Discoveries in Australia/Volume 1/Appendix

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Discoveries in Australia, Volume 1 by John Lort Stokes
This chapter includes material authored by Edward Doubleday, John Edward Gray, John Richardson and Adam White.



Ichthyiætus leucogaster.
Ieracidea Berigora.
Astur approximans, Vig. & Horsf.
Collocalia arborea.
Podargus humeralis, Vig. & Horsf.
— Phalænoïdes, Gould.
Eurostopodus guttatus.
Merops ornatus, Lath.
Dacelo Leachii.
— cervina, Gould.
Halcyon Macleayii, Jard. & Selb.
Alcyone azurea.
Dicrurus bracteatus, Gould.
Colluricincla cinerea, Gould.
Pachycephala gutturalis.
— melanura, Gould.
— pectoralis, Vig. & Horsf.
— Lanoïdes, Gould.
Artamus sordidus.
Cracticus destructor.
— argenteus.
Grallina Australis.
Graucalus melanops.
— albiventris.
Pitta Iris, Gould.
Oriolus viridis.
Cinclosoma punctatum, Vig. & Horsf.
Malurus Lamberti, Vig. & Horsf.
— melanocephalus, Vig. & Horsf.
— splendens.
— Brownii, Vig. & Horsf.
Stipiturus malachurus.
Cysticola exilis ?
Ephthianura albifrons.
Sericornis frontalis.
Anthus pallescens.
Cincloramphus cruralis.
Mirafra ? — ?
Petroica multicolor.
Zosterops luteus.
Pardalotus punctatus.
— uropygialis, Gould.
Dicæum hirundinaceum.
Amadina Lathami.
— gouldiæ, Gould.
Estrelda oculea.
— phæton.
— annulosa, Gould.
— temporalis.
Donacola pectoralis, Gould.
— flaviprymna, Gould.
Emblema picta, Gould.
Poephila acuticauda, Gould.
Rhipidura albiscapa, Gould.
— isura, Gould.
— Motacilloïdes.
Seisura volitans.
Piezorhynchus nitidus, Gould.
Myïagra platyrostris.
Gerygone — (like G. albogularis).
Chlamydera nuchalis.
Cacatua galerita, Vieill.
— Eos.
Calyptorhynchus macrorhynchus, Gould.
Platycercus Brownii.
Melopsittacus undulatus.
Nymphicus Novæ-Hollandiæ.
Pezoporus formosus.
Trichoglossus Swainsonii, Jard. & Selb.
— rubritorquis, Vig. & Horsf.
— versicolor, Vig.
Climacteris melanura, Gould.
Sittella leucoptera, Gould.
Chalcites lucidus.
Eudynamys Orientalis.
Centropus Phasianus.
Meliphaga Novæ-Hollandiæ, Vig. & Horsf.
Glyciphila ocularis, Gould.
— fasciata, Gould.
Ptilotis versicolor, Gould.
— flavescens, Gould.
— flava, Gould.
— chrysotis.
Entomophila albogularis, Gould.
— rufogularis, Gould.
Acanthogenys rufogularis, Gould.
Tropidorhynchus citreogularis, Gould.
— argenticeps, Gould.
Acanthorhynchus superciliosus, Gould.
Myzomela sanguineolenta.
— erythrocephala, Gould.
— pectoralis, Gould.
— obscura, Gould.
Entomyza albipennis.
Myzantha lutea, Gould.
Ptilinopus superbus.
Leucosarcia picata.
Phaps chalcoptera.
— elegans.
Geophaps Smithii.
— plumifera, Gould.
Petrophassa albipennis, Gould.
Geopelia cuneata.
— placida, Gould.
Carpophaga luctuosa.
Macropygia Phasianella.
Œdicnemus grallarius.
Hæmatopus fuliginosus, Gould.
— longirostris.
Turnix melanotus, Gould.
— castanotus, Gould.
— varius.
— velox, Gould.
— pyrrhothorax, Gould.
Synoicus australis.
— ? Chinensis.
Ardea Novæ-Hollandiæ, Lath.
Nycticorax Caledonicus, Less.
Falcinellus igneus.
Numenius Australasianus, Gould.
Recurvirostra rubricollis, Temm.
Strepsilas collaris, Linn.
Pelidna Australis.
Tribonyx ventralis.
Rallus Philippensis.
Eulabeornis castaneoventris.
Cygnus atratus.
Leptotarsis Eytoni.
Dendrocygna arcuata.
Nettapus pulchellus, Gould.
Tadorna Radjah.
Casarca Tadornoïdes.
Biziura lobata.
Bernicla jubata.
Anas Novæ-Hollandiæ.
Spatula Rhynchotis.
Malacorhynchus membranaceus.
Podiceps poliocephalus, Jard. & Selb.
Phalacrocorax carboïdes, Gould.
— melanoleucus, Vieill.



Ch. Spec.—B. caudâ tot aculeolis quot squamis armatâ; genâ totâ squamulis stipatis asperâ, nec lines lævibus decursâ; squamis majoribus rotundatis post aperturam branchiorum; fasciâ frontali et maculâ caudæ nigris: fascia nigrâ laterali ab oculo ad caudam extensâ, cumque pari suo ter trans dorsum conjugatâ.—RADII. D. 3-1 | 25; A. 1 | 23; C. 12; P. 14.

PLATE 1. f. 4, 5.

Profile oval, with a somewhat convex nape, and the face descending in a very slightly concave line. The mouth is on a level with the middle height of the body, and forms the obtuse end of the oval. The white teeth have their points ranged evenly, the eye is high up but does not touch the profile, and the two contiguous openings of the nostrils are immediately before it. The gill opening inclines obliquely forward as it descends, touches the middle line of height at its lower end, and its length is equal to a fifth of the altitude of the body. The scales anterior to the pectorals and gill openings are closer and finer than on the hinder parts of the fish. On the body each scale is roughened by vertical rows of blunt points, which become more acute towards the hinder part of the flanks, and on the tail one of the points of each scale rises into a minute spine curved towards the caudal fin. In the narrowest part of the tail there are not above three or four of these spines in a vertical row, but there are ten or more between the posterior parts of the dorsal and anal. Immediately behind the gill openings there are three roundish scales larger than the others. The scales of the cheeks are studded with points, which are more minute and rounded than the others, and there are no smooth intervening lines, such as exist on the cheeks of some other species. The dorsal spine is rather short, thickish, and not acute. It is strongly roughened by five or six rows of short bluntish and truncated teeth. The soft dorsal and anal commence with a simple flexible ray which is not jointed. The other rays have each from four to six rough points near their bases. The rays of the caudal are alternate. The ventral spine is short and blunt, and is armed with short divaricated teeth, some of which are forked. The roughness runs forward on the chine or ventral line, until it passes gradually into the ordinary scales of the head. The dewlap is very slightly extensible, and but little developed. It is supported by six thread-like rays, which are all divided to the base.

A black band crosses the forehead from eye to eye. The upper half of the eye is bordered with black. The first dorsal exclusive of its last ray is of the same hue; a black band descends from it, and two from the second dorsal, which meet in a stripe that extends from the eye to the tail, the whole bearing some resemblance to the traces of a coach-horse. There is also a black mark on the upper surface of the tail, and a minute brownish speck on each scale, which specks form very faint rows on the cheeks and belly. The ground tint is pale or whitish, with some duskiness on the face, as if it had been coloured when recent. Length, 2¼ inches. Height of body, 1 1/8 inch.

Habitat.—The western coasts of Australia.




