, but rather the child should seek after his father to see him.


The Holy One, blessed be He, then calls upon Jacob and says to him, You, who suffered the sorrow of (raising) children, go and welcome so-and-so, the righteous person who has come here, and I shall go along with you, as it is written, "those who seek your face Jacob, Selah" (Tehilim 24:6). It does not say "seek" in the singular, but in the plural. Rabbi Chiya said, This we understand from the first part of the verse. As it is written, "This is the generation of them that seek him," which teaches us that the intention of the verse alludes to the souls of the righteous, the seekers, namely, the leaders of the generation.

Rabbi Ya'akov said in the name of Rabbi Chiya, Jacob, the Patriarch, is the Throne of Glory. And the teachings of Elijah also state, Jacob the Patriarch is a Throne by himself, as it is written, "Then will I remember my covenant with Jacob" (Vayikra 26:42). The Holy One, blessed be He, established a covenant with Jacob alone, more than (the one He established) with all his fathers. He made him a Throne of Glory distinguishing him from his predecessors. And the reason is that his forefathers, who are Abraham and Isaac, are not able to shine without him. Therefore, he in himself includes their Lights as well as his own, and thus becomes a Throne to himself.

Rabbi Eliezer was sitting and studying Torah when Rabbi Akiva arrived. He said to him, Master, what are you studying? He replies, The passage where it is written, "and to make them inherit the Throne of Glory" (I Shmuel 2:8) what does "and to make them inherit the Throne of Glory" mean? This is Jacob, the Patriarch for whom he made a Throne of Glory by himself that would receive Torah for the souls of the righteous. And the Holy One, blessed be He, goes with (Jacob) on the first day of every month. And when the soul sees the glory of the mirror, which is the Shechinah of the Master, (the soul then) praises Him and bows down in front of the Holy One, blessed be He. This is "Bless Hashem, my soul..." (Tehilim 104:1).

Rabbi Akiva said, The Holy One, blessed be He, stands over the Soul. And the soul begins by saying, "Hashem my Elohim, You are very great...", continuing with all the verses to the end, as the passage reads, "Let the sinners be consumed out of the earth..." (Ibid. 35). Rabbi Akiva continued, As well as this, it praises the Holy One, blessed be He, thanks Him for the body that is left in this world, and says, "Bless Hashem, my soul, and all that is within me, bless His Holy Name" (Tehilim 103:1). The words, "all that is within me," allude to the body. At first, the soul praises and thanks the Holy One, blessed be He, for its own achievements. Then it says, "Bless Hashem, my soul! Hashem my Elohim, You are very great." And then it praises and thanks Him for the body. And then it says, "Bless Hashem, my soul, and all that is within me, bless His Holy Name."

And the Holy One, blessed by He, goes (with Jacob). How do we know this? From the passage where it is written, "And Hashem appeared to him by the terebinths of Mamre." This is Jacob, (who is referred to as Mamre). Why is the name Mamre? Because Jacob inherited two hundred worlds in Eden, and he is the Throne. And Rabbi Yitzchak explains, The numerical value of Mamre is 281. So there are the two hundred of Eden, as it is written, "and those that guard the fruit thereof two hundred" (Shir Hashirim 8:12), and 81 is the numerical value of Kise ('throne'). For this reason, "And Hashem appeared to him by the terebinths of Mamre." And for this reason, (Jacob) is called Mamre. [He includes the aspect of Eden and the aspect of the Throne together, which are the secret of Mamre. Hence "and Hashem appeared to him."]

Rabbi Yehuda asks, What is the meaning of, "by the terebinths" (Heb. אֵלוֹנֵי)? It meant to say 'his might,' as it is written, "by the hands of the mighty one of Jacob" (Gen. 49:24). The verse, "and he sat in the tent door" is as it is written, "Hashem, who (Heb. מִי) shall abide in Your tabernacle (or: 'tent') (Tehilim 15:1). The verse, "in the heat of the day" is as written, "But to you that fear My name shall the sun of righteousness arise with healing in its wings" (Malachi 3:20).

Rabbi Yochanan ben Zakai said, At that time, the Holy One, blessed be He (shares His abundance with the soul). And when the Patriarchs, Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, heard the Holy One, blessed be He move towards (the soul) they ask Jacob to go with them and welcome the soul in peace. And (Abraham and Yitzchak) stand over the soul. As it is written, "And he lifted up his eyes and looked" (the soul) "and lo, three men stood over him." The "three men" are the patriarchs, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, who stood by him, observing the soul and the good deeds it has performed. "...and when he saw them, he ran to meet them from the tent door, and bowed himself toward the ground," because he saw the Shechinah of His Blessed Glory with them. Hence, it is written, "...therefore do the young maidens love you" (Shir Hashirim 1:3). (These are the Patriarchs).

