Executive Order 12960

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Signed by President  William J. Clinton  Friday, May 12, 1995 Federal Register  page & date: 60 FR 26647, Wednesday, May 17, 1995
See the Notes section for a list of Executive Orders affected by or related to the issuance of this Executive Order.

Executive Order 12960 of May 12, 1995

1995 Amendments to the Manual for Courts-Martial, United States, 1984


By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including chapter 47 of title 10, United States Code (Uniform Code of Military Justice, 10 U.S.C. 801-946), in order to prescribe amendments to the Manual for Courts-Martial, United States, prescribed by Executive Order 12473, as amended by Executive Order 12484, Executive Order 12550, Executive Order 12586, Executive Order 12708, Executive Order 12767, Executive Order 12888, and Executive Order 12936, it is hereby ordered as follows:


Section 1. Part I of the Manual for Courts-Martial, United States, 1984, is amended as follows:

Preamble, paragraph 4, is amended to read as follows:

"4. Structure and application of the Manual for Courts-Martial.

The Manual for Courts-Martial shall consist of this Preamble, the Rules for Courts-Martial, the Military Rules of Evidence, the Punitive Articles, and the Nonjudicial Punishment Procedures (Parts I-V). The Manual shall be applied consistent with the purpose of military law.

The Manual shall be identified as "Manual for Courts-Martial, United States (19xx edition)." Any amendments to the Manual made by Executive Order shall be identified as "19xx Amendments to the Manual for Courts-Martial, United States.""

Sec. 2. Part II of the Manual for Courts-Martial, United States, 1984, is amended to read as follows:

a. R.C.M. 810(d) is amended to read as follows:

"(d) Sentence limitations.

(1) In general. Sentences at rehearings, new trials, or other trials shall be adjudged within the limitations set forth in R.C.M. 1003. Except as otherwise provided in subsection (d)(2) of this rule, offenses on which a rehearing, new trial, or other trial has been ordered shall not be the basis for an approved sentence in excess of or more severe than the sentence ultimately approved by the convening or higher authority following the previous trial or hearing, unless the sentence prescribed for the offense is mandatory. When a rehearing or sentencing is combined with trial on new charges, the maximum punishment that may be approved by the convening authority shall be the maximum punishment under R.C.M. 1003 for the offenses being reheard as limited above, plus the total maximum punishment under R.C.M. 1003 for any new charges of which the accused has been found guilty. In the case of an "other trial" no sentence limitations apply if the original trial was invalid because a summary or special court-martial improperly tried an offense involving a mandatory punishment or one otherwise considered capital.

(2) Pretrial agreement. If, after the earlier court-martial, the sentence was approved in accordance with a pretrial agreement and at the rehearing the accused fails to comply with the pretrial agreement, by failing to enter a plea of guilty or otherwise, the approved sentence resulting at a rehearing of the affected charges and specifications may include any otherwise lawful punishment not in excess of or more serious than lawfully adjudged at the earlier court-martial."

b. R.C.M. 924(a) is amended to read as follows:

"(a) Time for reconsideration. Members may reconsider any finding reached by them before such finding is announced in open session."

c. R.C.M. 924(c) is amended to read as follows:

"(c) Military judge sitting alone. In a trial by military judge alone, the military judge may reconsider any finding of guilty at any time before announcement of sentence and may reconsider the issue of the finding of guilty of the elements in a finding of not guilty only by reason of lack of mental responsibility at any time before announcement of sentence or authentication of the record of trial in the case of a complete acquittal."

d. R.C.M. 1003(b)(9) and the accompanying discussion are deleted.

e. R.C.M. 1003(b)(10), (11), and (12) are redesignated as subsections (9), (10), and (11), respectively.

f. R.C.M. 1009 is amended to read as follows:

"(a) Reconsideration. Subject to this rule, a sentence may be reconsidered at any time before such sentence is announced in open session of the court.

(b) Exceptions.

(1) If the sentence announced in open session was less than the mandatory minimum prescribed for an offense of which the accused has been found guilty, the court that announced the sentence may reconsider such sentence after it has been announced, and may increase the sentence upon reconsideration in accordance with subsection (e) of this rule.

