Zuccarelli, Francesco (DNB00)

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ZUCCARELLI or ZUCCHERELLI, FRANCESCO (1702–1788), landscape-painter, was born at Pitigliano in Tuscany in 1702. He studied first under Paolo Anesi at Florence, and then under Giovanni and Pietro Nelli at Rome. He began as an historical painter, but afterwards confined himself to decorative landscape with figures in a pretty but insipid style, which became popular throughout Europe. On the recommendation of Joseph Smith (1682–1770) [q. v.], the British consul at Venice, he visited England. After staying five years in London, during which he was employed as scene-painter at the Opera House and painted some views on the Thames and some subjects from Shakespeare, he returned to Venice. He came to England again in 1752. He belonged to the Incorporated Society of British Artists, and was one of the foundation members of the Royal Academy. He was patronised by the royal family and the nobility. Frederick, prince of Wales, bought a great many of his works, which now fill a room at Windsor Castle. Many of his pictures were engraved by Vivares, Byrne, Woollett, Bartolozzi, and others. Five of his pictures are in the Glasgow Gallery, one in that of Edinburgh, and there is a tempera drawing by him in the South Kensington Museum. Other works by him are to be found in the Louvre, the Hermitage at St. Petersburg, the Brera at Milan, and other public galleries throughout Europe. He was a friend of Canaletti, who sometimes painted the buildings in his landscapes. He discovered the genius of Richard Wilson [q. v.] for landscape-painting, and persuaded him to leave portrait-painting for that branch of art. He returned to Italy in 1773, and was ruined by the suppression of a monastery in which he had invested his savings. He died at Florence in 1788. In the early part of his life he made some etchings after the designs of Andrea del Sarto and others.

[Redgraves' Century; Redgrave's Dict.; Edwards's Anecdotes; Nollekens and his Times; Bryan's Dict. ed. Armstrong.]

C. M.