Another explanation of, "And Hashem appeared to him by the terebinths of Mamre." The Sages began with this verse that speaks of the time of one's demise. We learned that Rabbi Yehuda said that at the time of a person's death, which is the day of the Great Judgment when the soul is separated from the body, no one leaves the world before he sees the Shechinah, as it is written, "...for no man shall see me and live" (Ex. 33: 20). And three ministering angels accompany the Shechinah to welcome the soul of the righteous, as it is written, "And Hashem appeared to him...in the heat of the day." This is the Day of Judgment that burns like a furnace in order to separate the soul from the body.

The verse, "and he lifted up his eyes, and looked, and lo, three men stood by him," refers to those who criticize his behavior and examine his deeds as he confesses them with his mouth. And because the soul sees all this, it leaves the body and reaches the gullet (pharynx), where it remains until it confesses and retells all that the body did together with it in this world. Then the soul of the righteous is happy with what it has done, and is happy with its deposit. We have learned that Rabbi Yitzchak said, The soul of the righteous feels great desire for the moment when it shall leave this world, which is worthless, so that it may enjoy itself in the World to Come!

The sages discussed the time when the great Rabbi Eliezer became ill. The day was Shabbat Eve, and Rabbi Eliezer made his son, Horkenoos, sit to his right. He then revealed great and deep secrets to him. But his mind was not ready to hear him, because he thought that his father's mind was not sufficiently clear. Only after he saw that his father's mind was completely clear did he receive 189 sublime secrets from him.

When he reached the marble stones that are mixed with the supernal Waters, Rabbi Eliezer wept and stopped talking. He said, Get up and go over there, my son! He asks him why. He replies, I see that I am soon to pass from the world. Go along and tell your mother that my Tefilin shall disappear and reach a higher place. And after I have departed from this world, I shall come to see them (my family) but they should not cry. Because those above are near, not those below, though the human mind cannot grasp this.

As they were still sitting, the wise men of the generation came by to visit him. However, he cursed them for not coming to serve him. As we have learned, it is greater to serve the Torah than study it. In the meantime, Rabbi Akiva arrived. He asks, Akiva, Akiva, why have you not come to attend to me? He responded, Rabbi, I had no spare time. He was angry and said, Indeed, I wonder whether you shall die naturally. On that account, he placed a curse on him so that his death would be the worst of them all; they also would not die naturally. And he said that the death of Rabbi Akiva shall be the cruelest of them all.

Rabbi Akiva wept and said to him, Rabbi, teach Torah to me! Rabbi Eliezer opened his mouth about the works of the divine Chariot, a fire surrounded them both. The wise men said, From this we learn that we are not worthy; nor do we have the privilege. So they sat outside the gate. After everything was over, the fire disappeared.

And he taught of impure white spots (macula) as bright as the snow, 300 halachic rules, and 216 explanations of the verses of Shir Hashirim. Rabbi Akiva's eyes poured with tears like water. Then the fire reappeared again. When he reached the verse "stay me with flagons, comfort me with apples, for I am sick with love" (Shir Hashirim 2:5), Rabbi Akiva could not bear any more. He raised his voice and burst out bellowing (like a bull). And he could not speak out of fear of the Shechinah that was there.

And he taught him all of the deep and sublime secrets that exist in Shir Hashirim, and made him solemnly swear that he would never use any of these verses. If he did, then Holy One, blessed be He, would destroy the world because of him, as it is not His desire that people use it because of its supreme holiness. Afterward, Rabbi Akiva left and burst out crying, his eyes pouring with tears, and said, Woe my teacher, woe my teacher, for the world is to remain an orphan without you. All the other wise men entered and stood by him. They asked him questions about Torah and he answered

Rabbi Eliezer felt confined. He raised both his arms and laid them on his heart. He said, Woe to the world. The upper world has again concealed and hidden all light and illumination from the lower. Woe to my two arms. Woe to the two parts of the Torah, as you shall be forgotten by the world on this day. Rabbi Yitzchak said, During the entire lifetime of Rabbi Eliezer, the Halachah would 'shine from his mouth' as on the day it was given on mount Sinai.

He said, I have learned so much Torah (Talmud), gaining wisdom and serving, that even if all the people of the world were to be writers, there would not be enough to write of it. And my pupils have no lack of my wisdom; only as a kohl-pencil (mascara) in the eye. And I lack very little of the wisdom of my teachers, perhaps only as much as a person can drink from the sea. He said this only to show gratitude to his teachers and to hold them in more favor than himself.