(2) If the sentence announced in open session exceeds the maximum permissible punishment for the offense or the jurisdictional limitation of the court-martial, the sentence may be reconsidered after announcement in accordance with subsection (e) of this rule.

(c) Clarification of sentence. A sentence may be clarified at any time prior to action of the convening authority on the case.

(1) Sentence adjudged by the military judge. When a sentence adjudged by the military judge is ambiguous, the military judge shall call a session for clarification as soon as practical after the ambiguity is discovered.

(2) Sentence adjudged by members. When a sentence adjudged by members is ambiguous, the military judge shall bring the matter to the attention of the members if the matter is discovered before the court-martial is adjourned. If the matter is discovered after adjournment, the military judge may call a session for clarification by the members who adjudged the sentence as soon as practical after the ambiguity is discovered.

(d) Action by the convening authority. When a sentence adjudged by the court-martial is ambiguous, the convening authority may return the matter to the court-martial for clarification. When a sentence adjudged by the court-martial is apparently illegal, the convening authority may return the matter to the court-martial for reconsideration or may approve a sentence no more severe than the legal, unambiguous portions of the adjudged sentence.

(e) Reconsideration procedure. Any member of the court-martial may propose that a sentence reached by the members be reconsidered.

(1) Instructions. When a sentence has been reached by members and reconsideration has been initiated, the military judge shall instruct the members on the procedure for reconsideration.

(2) Voting. The members shall vote by secret written ballot in closed session whether to reconsider a sentence already reached by them.

(3) Number of votes required.

(A) With a view to increasing. Subject to subsection (b) of this rule, members may reconsider a sentence with a view of increasing it only if at least a majority of the members vote for reconsideration.

(B) With a view to decreasing. Members may reconsider a sentence with a view to decreasing it only if:

(i) In the case of a sentence which includes death, at least one member votes to reconsider;

(ii) In the case of a sentence which includes confinement for life or more than 10 years, more than one-fourth of the members vote to reconsider; or

(iii) In the case of any other sentence, more than one-third of the members vote to reconsider.

(4) Successful vote. If a vote to reconsider a sentence succeeds, the procedures in R.C.M. 1006 shall apply."

g. R.C.M. 1103(b)(3)(L) is deleted.

h. R.C.M. 1103(b)(3)(M) and (N) are redesignated as subsections (L) and (M), respectively.

i. R.C.M. 1103(c)(2) is amended to read as follows:

"(2) Not involving a bad-conduct discharge. If the special court-martial resulted in findings of guilty but a bad-conduct discharge was not adjudged, the requirements of subsections (b)(1), (b)(2)(D), and

(b)(3) (A)-(F) and (I)-(M) of this rule shall apply."

j. R.C.M. 1104(b)(2) is amended to read as follows:

"(2) Summary courts-martial. The summary court-martial record of trial shall be disposed of as provided in R.C.M. 1305(d). Subsection

(b)(1)(D) of this rule shall apply if classified information is included in the record of trial of a summary court-martial."

k. R.C.M. 1106(d)(3) is amended by adding a new subsection (B) as follows:

"(B) A recommendation for clemency by the sentencing authority, made in conjunction with the announced sentence;"

l. R.C.M. 1106(d)(3) (B)-(E) are redesignated as subsections (C)-(F), respectively.

m. R.C.M. 1107(d) is amended by adding a new subparagraph (3) as follows:

"(3) Postponing service of a sentence to confinement.

(A) In a case in which a court-martial sentences an accused referred to in subsection (B), below, to confinement, the convening authority may postpone service of a sentence to confinement by a court-martial, without the consent of the accused, until after the accused has been permanently released to the armed forces by a state or foreign country.

(B) Subsection (A) applies to an accused who, while in custody of a state or foreign country, is temporarily returned by that state or foreign country to the armed forces for trial by court-martial; and after the court-martial, is returned to that state or foreign country under the authority of a mutual agreement or treaty, as the case may be.