Ch. Spec.—C. pinnis intaminatis; maculâ argentatâ post os maxillare, alterâ in summâ genâ pone oculum et tertiâ majori in axillâ pectorali; lineâ laterali argenteo-punctatâ.—RADII. B.6; D. 3 | —28 | 7; A. 2 | 25; C. 11; P. 11; V.1 | 2.

PLATE 1. f. 1, 2, 3.

This singularly delicate and clear-looking fish has, after long immersion in spirits, a pale flesh colour, with transparent and spotless fins. A bright silvery streak descends from the angle of the preorbitar to the corner of the mouth, where it dilates a little. A speck of the same colour exists within the upper limb of the preoperculum, and immediately behind the pectoral fin there is a large oblong one. The little tubes forming the lateral line are also silvery. It is with much doubt that I name this species as distinct from the C. australis of the Histoire des Poissons, but there some points in M. Valenciennes' description of that fish which I cannot reconcile with the specimen now under consideration. and first, with respect to scales, M. Valenciennes states that he could detect none in australis, but in axillaris there are minute round scales, lying rather wide of each other, each having central umbo and lines radiating from it to the circumference. These scales are not easily seen while the skin continues moist, but become apparent as it dries, and are most numerous towards the tail. The head of axillaris is scaleless, and a row of pores runs along the lower jaw, up the preoperculum, and along the temporal groove. The eye is also encircled by similar pores. The muscular fibres shine through the delicate skin as in australis, and the teeth on the jaws and vomer appear to be similar. On comparing the specimen of axillaris with the figure of australis in the Histoire des Poissons, the second dorsal does not appear undulated as in the latter, but the spinous rays increase gradually in height from the first, and the anterior dorsal is proportionally higher; the distance also between the ventrals and anus is considerably less in proportion to the length of the head, which is contained four times and a half in the total length of the fish, while the height of the body is contained five times. The proportions of australis are stated differently. Length of specimen, 3.42 inches.

Habitat.—King George's Sound (Benj. Bynoe, Esq. Surgeon of the Beagle).

Since the above notice was drawn up I have examined a cristiceps upwards of six inches long, which was sent from Botany Bay by Sir Everard Home to the College of Surgeons. This does not clear up the doubt respecting the identity of australis and cristiceps. It has completely lost its colours, and shows neither the greenish bands of australis, nor the silvery marks of axillaris, it has, however, the form of the fins of the latter, with the number of rays exactly as in australis, a space between the ventrals and anus equal to the length of the head, scales on the body, as in axillaris, and similar pores on the head. Better materials are required to enable us to decide whether axillaris be a nominal species or not.




RADII.—D. 12 | 9; A. 3 | 5; C. 13 66; P. 17; V. 1 | 5.

PLATE 2. f. 6, 7, 8, and 9, nat. size.

The Scorpænæ have so strong a generic resemblance among themselves that it is difficult to detect the distinctive characters of the species, especially as the colours of the recent fish speedily fade when macerated in spirits, or when the mucous integument decays or is injured. We have received but a single example of the subject of this article, which is named in honour of the able commander of the Beagle.

The species bears a near resemblance to the Sc. militaris, but differs from it in having no spinous point terminating the intra orbitar ridges, and in the distribution of the scales on the cheek and gill cover. The spinous points on the head approach very near to those of bufo and porcus. The inferior preorbitar tooth is acutely spinous, and points directly downwards; the two anterior ones are inconspicuous, and not very acute, and the smaller upper posterior one observed in most Scorpænæ is obsolete, or, at least, completely hidden by the integuments. The nasal spines are, as usual, small, simple, and acute. The three supra orbitar teeth are smaller than in militaris, and the middle one reclines so as to be concealed by the integument instead of standing boldly up. The two low ridges between the orbits do not end in spinous points. The lateral ridges continued from the orbits over the supra scapulars, and the temporal ridges which are parallel to them, but run farther back, contain each four teeth. The infra-orbitar ridge is slightly uneven anteriorly, and two reclining teeth may be made out at its posterior end. The preoperculum is curved in the segment of a circle, and has a short spine, with a smaller one on its base, opposite to the abutment of the infra-orbitar ridge. Beneath this spine there are four angular points on the edge of the bone. The opercular spines are as usual two in number, being the tips of two low even divergent ridges, with a curved notch in the edges of the bone between them. The coracoid bone is notched above the pectoral fin, the notch being terminated below by a spine, and above by an acute corner. There are no scales between the cranial ridges on the top of the head, nor in the concave inter-orbital space. A single row of five or six scales traverses the cheek below the infra-orbitar ridge. The temples before the upper limb of the preoperculum are densely scaly, as is also the gill flap above the upper opercular ridge. The acute membranous lobe which fills the notch between the two opercular spines is likewise scaly, and there are a few scales about the origin of the ridges, but the space between the ridges, the sub-operculum, and the inter-operculum, are naked.

There is a short fringed superciliary cirrhus, and some slender filaments from other parts of the head, as shown in the figure, also lax skinny tips on the inferior points of the preorbitar and preoperculum, but the condition of the specimen does not admit of other cirrhi being properly made out if such actually existed. In the axilla of the pectoral there are four or five pale round spots. The figure, which is of the natural size, represents the markings which remain after long maceration in weak spirit. If there be a black mark in the first dorsal, as in the militaris, it is effaced in our specimen. Length, 2.4 inches.

HABITAT.—The coasts of Australia.



Ch. Spec.—Sm. rostro porosissimo; fasciâ obscurâ e rostro per oculum rectè ad caudam tractâ; fasciâ alterâ in summo dorso.

RADII. B. 6; D. 10 | 9; A. 3 | 7; C. 15 55; V. 1 | 5.


This Smaris has fewer dorsal rays than any species described in the Histoire des Poissons, and a shorter body than the Mediterranean vulgaris. Its shape is fusiform, the greatest height, which is at the ventrals, and which exceeds twice the thickness, being contained exactly four times in the total length, caudal included. The thickness at the gill cover is greater than that of the body, which lessens very gradually to the end of the tail. The snout is transversely obtuse, but is rather acute in profile. A cross section of the body at the ventrals is ovate, approaching to an oval, the obtuse end being upwards. In profile the curve of the belly is rather greater than that of the back, and the face slopes downwards to the mouth, nearly in a straight line.

The head forms rather less than a quarter of the whole length. The eye is large, and approaches near the profile without trenching on it. The mouth is scarcely cleft so far back as the nostrils. The intermaxillaries are moderately protractile, and curve a little downwards.

The teeth are disposed on the jaws in rather broad villiform bands, the individual teeth being setaceous and erect. They become a little taller nearer the outside, and the outer terminal cross row, composed of three on each side of the symphysis, may be termed small canines. On the lower jaw the villiform teeth in front are more uniformly small, and there is an acute row of subulate teeth, which are tallest in the middle of the limbs of the jaw, beyond which, towards the corners of the mouth, there is an even row of very small teeth. At the end of the jaw there is a small canine on each side exterior to all the others.

The fore edge of the preorbitar is slightly curved in form of the italic f, the lower corner curving forward abruptly, so as to produce a notch, which is filled up by the extremity of the retracted maxillary. The whole end of the snout, back to the eyes, including the disk of the preorbitar, is minutely porous, and a row of large pores borders the upper half of the orbit.

The jaws, the uneven lobate disk of the preoperculum and the branchiostegous membrane are naked, the rest of them being scaly. The scales of the cheek are disposed in six concentric curves, the same arrangement extending to the gill-cover, but less conspicuously. A small flat spinous point projects beyond the scales of the operculum, which has a very narrow membranous edging. The scales are ciliated. The caudal is slightly notched at the end, its basal half is scaly, as is also the base of the pectorals; the rest of the fins are scaleless. The dorsal is nearly even, its height being, however, rather greatest at the fourth or fifth spine. Its end is rounded.