And they were asking him the law of footwear of Yibum (the levirate rite) (if it becomes defiled). As his soul left him, he announced, It is pure. Rabbi Akiva was not there when he died. As the day of Shabbat ended, Rabbi Akiva found him dead. As he ripped his clothes and tore his flesh, the blood started to roll over his beard. He wept and shouted as he stepped outside, and said, Heavens, O heavens, tell the sun and the moon that the light that shone more than they is darkened.

Rabbi Yehuda said, when the soul of a righteous person wishes to leave, it feels happy, because the righteous is confident that he shall receive his reward as he dies. Therefore, it is written, "when he saw them, he ran to meet them,"- with happiness, as he welcomed (the Angels). Where? As we have learned, at "the tent door," where he "bowed himself toward the ground," toward the Shechinah.

Rabbi Yochanan then opened the discussion by quoting, "...until the day breaks, and the shadows flee away, Turn, my beloved, and be you like a roe or a young hart" (Shir Hashirim 2:17). "Until the day break" is a warning for a person who is still in this world; it is like the "blink of the eye." Come and behold, what does it say? "Even if he lived a thousand years twice" (Kohelet 6:6), on the day of his death, it all seems as one day to him.

Rabbi Shimon said, The soul of a person warns him and says, "Until the day break". And it shall seem to you as the blink of the eye while you are still in this world. The words, "and the shadows flee away" are equivalent to the verse that reads, "Because our days upon earth are a shadow" (Iyov 8:9); so I beg of you, "Turn, my beloved, and be you like a roe or a young hart."

There is another explanation for, "Until the day break..." According to Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi, this is a warning for humankind, while still in this world, which is like the blink of the eye. Just as the roe is swift of leg, so you should be as swift as a "roe or a young hart" in performing your Master's wishes, so that you may inherit the World to Come which is mountains of spices, called "the mountain of Hashem," the mountain of Pleasure, the mountain of Delight. (End of Midrash Hane'elam)

Sitrei Torah is Missing Here

Rabbi Abba opened the discussion with the text, "Who shall ascend into the mountain of Hashem? Or who shall stand in His holy place?" (Tehilim 24:3). Come and behold, no man is aware of the reason for his existence in the world. As the days pass by they rise up and stand before the Holy One, blessed be He, as they were all created. How do we know that they were created? Because it is written, "The days were created" (Tehilim 139:16).

And when the days depart from this world, they all approach the Supernal King, as it is written, "And the days drew close for David to die" (I Kings 2:1), "and the days drew close for Jacob to die" (Beresheet 47:29). When a person is in this world, he is not aware of nor does he look for the reason he was created. For him, every day is considered as if it passes by in emptiness. And when the soul leaves this world, it does not recognize the path through which it is elevated, because the path that leads up, to the place where the luminous sublime souls shine, (Gan Eden), is not [99a] shown to all souls. After it departs from him the soul follows the same way that person followed while in this world.

[THE REST OF THIS PARSHAH HAS NOT YET BEEN TRANSLATED]

Chayei Sara / חַיִּי שָׂרָה[edit]

Corresponding to Zohar Volume I Pages 121a-134a

"And Sarah's life was a hundred years and twenty years and seven years" (Gen. 23:1). Rabbi Yosi opened the discussion with the verse, "So they took up Jonah, and cast him into the sea, and the sea ceased from its raging" (Yonah 1:15). We have to examine this text carefully. Why did the sea rage upon Jonah and not the earth? He was leaving the land, so that the Shechinah would not hover above him. If so, why did the sea seize him when he went away, and not the land from which he ran?

The verse was accurate, for the sea resembles the firmament, and the firmament resembles the Throne of Glory. For that reason, the sea grabbed him and received him in its midst. Thus, the sea raged upon him, not the land. He was cast into the sea to return him to the prophecy from which he was fleeing.

"So they took up Jonah, and cast him into the sea." We learned that when they cast him into the sea and immersed him to his knees, the sea calmed. When they lifted him, the sea raged. The deeper they immersed him, the calmer the sea became, until he said, "Take me up, and cast me into the sea" (Yonah 1:12). Immediately, "they took up Jonah, and cast him into the sea."

When he was thrown into the sea, his soul soared and ascended to the King's throne to be judged. When his soul was returned to him, he entered the mouth of that fish, which died and later came back to life.

[121b] Come and behold, When a man goes to sleep each night, his soul leaves him to be judged before the King's court. If it merits life, his soul is returned to this world.