(C) As used in subsection (d)(3), the term "state" means a state of the United States, the District of Columbia, a territory, and a possession of the United States."

n. R.C.M. 1107(d)(3) is redesignated as R.C.M. 1107(d)(4).

o. R.C.M. 1107(e)(1)(C)(iii) is amended to read as follows:

"(iii) Rehearing on sentence only. A rehearing on sentence only shall not be referred to a different kind of court-martial from that which made the original findings. If the convening authority determines a rehearing on sentence is impracticable, the convening authority may approve a sentence of no punishment without conducting a rehearing."

p. R.C.M. 1107(f)(2) is amended to read as follows:

"(2) Modification of initial action. The convening authority may recall and modify any action taken by that convening authority at any time before it has been published or before the accused has been officially notified. The convening authority also may recall and modify any action at any time prior to forwarding the record for review, as long as the modification does not result in action less favorable to the accused than the earlier action. In addition, in any special court-martial, the convening authority may recall and correct an illegal, erroneous, incomplete, or ambiguous action at any time before completion of review under R.C.M. 1112, as long as the correction does not result in action less favorable to the accused than the earlier action. When so directed by a higher reviewing authority or the Judge Advocate General, the convening authority shall modify any incomplete, ambiguous, void, or inaccurate action noted in review of the record of trial under Article 64, 66, 67, or examination of the record of trial under Article 69. The convening authority shall personally sign any supplementary or corrective action."

q. R.C.M. 1108(b) is amended to read as follows:

"(b) Who may suspend and remit. The convening authority may, after approving the sentence, suspend the execution of all or any part of the sentence of a court-martial except for a sentence of death. The general court-martial convening authority over the accused at the time of the court-martial may, when taking the action under R.C.M. 1112(f), suspend or remit any part of the sentence. The Secretary concerned and, when designated by the Secretary concerned, any Under Secretary, Assistant Secretary, Judge Advocate General, or commanding officer may suspend or remit any part or amount of the unexecuted part of any sentence other than a sentence approved by the President. The commander of the accused who has the authority to convene a court-martial of the kind which adjudged the sentence may suspend or remit any part or amount of the unexecuted part of any sentence by summary court-martial or of any sentence by special court-martial which does not include a bad-conduct discharge regardless of whether the person acting has previously approved the sentence. The "unexecuted part of any sentence" includes that part which has been approved and ordered executed but which has not actually been carried out."

r. R.C.M. 1113(d)(2)(A) is amended by adding a new subparagraph (iii) as follows:

"(iii) Periods during which the accused is in custody of civilian or foreign authorities after the convening authority, pursuant to Article 57(e), has postponed the service of a sentence to confinement;"

s. R.C.M. 1113(d)(2)(A)(iii)-(iv) are redesignated 1113(d)(A)(iv)-(v), respectively.

t. R.C.M. 1113(d)(5) is deleted.

u. R.C.M. 1113(d)(6) is redesignated as subsection (5).

v. R.C.M. 1201(b)(3)(A) is amended to read as follows:

"(A) In general. Notwithstanding R.C.M. 1209, the Judge Advocate General may, sua sponte or, except when the accused has waived or withdrawn the right to appellate review under R.C.M. 1110, upon application of the accused or a person with authority to act for the accused, vacate or modify, in whole or in part, the findings, sentence, or both of a court-martial that has been finally reviewed, but has not been reviewed either by a Court of Military Review or by the Judge Advocate General under subsection (b)(1) of this rule, on the ground of newly discovered evidence, fraud on the court-martial, lack of jurisdiction over the accused or the offense, error prejudicial to the substantial rights of the accused, or the appropriateness of the sentence."

w. R.C.M. 1305(d) is deleted.

x. R.C.M. 1305(e) is redesignated as subsection (d).