A dark stripe, commencing at the top of the snout, runs through the eye straight to the tail, and a fainter one occupies the summit of the back to the end of the dorsal. The curve of the lateral line rises above the lower stripe anteriorly, but coincides with it beyond the posterior end of the dorsal. The rest of the fish is silvery, and the fins are not marked. These colours are described from a specimen preserved in spirits. Length, 5 inches.

HABITAT.—King George's Sound. (Bynoe).



Chelmon marginalis, Richardson, Annals and Mag. of Nat. Hist. 10, page 28, September 1842.

RADII. D.9 | 31; A. 3-2l; C. 17 33; P. 16; V. 1 | 5.

PLATE 4. natural size.

This fish is described in the Annals of Natural History from a dried specimen brought from Port Essington by Mr. Gilbert. It has very much the form of Ch. rostratus, but wants the eye-like spot on the dorsal. Several examples in spirits were brought by the officers of the Beagle from the north-west coast of Australia, all of which show a broad band passing between the dorsal and anal fins, which was not visible in the dried specimen. This band is bounded anteriorly by one, and posteriorly by two whitish lines. In the Annals the anal fin is described as being more angular than the dorsal, but in the specimens in spirits the reverse appears to be the case. This variation depends on the degree or expansion of the fins, and both may be much rounded by pulling the rays apart. The exact distribution of the bands may be clearly made out from the figure, which is very correct. The rays of the fins probably vary in number in different individuals, and our careful enumeration of those specimens kept in spirits, as recorded above, gives two or three soft rays more in the dorsal and anal, than we were able to detect in the dried skin. Length, 5¼ inches.

HABITAT.—Northern and north-western coasts of Australia.


Ch. Gen.—Corpus compressissimum, assulæforme: caput crassius, minus altum, declive. Os parvum. Maxilla inferior porifera, ore clauso ascendens, hinc, ore hiante, ultra maxillam speriorem modicè protractam extensa.

Preoperculum margine integro nec spinifero, disco arcto, inæquali, esquamoso, genam squamosam posticè et infrà cingens. Operculum tridentatum: Suboperculum crenatum; utrumque et interoperculum latiusculum squamis satis magnis tecta. Dentes villiformes, minuti cum dente canino in media utroque latere maxillæ inferioris et trans apicem utriusque maxillæ dentibus quatuor (vel sex) fortioribus, altioribus, in serie exteriori ordinatis. Dentes vomeris et palati acuti, stipati minuti. Dentes pharyngei, acerosi inequales, acuti.

Membrana branchialis radiis sex sustentata, interoperculis liberis, accumbentibus tecta.

Squamæ satis magnæ, nitidæ ciliatæ. Linea lateralis anticè abruptè ascendens, dein dorso parallela et approximata, posticè diffracta infràque per mediam caudam cursum resumens.

Pinnæ magnæ esquamosæ. Pinna dorsi anique radiis tribus, spinosis, ceteris articulatis. Pinnæ ventrales sub pectorales offixæ, propter tenuitatem ventris invicem approximatæ.

The strong resemblance which the subject of this article bears to the Pseudochromis olivaceus of Dr. Rüppell (Neue Worlbethiere, page 8, taf. 2, fig. 3) induced me at first sight to refer it to the same genus, but on examination I found that very material alterations would require to be made in the generic characters assigned to Pseudochromis,* to enable them to apply to our fish.

The above character has therefore been drawn up, and ichthyologists may consider Assiculus, either as a proper generic form, or as merely a subgenus or subdivision of Pseudochromis, with an extended character, according to their different views of arrangement. The last named genus, as described and restricted by Dr. Ruppell, from whom all our knowledge of it is derived, has the jaw teeth disposed in a single row, and the minute palatine teeth of a sphæroidal form. The operculum has its angle prolonged, and is not toothed, nor is the suboperculum crenated; and a considerable number of the rays of the dorsal fin, succeeding to the three spinous ones, are simple but flexible, the posterior ones only being articulated and divided in the usual manner. Linnæus has briefly characterized two fish (Labrus ferrugineus, Bl. Schn. page 251, and Labrus marginalis, Id. page 263) which most probably belong, either to Pseudochromis or Assiculus, and which are to be placed, M. Valenciennes thinks, near Malacanthus, among the Labridæ. Now, this family, according to M. Agassiz, is essentially cycloid in the structure of its scales, although there is a slight departure from the rigid characters of the order in the serrated preopercular of Crenilabrus, Ctenolabrus, and some others, and in the spine bearing operculum of Malacanthus. The latter genus is, moreover, described by M. Agassiz as possessing scales with toothed edges, and rough to the touch when the finger is drawn forwards. It has the simple intestinal canal without cæca, which is proper to the Labridæ. The intestine of Pseudochromis is similarly formed, the stomach being continuous with the rest of the alimentary canal, and not distinguished by any cul de sac. Having but one specimen of Assiculus for examination, I have not been able to submit it to dissection to see whether the structure of its intestines be the same or not, but both it and Pseudochromis differ very widely from the labroid type in their scales, possessing the peculiar firm, shining, strongly ciliated structure, which we observe in Glyphisodon and its allies, and in the lateral line being interrupted in a precisely similar manner. Chromis and Plesiops have already been removed by M. Valenciennes from the Labridæ to the Glyphisodontidæ, and it is with them that we feel inclined to range Assiculus and Pseudochromis, notwithstanding the discrepancies in the form of the intestinal canal. We can, however, trace a gradation in the variation of form. The normal number of cæca in the Glyphysodontidæ is three. In Chromis there are generally two small ones, while the Bolti of the Nile, or the Chromis niloticus of Cuvier, has no pyloric cæcum, but a large cul de sac to the stomach. Malacanthus is widely separated from the Glyphisodontidæ by its continuous lateral line. Since these remarks were written I have seen Müller's paper, entitled, Beitrage zur Kentniss der naturlichen Familien der Fische, in which the Chromidæ are indicated as a distinct family from the Glyphisodontidæ, which latter he names Labroidei stenoidei; and Pseudochromis, it is stated, belongs to neither of these families, because it has twofold pharyngeals with a division between them. Dr. Müller promises a separate article on Pseudochromis, which I have not yet seen.

* M. Swainson, considering this name as very objectionable, has proposed Labristoma instead. Both names are founded on the resemblance which the fish bears to another genus, in whole or in part, and the objection which has been made to the one is equally valid against the other.




RADII. BR. 6; D. 3 | 23; A. 3 | 12; C. 21; P. 18 | V. 1, 5.

PLATE 2. f. 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5.

This fish is as thin in the body as a lath, whence the generic name. Its greatest width is at the cheek, as shown by the section f 3, where the transverse diameter is about half the height. Figure 4 shows the section at the gill cover, and third dorsal spine, where the thickness is less; and figure 5, represents a section behind the ventrals, where the thickness is little more than a tithe of the height, and it gradually decreases to the caudal fin. The oblong profile is highest at the third dorsal spine, whence it descends with a slightly convex curve to the mouth, which is low down--the under jaw when extended, being nearly on a line with the belly. The height of the tail between the vertical fins is equal to half the greatest height of the body. The dorsal and ventral lines are both acute, especially the former, and the medial line of the nape continues acute to the orbits.