The judgement is twofold, for man is not judged for the evil he is destined to commit. "For Elohim has heard the voice of the lad where he is" (Gen. 21:17) is written (i.e. not written in the future tense). You should not say that man is judged only for the good he has already done, rather he is rewarded for his present good as was said above, and he is also judged for the good he will do in the future. He is saved for their sake, as they said, even though he is now wicked. The Holy One, blessed be He, does good with all people and does everything to benefit all, therefore He does not sentence man for the evil he is about to do. Hence, man is judged before the Holy One, blessed be He.

Come and behold. Once they cast Jonah into the sea, it is written, "And the sea ceased (lit. 'stood') from its raging." (This is) the supernal sea (i.e. the Nukvah). It stood where it was, for when anger calms down, it stands. When judgement is passed upon the world, that court (i.e. the Nukvah) is like a pregnant woman experiencing severe labor pains. When she gives birth, the panic ceases. Similarly, when judgement is passed upon the world, it does not calm or rest until justice is administered to the wicked. Then it rests, wholly standing in its place and perfectly maintained. This is what the verse meant by the words, "But when the wicked perish, there is jubilation" (Mishlei 11:10). This has already been explained.

"But when the wicked perish, there is jubilation." Is it not written, "Have I any pleasure at all that the wicked should die" (Ezekiel 18:23)? This would mean that there is no pleasure for the Holy One, blessed be He, when judgement is administered to the wicked. Before their measure was filled (He did not have pleasure). But now, after the measure is full, "when the wicked perish, there is jubilation."

Tosefta is missing.

"And Sarah's life was" Of all the women in the world, why is Sarah the only one whose death is mentioned in Torah? Rabbi Chiya answered, This is not so, for it is written, "And Rachel died, and was buried in the way to Efrat" (Gen. 35:19), "and Miriam died there" (Num. 20:1), "and Deborah, Rivkah's nurse, died" (Gen. 35:8) [122a] and "the daughter of Shua, Judah's wife died" (Gen. 38:12).

Rabbi Yosi responded, But it is not written of them as it is written of Sarah, of whom it is said, "And Sarah's life was a hundred and twenty seven years old, these were the years of Sarah's life" (Gen. 23:1). No other woman's days and years were specified as they were for Sarah. Furthermore, none of them has a portion of the scriptures devoted to them, as does Sarah. There is an esoteric reason for this. (The Torah tells us the amount of years she lived) but the secret is that the days and years of all men depend on this grade. From this, the life span of man is also drawn.

He opened with the verse, "Moreover, land has an advantage for everyone, he who tills a field is a king" (Kohelet 5:8). "Moreover, land has an advantage" (is the Nukvah) "for everyone." Certainly, "All" (Heb. כֹּל). Because (from Yesod) emanate spirits and souls and goods to the world. Of the verse, "He who tills a field is a king," who is the king? He is the Holy One, blessed be He, who "tills a field" when it is properly cultivated. The King is the supernal King (Zeir Anpin) who is joined to the field when it is tilled. What is the field? This is a field which Hashem has blessed (Nukvah), "Like the smell of a field which Hashem has blessed" (Gen. 27:27). For when it is tilled and cultivated properly, the supernal King unites with it.

Rabbi Elazar asks, How many mysteries are alluded to in the verse, "He who tills a field is a king"! A king is the Shechinah, which only dwells in a man's house when he is married and mates with his wife to beget children and bear fruit. And she (the Shechinah) brings out souls to dwell in her, which is why (the Shechinah is connected) only to a tilled field.

Another explanation, A king is "a woman who fears Hashem," as it is written, "A woman who fears Hashem, she shall be praised" (Mishlei 31:30). A tilled field is a strange woman, (the Sitra Achra) as it is written, "That they may keep you from the strange woman" (Mishlei 7:5). For there is a field, and there is a field. There is a field in which all blessings and holiness dwell, as it is written, "Like the smell of a field which Hashem has blessed". And there is a field in which destruction and defilement, extinction, killings and war reside. This king sometimes tills the second field, as it is written, "For three things the earth [122b] the earth is disquieted...and a handmaid that is heir to her mistress" (Mishlei 30:21) is covered and darkened until it is purified and joins (Zeir Anpin) above.

This is the purpose of offering the goat on the first day of the month, when no blessings dwell upon the second field, as it is separated from the Holy King. When that field is tilled, then it is written, "For he found her in the field (Devarim 22:27), the field is (the Sitra Achra) as has been explained.

Come and behold: Eve came into the world and clung to the serpent. He injected impurities into her, and she brought death to the world and to her husband. Sarah then came and went down (into the place of the Sitra Achra but) she rose again without any kelipot clinging to her, as it is written, "And Abram went up out of Egypt, he, and his wife, and all that he had" (Gen. 13:1). When Noah came to the world, it is written that "he drank of the wine, and was drunk, and he was uncovered within his tent" (Gen. 9:21).

