Ughtred, Thomas (DNB00)

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UGHTRED, Sir Thomas, styled Baron Ughtred (1291?–1365), eldest son and heir of Robert Ughtred, lord of the manor of Scarborough, Kilnwick Percy, Monkton Moor, and other places in Yorkshire, was born about 1291, being eighteen years of age at his father's death in 1309 (Cal. Close Rolls, 1307–13, p. 271; cf. Roberts, Cal. Genealogicum, ii. 551). On 8 June 1319 he was appointed commissioner of array for Yorkshire, an office which he frequently filled during Edward II's reign. In October 1319 he served at the siege of Berwick in command of forty-four ‘hobelars’ or light horse (Cal. Doc. relating to Scotland, 1307–1357, No. 668). On 6 Oct. 1320 he was returned to parliament as knight of the shire for his county. He sided with the king against Thomas of Lancaster [q. v.], and on 14 March 1321–2 was empowered to arrest any of the earl's adherents. In the same year he was made constable of Pickering Castle, seems to have been captured by the Scots, and in the following March went to Scotland to release his hostages (ib. No. 806). In the same month he was granted the custody of the manor of Bentele, Yorkshire, during the minority of Payn de Tibetot or Tiptoft. He attended a great council held at Westminster in June 1324, and was knighted in the same year. On 14 April 1328 he was placed on a commission of oyer and terminer, and in 1330 and 1331–2 again represented Yorkshire in parliament.

Edward III confirmed the grants made to Ughtred, and in 1331 placed him on the commissions of the peace between the Ouse and the Derwent and in the North Riding of Yorkshire. In 1332 he acquired a house and garden called ‘Le Whitehalle’ in Berwick, and in the same year he accompanied Edward Baliol on his invasion of Scotland. The expedition landed at Kinghorn and defeated the Earl of Fife at Dupplin Moor on 12 Aug. Ughtred was apparently present at Baliol's coronation at Scone on 24 Sept., and sat in the Scottish parliament as Baron of Innerwick. On 20 Oct. Baliol granted him the manor of Bonkill, which was confirmed by Edward III on 19 June 1334. In the summer of the latter year the Scots rose against Baliol, who sent Ughtred to Edward with a request for help. Baliol was, however, driven out of Scotland, and during the retreat Ughtred with great gallantry held the bridge at Roxburghe against the Scots and secured Baliol's retreat (Chron. de Melsa, ii. 366; Chron. Edw. I and Edw. II, ii. 109, 120). In the same year he was made a knight-banneret. In 1338 Edward III, having no confidence in Baliol's military talents, required him to entrust the command of Perth, then threatened with a siege by Robert the Steward, to Ughtred. He took over the command on 4 Aug., on condition that he was given a garrison of 220 men in time of peace and eight hundred in time of war (Cal. Doc. rel. to Scotland, 1307–57, No. 1283). These conditions were not kept, and early in 1339 Ughtred petitioned the English government to be relieved of his charge. He was urged to remain until the arrival of reinforcements, but these were not despatched in time, and on 16 Aug. 1339 Ughtred was compelled to surrender. This led to aspersions on his courage, and he complained to parliament at Westminster. His explanations were held sufficient, and in April 1340 the grant of Bonkill was confirmed to him (Rot. Parl. ii. 449 a; Rymer, Fœdera, Record ed. ii. ii. 1094, 1119; Cal. Doc. rel. to Scotland, 1307–57, Nos. 1299, 1307, 1316, 1318, 1327).

In the following year Ughtred was attached to Robert of Artois's expedition against France. Siege was laid to St. Omer, and on 26 July 1340 the French attacked the Flemings and would have raised the siege had not Ughtred with his archers restored the fortunes of the day (Chron. de Melsa, iii. 46; Robert of Avesbury, p. 108). He was again summoned to serve against the French on 13 May 1347; on 14 June 1352 he was appointed warden of the sea coast of Yorkshire, and on 16 April 1360 he again received protection on crossing the seas on the king's service. He is said to have received summonses to parliament from 30 April 1343 to 4 Dec. 1364, and is accordingly generally reckoned a peer (Burke; Courthope). But in 1360 he was styled simply ‘chivaler;’ none of his descendants were summoned to parliament, and it was probably he who represented Yorkshire in the House of Commons in 1344 and 1352 (Official Return, i. 140, 152). He died in 1365, being succeeded by his son Thomas, who was constable of Lochmaben Castle in 1376–7, served against the French in 1377 and 1379, and died in 1401; his will is printed in ‘Testamenta Eboracensia’ (Surtees Soc.), i. 241 sqq.

Anthony Ughtred (d. 1534), a later member of the family, took a prominent part in the French and Scots wars of Henry VIII. During 1513–14 he was marshal of Tournay after its capture from the French, and from 1523 to 1528 he was captain of Berwick. He was subsequently appointed governor of Jersey, and held that office till his death in 1534. His widow, Elizabeth, daughter of Sir John Seymour and sister of Protector Somerset, married Gregory, lord Cromwell, eldest son of Thomas Cromwell (Letters and Papers of Henry VIII, vols. i–x. passim).

[Rot. Parl. ii. 110, 449; Rymer's Fœdera, Record edit. vol. ii.; Cal. Patent Rolls, Edward II and Edward III; Cal. Documents relating to Scotland; Parl. Writs, 1316–25 passim; Chron. of Edward I and Edward II, ed. Stubbs; Chron. de Melsa and Robert of Avesbury (Rolls Ser.); Froissart's Chron. ed. Luce, vol. ii.; Cal. Inq. post mortem; Ridpath's Border History; Burke's Extinct Peerage.]

A. F. P.