The length of the head, measured from the upper jaw, is contained four times and a half in the total length of the fish. The large round eye, situated near the upper profile, fills more than a quarter of this length. The orbit is surrounded by a ring of muciferous canals, with open orifices, which are the only exterior vestiges of the suborbitar chain. The small mouth descends obliquely and scarcely reaches back to the orbit. The intermaxillaries are moderately protractile, but the lower jaw, when depressed, projects still further forward. The maxillary widens towards its lower end, which curves a little forwards. Three pores exist on each limb of the lower jaw.

The teeth of the upper jaw present a fine, but rather uneven and broad cardiform surface at the symphysis, which narrows to a single row towards the corner of the mouth, where they are a little longer and more subulate. Four canine teeth stand across the end of the jaw anterior to the dental plate, the intermediate ones being shorter than the outer ones. The dentition of the under jaw differs in the dental band being narrower, and in there being a conspicuous canine in the middle of each limb of the jaw. There are also six canines standing across the extreme tips of the jaw, opposed to the upper ones. Most of the teeth are slightly curved backwards. The chevron of the vomer projects from the roof of the mouth, and its surface is armed by minute teeth in about three or four densely crowded rows. The palatine teeth are still more minute, and the band is four or five deep. The teeth, when examined with a lens, appear to be very acute and in nowise spherical. The pharyngeal teeth are subulate and acute, and of unequal heights. There seems to be only one inferior pharyngeal bone below; but without dissection this could not be clearly made out. The outer branchial rakers are long.

The narrow, slightly pitted, scaleless disk of the preoperculum bounds the scaly cheek behind and below, and has an entire edge with neither spine nor acute angle at the bend. The other pieces of the gill cover are closely covered with scales, only a little smaller than those of the body. The pretty wide thin inter-operculum lays freely over the gill membranes, and covers them when shut up. The sub-operculum is minutely crenulated on the edge, and has a small sub-membranous tip, which projects a little beyond the three opercular teeth. A small curved notch marks the separation between the interoperculum and sub-operculum.

The scales extend on the crown of the head to the middle of the orbits. The snout, lips, jaws, the place at the corner of the mouth over which the maxillary glides and the gill membrane are scaleless. The scales of the body are very regularly disposed, showing rhomboidal disks when in situ, with strongly ciliated edges. The lateral line ascends at its commencement and bends rather suddenly under the first soft dorsal ray to run near and parallel to the ridge of the back. It terminates beneath the sixth ray from the end of the fin, but recommences on the fourth scale beneath, and runs in the middle height of the tail to the base of the caudal. Two or three of the scales before its recommencement, have a minute pit in the middle of their disks, as is not unusual with the Glyphisodons. The first part of the lateral line forms an almost continuous tubular ridge traced on thirty-eight scales of the second row from the summit of the back; the posterior part traverses six or seven scales. There are twelve or thirteen scales in a vertical row on the side of the body.

The anus, situated a short way before the anal fin, has a very small aperture.

There are no scales on the fin membranes. The three dorsal spines are short, graduated, moderately stout, and pungent. The twenty-three soft rays are all distinctly articulated, and more or less branched. The last ray is divided to the base, and is graduated with the two preceding ones, giving a rounded form to the posterior tip of the fin. The specimen had the anterior part of the fin frayed a little, so that it is probable that the soft rays are higher and less distinctly branched than the artist has represented them to be in copying the example placed before him. The ventrals are in a line with the tip of the gill cover and first soft dorsal ray, and from the extreme narrowness of the pelvis are close to each other. They are tapering, pointed, and overlap the beginning of the anal, which, though it have fewer rays than the dorsal, is similar in structure. The pectoral and caudal are much rounded, especially the latter. There is a greater space between the anal and caudal than between the dorsal and the same fin. In the caudal there are twenty rays, including two very short ones above, and the same number below.

The general colour of the specimen, which has been long in spirits, is shining yellowish-brown with several round dots of azure-blue scattered over the body. The cheek is crossed obliquely by a row of three spots. The figure errs in representing the spots as dispersed over the cheek; they are in fact ranged in a row. Length, 2½ inches.

HABITAT.–Coast of Australia.

Haslar Hospital, 28th Oct., 1845.




Head subquadrangular, raised in front, head-shields flat, thin, rather rugose. Nasal shields ovate, triangular, rather anterior, with a groove behind the nostril. Rostral shields triangular, erect. Supranasal none; internasal broad; frontonasal large, contiguous; frontal and interparietal small, frontoparietal and parietal moderate; eyebrow shields, 4-4. Temples scaly, no shields between the orbit and labial plates. Eyes rather small, lower lid opatic, covered with scales. Ears oblong, with a large scale in front. Body fusiform, roundish thick; scales of the back, broad, lozenge-shaped, keeled; keels ending in a dagger point; largest on the hinder parts of the throat and belly; transverse, ovate, 6-sided. Limbs four, strong. Toes elongate, compressed, unequal, clawed; tail short, conical, tapering, depressed; with rings of large, broad, lozenge-shaped, dagger-pointed, spinose scales, with a central series of very broad 6-sided smooth scales beneath.

This genus is intermediate between Cyclodus and Egernia, but quite distinct from both. It differs from Tachydosaurus and Cyclodus in having slender elongated toes like Egernia, in the scales being keeled, and in there being no series of large plates beneath the orbit, and it is easily known from Egernia by the tail being depressed and broad, instead of conical and round. Like all the genera above named, it appears to be peculiar to Australia.


Plate 1.

Olive brown, varied with black and large white spots; shields of the head white, black-edged.

Inhab. Australia.


Head quadrangular, rather tapering in front. Head shields convex, rugose. Nasal shields ovate-triangular, rather anterior, approximate; supranasal none; rostral triangular, erect; internasal lozenge-shaped, as long as broad; frontonasal rhombic, lateral, separate; frontal and interparietal moderate, elongate; frontoparietals 2, rather diverging, contiguous in front; parietal moderate, half ovate. Temple shielded. Orbit without any scales between it and the labial shields. Ears oblong, with 4 small scales in front. Body fusiform. Scales of the back, sides, and upper part of the limbs broad, 6-sided, with a large central keel ending in a spine, larger on the loins, those of the nape 3- or 5-grooved, of the throat and belly thin, broad, ovate, 6-sided. Legs 4, strong. Toes elongate, compressed, unequal, clawed. Tail as long as the body, round, tapering, with 6 series of broad 6-sided, keeled, strongly-spined scales, with a series of broad 6-sided smooth scales.

Cunningham's Egernia. EGERNIA CUNNINGHAMI.

Tiliqua cunninghami. Gray, Proc. Zoo. Soc. 1832–40.

Plate 1.

Olive, white spotted head, brown chin, and beneath white; ears with 3 or 4 pointed scales in front.

Inhab. Australia.


Head large, covered with small rather unequal not imbricate scales. sides of the face rounded, without any large scales upon the edge of the eyebrows. Parotids swollen, unarmed. Nostrils lateral, medial. Throat lax, with a slight cross fold behind. The sides of the neck unarmed. Nape and back with a crest of low angular distant scales. Body compressed, with rings of rather small rhombic keeled rough uniform scales placed in cross rings; of the belly rather larger, obliquely keeled; of the limbs larger. Tail elongated, tapering, rather compressed, with keeled scales, those of the under sides rather truncated, the keel of the scales of the end forming ridges, the upper surface slightly keeled, subdentated. Toes 5-5, moderate, unequal. Femoral and preanal pores none.

The Chelosania. Chelosania brunnea.

Pale brown, rather paler beneath.

Inhabits West Australia.


