# An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter VII

 An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary by John Batchelor Chapter VII: The Numerals
CHAPTER VII.

THE NUMERALS.

The numerals assume four forms in the Ainu language; viz.; first, the Radical form; second, the Substantive form; third, the Ordinal form; fourth, the Adverbial form.

The radical forms of the numerals are as follows:—

1 But in counting fish 10 is An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex; while in counting animals 10 is An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex.
2 In counting fish 20 is An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, i.e. one bundle, or “one load.”

Twenty, more literally a “score,” is the highest unit ever present to the Ainu mind when counting. Thus forty is “two score” (An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex); sixty is “three score” (An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex); eighty is “four score” (An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex); and a hundred is “five score” (An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex).

Numbers may be framed by means of scores to an indefinite extent; but in actual practice, the numbers are rarely, if ever, met with. At the present day, the simpler Japanese method of numeration is rapidly supplanting the cumbrous native system.

In order to arrive at a clear comprehension of the Ainu system of counting, the student must carefully note the following two particulars:—

(a.)—The word An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex commonly means, “excess,” “redundance;” but with the numerals it signifies, ”addition,” “to add to.” It is always placed after the number which is conceived of as added.

(b.)—The particle An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex signifies “to subtract,” “to take away from,” and follows the number which is supposed to be taken away. Care must therefore be taken not to confound the particle with the An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex which is used as a preposition, and which means, “to,” “towards.” Thus An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al is, “two added to ten,” i.e. 12; and An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, is “nine added to, ten taken from, two score;” and so on.

Note also the following expressions:—An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, “one and a half;” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, “two and a half;” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, “three and a half.”

The radical form is always placed before the noun to which it refers; e.g.

 An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, one cup. An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, two arrows. An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, three wild geese. An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, four swans. An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, one hare. An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, two salmon trout. An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, three eggs. An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, four spiders.

The radical form An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex is also often used as the indefinite article An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex or An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex. See Chapter IV. The Article.

§ II. THE SUBSTANTIVE FORM.

The substantive form of the numeral is two-fold. For persons it is formed by adding An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, in some of the numbers abbreviated to the single consonant An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex. For things and animals it is formed by adding An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, or the letter An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex alone. An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex means “person,” and An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex means “thing,” e.g.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, “a person”

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, one person.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, two persons.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, three persons.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, four persons.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, five persons.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, six persons.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, seven persons.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, eight persons.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, nine persons.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, ten persons.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, eleven persons.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, twelve persons.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, twenty persons.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, thirty persons.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, thirty-one persons.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, one hundred persons.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, one thing.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, two things.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, three things.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, four things.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, five things.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, six things.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, seven things.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, eight things.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, nine things.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, ten things.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, eleven things.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, twelve things.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, twenty things.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, twenty-one things.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, thirty-one things.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, one hundred persons.

[N.B.—Note carefully the repetition of the noun after each numeral.]

With the numbers two and three, quadrupeds and sometimes even inanimate objects are counted with the word An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, e.g.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, one dog.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, two dogs.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, three dogs.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, four dogs.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, and An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex may be considered to correspond in some degree to the so-called “classifiers” or “auxiliary numerals” of Chinese, Japanese, and many other Eastern languages; but no further trace of such “classifiers” exists.

The radical form can never be used in answer to a question. In such a case one of the substantive forms must be employed.

Some nouns are excluded by their nature from both the above categories. The following are a few such words. An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex “god or gods”; An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, “a day;” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex “day;” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex “night,” “black.”

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex is counted as follows:—

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, one god.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, two gods.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, three gods.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, four gods.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, five gods.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, six gods.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, seven gods.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, eight gods.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, nine gods.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, ten gods.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, eleven gods.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, twelve gods.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, twenty gods.

And so on.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex is counted as follows:—

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, one day.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, two days.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, three days.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, four days.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, five days.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, six days.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, seven days.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, eight days.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, nine days.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, ten days.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, eleven days.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, twelve days.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, thirteen days.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, twenty days.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, thirty days.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, forty days.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, fifty days.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, one hundred days.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex is counted as follows:—

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, one day.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, two days.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, three days.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, four days.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, five days.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, six days.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, seven days.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, eight days.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, nine days.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, ten days.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, eleven days.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, twelve days.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, thirteen days.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, fourteen days.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, twenty days.

And so on.

Sometimes An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex is counted thus:—

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, one day.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, three days.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, two days.

And so on.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex is counted as follows:—

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, one night.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, two nights.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al (also An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex), three nights.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, four nights.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, five nights.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, six nights.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, seven nights.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, eight nights.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, nine nights.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, ten nights.

And so on; i.e. adding An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex and An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex wherever An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex and An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex would be added to express “day.”

Sometimes An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex is counted thus:—

 An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al. One night. An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al. Two nights. An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al. Three nights.

And so on.

§ III. THE ORDINAL FORM.

The ordinal numbers are expressed in two ways. The first is as follows:—

And so on; adding An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex to the radical form wherever An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, or An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex would be placed for the substantive form.

The second way is as follows, but goes no higher than ten. Above ten the first method alone is in use:—

The ordinals are rarely met with. When they are used, the noun is preceded by An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, e.g.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, the first man.
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, the first house.

And so on.

§ V. MISCELLANEOUS.

The following miscellaneous expressions may be conveniently here noted.

Pairs of articles are expressed by the word An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, “both,” placed before the noun, e.g.:—

singular. plural.
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, the leg; foot. An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, both legs or feet.
1An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, a cheek. An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, both cheeks.
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, a shoe. An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, both shoes.
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, a foot; a leg. An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, both feet or legs.
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, a heel. An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, both heels.
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, an ear. An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, both ears.
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, a knee. An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, both knees.
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, a jaw. An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, both jaws.
1 This word is often pronounced An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex.

One of a pair is expressed by prefixing the word An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex to the noun, e.g.:—

 An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, insteps. An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, one instep. An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, lips. An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, one lip. An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, eyebrows. An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, one eyebrow. An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, eyes. An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, one eye. An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, shoulders. 2An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, one shoulder. An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, hands. An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, one hand. An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, ankles. An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, one ankle.
2 Before An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex the final An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex may be changed into An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, thus making An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex.

It may be found useful to note also the following phrases:—

 (a.) An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, one by one. An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, two and two. An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, three and three. $\left . \begin{array}{lcl} \\ \\ \end{array} \right \rbrace$ Used only of persons.

And so on.

 (b.) An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, singly. An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, by twos. An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, by threes. $\left . \begin{array}{lcl} \\ \\ \end{array} \right \rbrace$ Used only of persons.

And so on.

 (c.) An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, one by one. An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, two and two. An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, singly. An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, by twos. $\left . \begin{array}{lcl} \\ \\ \\ \end{array} \right \rbrace$ Used of animals and things.

And so on.

 (d.) An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, a month and a half. An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, two months and a half.

And so on.