Because Abraham and Sarah did not cling to the Sitra Achra, Sarah earned supernal life for herself, her husband, and her son after her. This is the meaning of the verse: "Look at the rock whence you are hewn [Abraham], and to the hole of the pit from which you were dug out [Sarah]" (Isaiah 51:1). Therefore, it is written, "And Sarah's life was...", for she merited all the years. It is not so for the rest of the women,"And Chavah's life was..." and so on. Sarah clung to life. Therefore, her life was her own.

Tosefta

Happy is he who makes less of himself in this world. How great and high he is in the eternal world. The head of the Yeshivah spoke to that effect, saying that whoever is small in this world is great in the Eternal World.

He who is great in this world is small in the Eternal World, as it is written, "And Sarah's life was a hundred years..." A hundred, which is a large number, is followed by the word "year". Seven, (a small number) was greatly increased, for it is followed by the word "years."

Come and behold: The Holy One, blessed be He, only makes greater the person who lessens himself. He diminishes only the person who makes himself great. Happy is he who diminishes himself in this world. How great he is above in the eternal world. End of Tosefta. [The remainder of paragraph does not belong here. It belongs to another portion, where it is explained]

"And Sarah's life was..." All this life is above (in Binah). A hundred years (refers to Keter) above. "Twenty years" (Chochmah and Binah) above. The seven years (are the seven lower Sefirot) above.

Rabbi Shimon said [123a] Come and look at the secret of all this. Why is the number seven followed by the word "years", while all other numbers are followed by the word "year"? The "hundred year" includes everything. For there is included the highest and most secret place of all (Arich Anpin) with the hundred daily benedictions. Also, the "twenty year,", the most concealed of all. For that reason, it is written "year" which is the secret of unison, for a thought and a Jubilee. (Chochmah and Binah) never separate from each other.

But the seven years are separated from each other and from that which is hidden above, (Arich Anpin). Although everything is united and all are equal, (the lower seven) pertain to Judgement and Mercy in many aspects and paths. This is not so (in the first three). For that reason, it is 'year'; (The whole Ten Sefirot) are called life. Therefore it is written, "And Sarah's life was...", for it existed. It was created substantively and existed above.

Rabbi Chiya said that it has been explained (why the death of Sarah was written). Isaac was 37 years old when he was bound, and because he was bound, Sarah died, as is written, "And Abraham came to mourn for Sarah, and to weep for her" (Gen. 23:2). From where did he come? From mount Moriyah, where he was binding Isaac. The 37 years from the time that Isaac was born until the time he was bound were the life of Sarah, for "וַיִּהְיוּ (was)" is 37 years in numerical value, the years from Isaac's birth to his binding. (In order to mention this, Sarah's death is mentioned in the Torah).

Rabbi Yosi began with the verse, "A psalm, O sing (Heb. שִׁירוּ) to Hashem a new song; for He has done marvelous things, His right hand, and His holy arm have gained Him the victory" (Tehilim 98:1). The friends explained that this was said by cows, as it is written, "And the cows took the straight way (Heb. וַיִּשַּׁרְנָה)" (I Samuel 6:12). The word "וַיִּשַּׁרְנָה" also means that they sang (Heb. sharu) a new song. What new song? "A psalm. O sing to Hashem a new song."

We should examine this verse carefully. Everything that the Holy One, blessed be He, created in the world offers praises and songs to Him, either above or below. If you thus say that the cows sang this song, it is assuredly so, for there is a deep secret here. When they carried the Ark, they sang, but once the Ark was taken from them, they again behaved like other cows in the world and did not sing. [123b] ...

"A psalm" unlike other places, where it is written, 'A psalm of David' or 'David's psalm.' Here David is not mentioned at all, just "a psalm." This is because the Holy Spirit is destined to sing it, when the Holy One, blessed be He, raises Yisrael from the dust. Then "O sing to Hashem a new song", for this is a new song that has not been sung since the world was created.

Rabbi Chiya said that it is written, "There is nothing new under the sun" (Kohelet 1:9), but lo, this song is new and under the sun, for it will be under the sun. What is this new song? It is the moon (corresponding to Nukvah). For then the moon will be new under the sun. What is meant by the phrase, "For He has done marvelous things." What are these marvelous things? They are "His right hand, and His holy arm have gained Him the victory." "have gained Him the victory." For whom [124a]

Toldot[edit]

Vayetzei[edit]

Vayishlach[edit]

Vayeshev[edit]

Miketz[edit]

Vayigash[edit]

Vayechi[edit]