Head moderate, subquadrangular, covered with regular keeled scales, of the occiput rather smaller. Face-ridge rather angular, edged with small scales. Parotids rather swollen, with a ridge of rather larger conical scales over the ears above. Nostrils lateral, medial. Throat rather lax, with a cross fold behind. Nape and back rounded, not crested. Scales of the back equal, rhombic, keeled, placed in longitudinal series; on the sides smaller, but with the keels forming rather ascending ridges; of the belly similar, in longitudinal series, with the keels sharp and rather produced at the tip. The tail round, tapering, with imbricate rhombic seales, with the keels forming longitudinal ridges. Femoral and preanal pores none. Toes 5-5, unequal.



Pale brown, rather paler beneath; the scales of the back small, sharply keeled, forming longitudinal ridges, which converge together just at the base of the tail towards the two upper ridges formed by the keels of the scales of the tail; of the limbs rather larger.

Inhab. N.W. coast of Australia.


The Crested Grammatophore. GRAMMATOPHORA CRISTATA.

Olive; head black varied, beneath pale; throat, chest and under side of the thighs black; tail black-ringed; scales rather irregular, with a central and two lateral series of compressed keeled scales; nape with a crest of compressed elevated distant scales; sides of the neck with scattered single elongated conical spines; tail tapering, with uniform keeled scales, keeled above, rather dilated at the base, with indistinct cross series of rather larger scales.

Inhab. W. Australia.


Grammatophora Decresii, Gray, Grey's Trav. Austr. ii, not Dum. et Bib.

Black, yellow-spotted and varied, beneath grey, vermiclated with blackish; tail black-ringed; back and nape with a central series of larger keeled scales, with distant cross series of similar scales; sides of the nape and parotids with series of rather larger keeled scales; scales of the back small, subequal; tail tapering, with regular nearly equal keeled scales, and 1 or 2 cross bands of larger scales at the base.

Inhab. W. Australia.

The Yellow-spotted Grammatophore. GRAMMATOPHORA ORNATA.

Black; the back with a series of large yellow spots, smaller on the sides; the tail and limbs yellow-banded, beneath yellow; the throat black-dotted; chest blackish; nape with a slight scaly crest; ears with a few tubercular scales in front; neck with 3 or 4 groups of short tubercular scales on each side; the scales small, ovate, imbricate, keeled, of the middle of the back rather larger, and with a few rather larger (white) ones scattered on the sides; nostril near the front edge of the orbit.

Inhab. W. Australia.


Stokes' Sea Serpent. HYDRUS STOKESII.

Plate 3.

Grey; white beneath; scales of the back, broad, ovate, cordate, keeled; of the sides larger, and of the belly largest, all keeled; of the two central series of the belly rather larger, more acute and smooth. Labial shields, 5, 1, 5, high band-like; the 4 and 5 the highest. 1, cheek scale; 1, anterior, and 3, posterior ocular, the lower hinder largest; the hinder labial shields behind the eye small, the hinder one smallest.

Inhab. Australian Seas.

This species is the giant of the genus, being very many times larger than the Hydrus Major of Shaw (Pelamis Shawi, Messem.) from the coast of India. The body is as thick as a man's thigh, and it must have been a most powerful and dangerous enemy to any person in the water.


Head ovate, depressed, covered with small rather acute scales, with 2 small frontal plates just over the rostral in front; rostral small, triangular, concave in the centre. Nostrils large, rather anterior, in the middle of a rather large plate, with a slight slit to the hinder edge; labial scales rather larger; the lower ones with a concavity in the middle of each scale. Eyes convex, rather large, pupil oblong; throat with small acute scales. Body elongate, compressed, subpentangular; back covered with very small semicircular scales, with a row of larger ovate keeled scales on each side, and 2 or 3 rows of similar larger keeled scales over the vertebral line; the sides covered with moderate ovate keeled scales, rather larger beneath the belly, covered with a series of transverse rounded plates. Tail elongate, rather compressed, subpentangular, tapering, like the back above, and with a single series of rounded transverse plates beneath.




Plate 4.

Bluish-grey, belly and beneath white. Length of body 9, of tail 4, = 13 inches.

Inhab. —

This animal is at once known from all the other Homalopsina, by the three keels on the back, by having only a single series of plates beneath, and in the lower labial shields being pitted.



Crocodilus palustris, Lesson Belanger, Vog. 305. Gray Cat. Reptiles British Museum 62. Crocodilus vulgaris, Dum. and Bibr. Erp. Gen. n. 108. Crocodilus biporcatus, Cuv. Oss. Foss. tome 5 plate 1, fig. 4. Skull. Crocodilus biporcatus raninus, Müller.

Inhabits Victoria River.

Captain Stokes has furnished me with the following note on this species.

"Length in feet inches: of Alligator: 15 0.
From base of head to extremity of nose: 2 2.
Across the base of head: 2 0.
Length of lower jaw: 2 0.

"Teeth in both jaws vary in size, and are variously disposed, as will be seen in the sketch.

In upper jaw on each side of maxillary bone 18 2 incisors.
In lower jaw do. do. 15 2 incisors.

"The largest teeth are 1½ inch in length. The two lower incisors are stronger and longer than the upper, and project through two holes in front part of upper jaw. Breadth across the animal from extreme of one fore foot, across the shoulders, to the other side, 5 feet 2 inches. The fore feet have each five perfect toes, the three inner or first, have long horny nails, slightly curved, the two outer toes have no nails, nor are they webbed. The third and fourth toes are deeply webbed, allowing a wide space between them, which is apparent, even in their passive state. The hind feet are twice the size and breadth of the fore, with four long toes, the two first are webbed as far as the first joint, and the other are strongly webbed to the apex of last joint; the last or outer toe has no nail. From the apex of tail, a central highly notched ridge runs up about midway of it, and there splitting into two branches, passes up on each side of the spine over the back, as far up as the shoulders, gradually diminishing in height to the termination. A central ridge runs down from the nape of the neck, over the spinous processes of the vertebrae (being firmly attached to them by strong ligaments) as far down as the sacrum, diminishing to its termination likewise."

The eggs are oblong, 3 inches and 3 lines long, and 2 inches 8 lines in diameter.

The skull of this specimen, which was presented to the British Museum by Captain Stokes, has exactly the same form and proportions as that of the crocodiles called Goa and Muggar on the Indian continent, and is quite distinct in the characters from the Egyptian species.

A number of large stones, about the size (the largest) of a man's fist, were found in the stomach.

Messrs. Dumeril and Bibron deny that any species of crocodile is found in Australia. See Erpet. Gen. 1 1836, 45.

Insects Plate 1 (Discoveries in Australia).jpg

By Adam White, M. E. S. Assistant in the Zoological
Department, British Museum.

Megacephala australasiæ, Hope, Proc. Ent. Soc., Nov. 1, 1841, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. IX, 425. Stokes, Insects, pl. 1, fig. 1.

Hab. N.W. Australia.

Ænigma cyanipenne, Hope; variety with the whole of the thorax punctulated, pl. 1, fig. 2.

The specimen figured, in other respects seems to me to agree with the species above-mentioned, described briefly by the Reverend F. Hope in the Proceedings of the Entomological Society for November 1, 1841.

Biphyllocera kirbyana, White, [[Journals Of Two Expeditions Of Discovery In North-West And Western Australia/Volume 2/Appendix|App.]] to Grey's [[Journals Of Two Expeditions Of Discovery In North-West And Western Australia|Australia]], [[Journals Of Two Expeditions Of Discovery In North-West And Western Australia/Volume 2|2]] 462. Stokes, pl. 1, fig. 4.

Hab. Australia.

In figure 4. a. are well seen the beautifully pectinated lamellæ of the antennæ in this genus.

The species is of a pitchy brown, beneath it is yellowish and hairy; the margin of the thorax is yellowish, its disk has many short rust-coloured hairs, the elytra have 9 longitudinal impressed lines, the spaces between transversely striolated and somewhat scaled.

Callöodes Grayianus, White, Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Jan. 1845. Stokes, pl. 1, fig. 3.

Head green, punctured, head shield yellowish, sides rounded, somewhat straight in front, under side of head bronzy ferruginous. Thorax narrow, the sides slightly rounded so as to be almost continuous with the lateral line of the elytra; behind it projects in the middle, and is notched over the scutellum: of a lively glossy green, the sides broadly margined with yellow. Elytra much depressed, especially on the sides and behind, having a wide but shallow sinus on the sides; surface punctured, the punctures generally running in striæ, some of the rows placed in slightly grooved lines: lively glossy green, sides broadly margined with yellow. Legs and underside ferruginous, bases of abdominal segments green, as are the tips of the femora and all the tarsi: front edge of tibiæ of fore-legs without teeth, hind tibiæ moderate.

Hab. New Holland, N.W. Coast.

Cetonia (Diaphonia) notabilis. Pl. 1, fig. 5.

Head for the most part yellow, the yellow extending in a point to beyond a line drawn between the eyes, behind deep black, margin somewhat thickened, brownish, four small obscure spots in front; antennæ and palpi brown. Thorax, with many scattered punctures, yellow, with a large black mark occupying the greater part of the upper surface, narrowed and notched in front, sinuated slightly on the sides, and with two notches in the middle behind. Elytra with many punctures arranged indistinctly in lines, brownish yellow, the suture, tip and extreme edge of each elytron narrowly margined with brown; scutellum yellowish, black at the base and tip. Abdomen beneath yellow, each segment margined with brown, the pygidium yellow, with two largish oblique black spots. Legs black, posterior femora edged in front with yellow. Length 9 lines.

Hab. New Holland.

This species seems to be allied to Schizorhina succinea Hope. Trans. Ent. Soc. iii 281.*

* I may here mention, that in the collection of the British Museum there is a female of the Diaphonia frontalis, in colour closely resembling the male; and that the D. cunninghami of G. R. Gray, regarded by both Burmeister and Schaum as the female of D. frontalis, is decidedly a distinct species; it was described and figured by M. M. Gory and Percheron, from a female specimen now in the British Museum.

Stigmodera elegantula. Pl. 1, fig. 6.

Head cleft between the eyes; Prothorax above and beneath vermilion, with a greenish black spot in the middle, and two small black dots, one on each side. Elytra with four double rows of impressed punctures, united at the end. Apex with two sharp points, the outer the longest, a notch between them; the elytra are vermilion, the base has a narrow transverse green band, an angular dark green spot before the middle, with two deep notches in front, and rounded behind, behind this and connected with it by a narrow sutural line of the same colour, is a fascia running quite across the angle in the middle of each elytron, and dilated on the suture, the tip of each elytron is broadly pointed with the same dark green; meso- and metathorax beneath, dark green, as are the legs. Abdomen vermilion.

Length about 6 lines.

Hab. N. W. Coast of New Holland.

This species comes near Conognatha concinnata Hope. Proceedings of the Entomological Society Annals of Natural History xi. 318.

Stigmodera saundersii. Hope Trans. Ent. Soc. IV. 213. Stokes, Ins. pl. 1, fig. 8.

Black, with a bluish green hue. Head in front bronzed, deeply punctured. Thorax deeply punctured, with three deep black longitudinal lines above, the middle one broadest: Elytra orange red, with four keels and two rows of deep punctures between each; edge slightly serrated; end of each tapering so as to leave a notch when both are closed; tip broadly black, inclined to green in some lights; a large roundish black patch common to both elytra on the middle, base narrowly edged with black, the shoulders with a black lineolet and a small round black spot across the suture; legs and under parts of a deep bluish black, with a slight tinge of green.

Hab. V. D. Land.

Stigmodera erythrura. Pl. 1, fig. 7.

Head greenish yellow, deeply punctured, a black band, sinuated in front between the eyes, on the back part of the head. Thorax above black, sides and a narrow line down the middle yellow. Elytra gradually tapering to the end, black with the margin at the base yellow, and a somewhat broader line of the same colour near the suture; on each elytron are three yellow spots, the middle one largest and tipped with red on the outside. Legs and under side greenish yellow; three last segments of abdomen beneath of a rust colour with four longitudinal rows of yellow spots.

Length about 6 lines.

Hab. New Holland, (Swan River).

Clerus? obesus. Pl. 1, fig. 9.

Head brassy brown; thorax brownish yellow, glossy; elytra with more than the basal half deep blue, with regular deeply pitted punctures, close to each other, an elevated knob at the base in the middle, the apical portion smooth purplish black, the smooth place on the suture running into the pitted part, between the two are four short transverse lines of whitish hairs, two on each elytron; near the tip are two oblique patches of white hairs: head finely punctulate, covered with short hairs. Thorax as it were two lobed behind, an angular depression in the middle, and somewhat narrowed in front; legs deep blue with whitish hairs. Length 5 lines.

Hab. New Holland.

This curious species bears the above name of Mr. Newman, in the collection of the British Museum, I cannot find his description of it, and not having seen Spinola's work, cannot refer it to its particular genus.

Sitarida, White.

Head broader than long, swollen behind the eyes; antennæ 11-jointed, first joint the longest, bent and gradually thickened towards the tip, second joint thin and cup-shaped, half the depth of third joint which is squarish, fourth joint oblong, dilated anteriorly at the ends, and larger than second and third together, fifth to the tenth joints somewhat lamellate, nearly as long as the other four joints; eyes narrow and notched, the part of the head within the notch prominent; palpi thick, terminal joint oblong. Thorax narrowed in front, rounded on the sides and somewhat truncated behind; scutellum triangular, with a notched projection at the base; elytra very short, one-third the length of the body, wide at the base, narrowed at the tip; legs heteromerous, rather short, all the thighs compressed, claws simple.

This genus, which at first sight looks like a Melöe, is closely allied to Sitaris.

Insects Plate 2 (Discoveries in Australia).jpg

Sitarida hopei. Pl. 2, fig. 2.

Black; elytra slightly pitchy; head and thorax thickly punctured; thorax with a cruciform impression on the disk; elytra with three keels meeting before they reach the apex, the intermediate spaces and the apex irregularly punctate.

Length 1 inch 5 lines.

Hab. New Holland.

Palæstrida, White.

Head as long as broad; antennæ with all the joints flattened, serrated on each side; 11-jointed, third to 9th joints widest. Thorax as wide as the head, narrowed in front; sides somewhat angular truncated behind, surface irregular; scutellum large, triangular. Elytra longer than the abdomen, sides parallel, ends rounded. Legs heteromerous, four claws to each tarsus, two of them larger than the others, and minutely serrulate on the inside.

Palæstrida bicolor. Pl. 2, fig. 1.

Head, thorax, scutellum, body and legs, entirely black. Elytra light orange with three slight keels, the outer somewhat forked. Head coarsely punctured. Thorax with scattered punctures, and three or four depressions on the upper part.

Length 6 and 7 lines.

Hab. New Holland.

This new genus comes near Palæstra laporte (Anim. Artic. 2 250) and Tmesidera westwood (in Guerin's Mag. de Zool. 1841, pl. 85.)

Tranes vigorsii (Hope) Schoenh. Curc. XII. 2, 130. Stokes, pl. 2, fig. 3.

Cinnamon brown, the sides of the thorax with yellowish brown hairs, and patches in the striæ of the same coloured hairs. Sides of the body beneath covered with yellowish hairs. Thorax very minutely punctured. glossy, with a very short deepish groove in the middle behind.

Length 9 to 11 lines.

Hab. New Holland.

<dis align="center">Cyclodera, White.

Antennæ as long as the body, 11-jointed, first joint thick knobbed, second very small, terminal longer than third, pointed with a blunt tooth beyond the middle. Thorax globular, wider than the body.

Cyclodera quadrinotata. Pl. 2, fig. 6.

Head, antennæ, thorax, body and legs, black. Elytra yellowish red, tip and a large oblong spot on each black, the spot not reaching either margin of the elytron; under side of abdomen covered with silky hairs. The head is coarsely punctured, the thorax minutely chagrined with a deep indented spot on each side behind the middle. Elytra finely chagrined, with faint indications of two or three longitudinal lines on each.

Length 7½ lines.

Hab. New Holland, N.W. Coast.

This well marked species seems to be allied to the genera Arhopalus and Hesperophanes.

Clytus (Obrida) fascialis. Pl. 2, fig. 4

Head black, punctured; antennæ black, seventh and eighth joints yellowish. Thorax black, punctured and hairy, a short narrow smooth line on the back behind. Elytra purplish violet, with three longitudinal keeled lines not extending to the tip, coarsely punctured, except on the lines which are smooth: two first pairs of legs red, tips and bases of the joints darkish; tarsi with brownish hairs, posterior legs deep black; tibiæ with longish hairs.

Length 4 lines.

Hab. New Holland.

Callipyrga turrita. Newman, Entomol., 413. Stokes' Insects pl. 2, fig. 5.

Hab. New Holland, near Sydney.

The figure of this beautiful longicorn beetle, is drawn from the original specimen described by Mr. Newman; it is now in the collection of the British Museum.

Microtragus senex. Pl. 2, fig. 7.

Head ashy, antennæ brown. Thorax brownish black, punctured and hirsute, a thick blunt spine from the middle on each side. Elytra at the base in the middle with a blunt slightly hooked spine, they have two prominent keels, the external the longest, the surface is deeply punctured, in some parts almost pitted, grey, a black line on sides and extending over the back, so as to form an oblong black spot from the middle to near the base, a dagger-shaped spot on the suture behind, and a few black spots on the elevated line. Abdomen beneath greyish. Legs grey, with short blackish bristles, tarsi narrow not dilated.

Length about 7 lines.

Hab. New Holland.

This curiously marked longicorn comes near Cerægidion Boisduval.

Paropsis scutifera. Pl. 2, fig. 8.

Yellow; head vermilion, with two long black spots between and behind the eyes. Elytra yellow with a large squarish spot common to both, outwardly bounded by a dark line, except in front where the yellow of the general surface runs into the square. The ground of the spot is red, with a yellow line near the suture on each side; elytra at the base narrowly edged with black. Antennæ, legs, and underside yellow.

Length 2¼ lines.

Hab. New Holland.

Chrysomela (Australica ?) strigipennis. Pl. 2, fig. 4.

Brown with a greenish metallic hue. Thorax and elytra margined with obscure yellow, thorax with the anterior angles yellow, a few irregular punctures in the middle, and the posterior parts thickly dotted with impressed points; elytra with seven irregular lines of impressed dots, towards the tip they are irregularly dispersed, there are a few irregular yellow streaks near the margins of the elytra; under side blackish brown, tibiæ and tarsi yellowish.

Length about 4¼ lines.

Hab. New Holland.

This differs from Australica in having the thorax narrower, and the antennæ longer and less thickened at the end.

By Edward Doubleday, F.L.S. Assistant in the Zoological Department of the British Museum.

Genus Euschemon, Doubleday.

Maxillæ moderately long.

Labial Palpi of moderate length, basal joint very short, compressed, curved, clothed with scales and long hairs, second joint about four times as long as the first, subcylindric, clothed with long scales, third joint clothed with small scales, short, elongate-oval, slenderer than the second, the scales of which almost conceal it.

Antennæ elongate, with a fusiform club much hooked at the extremity.

Eyes large, forehead broad.

Anterior wings triangular, the outer and inner margins nearly equal, about two-thirds the length of the anterior. Costal nervure two-thirds the entire length of the wing; subcostal nervule slightly deflected towards the end of the cell, throwing off its first nervule at about one-third of its length, the second about the middle of its course, the space between the origins of the second and third nervules not as long as that between the first and second, the fourth arising just before the end of the cell: upper discocellular nervule very short, the second discoidal equidistant from the first discoidal and the third median nervule, the disco-cellular nervules almost atrophied; median nervule throwing off its first nervule not far from the base, the third nervule a little bent where the discocellular joins it, radial nervure running nearly parallel with the inner margin throughout its whole length, reaching the outer margin a little above the anal angle. Posterior wings broad, semi-ovate, costal nervure long, sub-costal terminating in only two nervules, discoidal nervule nearly atrophied; discocellular the same, united with the third median nervule; cell rather large. Base of these wings in the male with a strong bristle passing behind a strong corneous retinaculum, which arises from the anterior side of the sub-costal nervure.

Legs rather long; anterior tibiæ with a curved spine on the inside, covered by the long scales of the tibiæ, anterior tarsi twice the length of the tibiæ, basal joint longer than the rest combined, second and third equal; the two combined equal to about two-thirds the length of the first, fourth and fifth very short, together about equal to the third. Second pair with the tibiæ about two-thirds as long as the tarsi, with numerous minute spines along their sides and two stout ones at the apex; joints of the tarsi having about the same relative proportions as in the anterior pair. Posterior tibiæ and tarsi nearly as in the second pair. Claws of all the tarsi stout, simple.

Euschemon rafflesia.

Hesp. rafflesia, McLeay, Appendix to King's Survey of Australia, 463.

Anterior wings black above, with a transverse macular sulphur-coloured band beyond the middle, and a submarginal one, broadest towards the apex, composed of greenish atoms. Posterior wings with a large oval sulphur-coloured spot in the cell, separated only by the median nervure from a smaller one on the abdominal margin near the base, and followed by a sub-trigonate one divided into three parts by the median nervules. Below, the markings are nearly as above, with the addition of a greenish line along the costa of the anterior wings, bending downwards at its termination. Posterior wings encircled by a marginal band of the same greenish colour.

Head black, orbits of the eyes and a line across the vertex white. Palpi bright crimson except the last joint which is black. Antennæ black. Thorax black. Abdomen above black, the base and the edges of four of the segments whitish, last segment bright crimson; below, whitish at the base, crimson beyond the middle.

Exp. alar. 2 un. 9 lin.

Hab. New Holland.

Genus Synemon, Doubleday.

Head round, eyes large, forehead broad.

Maxillæ rather long.

Labial palpi short, clothed with dense long scales, first joint short, second more than double the length of the first, tapering towards its extremity, third joint about equal in length to the second, sub cylindric, tapering towards the apex. Antennæ with a stout, short club, more or less mucronate at the apex, the mucro mostly if not always with a tuft of scales at the point, the club sometimes appearing compressed (perhaps from desiccation).

Thorax stout, anterior wings triangular, the costal nervure terminating about the middle of the costa, the sub-costal terminating in five nervules of which the first and second one are thrown off before the disco-cellular nervule, the third almost immediately beyond it, the fourth rather further from the third than this is from the second; discoidal nervules almost atrophied at their origin, the first connected with the subcostal nervure, the latter with the third median nervule by a very short discocellular; the discoidal nervule itself almost atrophied, running nearly parallel with and immediately above the median; third median nervule much bent at its origin. Posterior wings sub-ovate, costal nervure long, sub-costal terminating only in two nervules, upper discocellular nervule wanting, discoidal nervure distinct and simple throughout its whole course to the outer margin, with a slight bend at its junction with the short disco-cellular which connects it with the median nervule: bristle in the male simple, retained by a corneous retinaculum arising from the posterior side of the sub-costal nervure, compound in the female, retained by a bunch of scales arising from the anterior side of the median nervure.

Anterior legs short, tibiæ with a strong sharp spine about the middle, the first joint of the tarsi about the same length as the tibiæ, the four remaining ones equal in length to the first: second pair with the tibiæ about two-thirds as long as the tarsi, bi-spinose at the extremity, first joint of the tarsi nearly equal to all the rest: posterior legs with the tibiæ about two-thirds the length of the tarsi, bispinose at the apex and furnished also with two spines beyond the middle, first joint of the tarsi longer than the rest combined. Claws of all the feet simple, tarsi spiny.

Abdomen cylindrical, arched in the male, tufted at its extremity, in the female tapering to a point.

There seems to be a slight difference in the structure of the antennæ in this genus, in the first species the club is rounder and less mucronate than in the two following ones, it seems also destitute of the tuft of scales at the point.

Synemon Sophia.

Hesperia ? sophia, White, Appendix to Grey's Narrative, vol. 2, p. 474, fig. 7.

Anterior wings of the male brown, clouded with grey and fuscous-brown, a dark cloud near the base, another at the end of the discoidal cell followed by a white dot, the nervures greyish white. Posterior wings black, the base with an oval yellow spot, a macular yellow band beyond the middle, followed by a series of yellow spots. Cilia yellowish towards the anal angle.

Head greyish, antennae black varied with white. Thorax grey. Abdomen black at the base, whitish beyond.

Female with the anterior wings nearly black, clouded with light bluish grey scales, on the margin arranged into a band divided by a series of black spots; extremity of the cell with a white dot; beyond the cell a short macular band commencing on the costa. Posterior wings black, with a large orange spot near the base, followed by a broad abbreviated, transverse band, commencing on the abdominal margin and succeeded by a large rounded spot of the same colour; between these and the outer margin a series of three or four orange spots.

Head dark grey, palpi nearly white, antennae black, ringed with white. Abdomen pale fulvous.

Exp. alar. 1 un. 10 lines.

Hab. New Holland.

This fine species was first described by Mr. White in the Appendix to Captain Grey's Narrative. He then expressed the opinion that it was nearly allied to Castnia and Coronis. The generic characters given above will fully justify this view. In fact we can only regard it as the Australian representative of Castnia.

The under surface of this species is beautifully varied with black and orange, but I may refer for a more detailed account to the work above mentioned.

Synemon theresa.

Anterior wings above greyish, the disc varied with longitudinal pale and fuscous dashes, beyond the middle the pale dashes almost form a transverse band, followed by a series of dark spots, margin brown slightly varied with white; cilia grey. Posterior wings fulvous-brown at the base, marked with a clear fulvous spot, beyond this, fulvous with a transverse macular band, the margin itself black; cilia grey. Below, the anterior wings orange, with the outer margin narrowly black, before the apex are three or four black spots. Posterior wings greyish in the male, in the female nearly as above, but paler.

Head, thorax, and abdomen grey above, whitish below; antennae black, ringed with white.

The posterior wings of the male are of a somewhat castaneous hue above, and less clearly marked than those of the female.

Exp. alar. 1 un. 6 lin.

Synemon mopsa.

Anterior wings pale fuscous or brownish, with two white dashes at the base, the discoidal cell with a white spot, beyond the cell a transverse macular white band, in which are a series of fuscous spots; the margin slightly shaded with pale grey. Posterior wings light chestnut brown, with some fuscescent clouds, towards the outer margin. Below, light brown, the anterior wings rather fulvescent, all with some darker clouds.

Head, thorax, and abdomen grey above, beneath paler: antennae black, ringed with white.

Exp. alar. 1 un. 3 lin.

Hab. New Holland.

Agarista leonora.

All the wings purplish black, anterior with a short bluish white striga close to the base, followed at a short distance by a second curved one, united to the former by a vitta of the same colour, extending along the radial nervure; towards the extremity of the discoidal cell is a white spot, followed by three smaller, not always well defined ones, on the costa below and a little beyond which are four generally more distinct ones, of which the third from the costa is largest, these are followed by a slightly flexuous and bluish white macular striga, beyond which is a series of from three to five spots of the same colour. Near the anal angle is a round bluish spot, preceded, in part surrounded by a semicircle of the same colour, between which and the second transverse striga is an irregular spot, also bluish. Posterior wings with a macular band, not extending to the anterior margin. Cilia of all the wings white, spotted except at the apex of the anterior with black. Below, purplish black, the base of all the wings slightly marked with bluish, the anterior with a distinct white spot near the extremity of the discoidal cell, and a macular white band beyond the middle, beyond which near the costa is a bluish spot; posterior wings with a band corresponding to that above, connected with outer margin by a less distinct bluish white band.

Head yellow-white, forehead and vertex black, antenna black.

Thorax black, with two transverse lines anteriorly and the sides posteriorly yellowish, legs black, spotted with white, densely clothed with fulvous hairs at the base of the coxae. Abdomen black, last segment bright fulvous.

Female with markings rather more blue than in the male.

Exp. alar. 1 un. 9 lin.

Hab. New Holland.

Glaucopis ganymede.

All the wings black, the anterior with a small diaphanous spot near the base, below the median nervure; a larger one before the middle extending from the sub-costal to the radial nervure, divided by the median nervure into two unequal portions, the extremity of the cell marked by a crescent-shaped, metallic blue spot, beyond which are two diaphanous spots, one placed just below the origin of the second sub-costal nervule, the other much larger, divided by the last median nervule. Posterior wings with a white, partly diaphanous spot, close to the base, and a transverse diaphanous band a little beyond the middle.

Head black, face and orbits of the eyes white, antennae and palpi black. Thorax black, legs black except the coxae which are white. Abdomen crimson, the first and second segments both above and below, the third above, of a sooty black, fourth, fifth, sixth, and seventh margined with black above, anteriorly, eighth entirely crimson.

Female wanting the small spot near the base of the anterior wings, the third segment of the abdomen slightly bronzed, coxae black.

Exp. alar. 2 unc. 6 lin.

Hab. New Holland.

Insects Plate 3 (Discoveries in Australia).jpg
f. 1. 2. Euschemon rafflesia, (MacLeay).
a. b. Head of do.
c. * Base of wings of do. to show the bristle and retinaculum.
d. Anterior wings of do.
f. 3. Glaucopis ganymede, Doubleday.
f. 4. Agarista leonora, Doubleday.
e. Anterior wing of do.
f. 5. Synemon sophia (White).
f. 6. Synemon theresa, Doubleday.
f. 7. Synemon mopsa, Doubleday.
f. Palpus of Synemon.
g. Head and antennæ of Synemon (Syn. Sophia.)
h. Head and antennæ of Synemon.
i. k. Head of Synemon.
l. Base of wings of Synemon, to show the bristle and retinaculum in the male.
m. Base of wings of Synemon, to show the bristle and retinaculum in the female.
n. Anterior wing of Synemon.
* The retinaculum is not correctly represented in this figure, it arises from the anterior side of the sub-costal nervure. The neuration of Synemon is not quite correctly given at figure n. These errors were in consequence of my absence from town when the details on this plate were drawn.