Sec. 3. Part III of the Manual for Courts-Martial, United States, 1984, is amended as follows:

a. M.R.E. 311(g)(2) is amended to read as follows:

"(2) False statements. If the defense makes a substantial preliminary showing that a government agent included a false statement knowingly and intentionally or with reckless disregard for the truth in the information presented to the authorizing officer, and if the allegedly false statement is necessary to the finding of probable cause, the defense, upon request, shall be entitled to a hearing. At the hearing, the defense has the burden of establishing by a preponderance of the evidence the allegation of knowing and intentional falsity or reckless disregard for the truth. If the defense meets its burden, the prosecution has the burden of proving by a preponderance of the evidence, with the false information set aside, that the remaining information presented to the authorizing officer is sufficient to establish probable cause. If the prosecution does not meet its burden, the objection or motion shall be granted unless the search is otherwise lawful under these rules."

b. M.R.E. 506(e) and (f) are amended to read as follows:

"(e) Pretrial session. At any time after referral of charges and prior to arraignment, any party may move for a session under Article 39(a) to consider matters relating to government information that may arise in connection with the trial. Following such motion, or sua sponte, the military judge promptly shall hold a pretrial session under Article 39(a) to establish the timing of requests for discovery, the provision of notice under subsection (h), and the initiation of the procedure under subsection (i). In addition, the military judge may consider any other matters that relate to government information or that may promote a fair and expeditious trial.

(f) Action after motion for disclosure of information. After referral of charges, if the defense moves for disclosure of government information for which a claim of privilege has been made under this rule, the matter shall be reported to the convening authority. The convening authority may:

(1) institute action to obtain the information for use by the military judge in making a determination under subdivision (i);

(2) dismiss the charges;

(3) dismiss the charges or specifications or both to which the information relates; or

(4) take other action as may be required in the interests of justice.

If, after a reasonable period of time, the information is not provided to the military judge, the military judge shall dismiss the charges or specifications or both to which the information relates."

c. M.R.E. 506(h) is amended to read as follows:

"(h) Prohibition against disclosure. The accused may not disclose any information known or believed to be subject to a claim of privilege under this rule unless the military judge authorizes such disclosure."

d. M.R.E. 506(i) is amended to read as follows:

"(i) In camera proceedings.

(1) Definition. For purposes of this subsection, an "in camera proceeding" is a session under Article 39(a) from which the public is excluded.

(2) Motion for in camera proceeding. Within the time specified by the military judge for the filing of a motion under this rule, the Government may move for an in camera proceeding concerning the use at any proceeding of any government information that may be subject to a claim of privilege. Thereafter, either prior to or during trial, the military judge for good cause shown or otherwise upon a claim of privilege may grant the Government leave to move for an in camera proceeding concerning the use of additional government information.

(3) Demonstration of public interest nature of the information. In order to obtain an in camera proceeding under this rule, the Government shall demonstrate, through the submission of affidavits and information for examination only by the military judge, that disclosure of the information reasonably could be expected to cause identifiable damage to the public interest.

(4) In camera proceeding.

(A) Finding of identifiable damage. Upon finding that the disclosure of some or all of the information submitted by the Government under subsection (i)(3) reasonably could be expected to cause identifiable damage to the public interest, the military judge shall conduct an in camera proceeding.

(B) Disclosure of the information to the defense. Subject to subsection (F), below, the Government shall disclose government information for which a claim of privilege has been made to the accused, for the limited purpose of litigating, in camera, the admissibility of the information at trial. The military judge shall enter an appropriate protective order to the accused and all other appropriate trial participants concerning the disclosure of the information according to subsection (g), above. The accused shall not disclose any information provided under this subsection unless, and until, such information has been admitted into evidence by the military judge. In the in camera proceeding, both parties shall have the opportunity to brief and argue the admissibility of the government information at trial.

(C) Standard. Government information is subject to disclosure at the court-martial proceeding under this subsection if the party making the request demonstrates a specific need for information containing evidence that is relevant to the guilt or innocence or to punishment of the accused, and is otherwise admissible in the court-martial proceeding.

(D) Ruling. No information may be disclosed at the court-martial proceeding or otherwise unless the military judge makes a written determination that the information is subject to disclosure under the standard set forth in subsection (C), above. The military judge will specify in writing any information that he or she determines is subject to disclosure. The record of the in camera proceeding shall be sealed and attached to the record of trial as an appellate exhibit. The accused may seek reconsideration of the determination prior to or during trial.

(E) Alternatives to full disclosure. If the military judge makes a determination under this subsection that the information is subject to disclosure, or if the Government elects not to contest the relevance, necessity, and admissibility of the government information, the Government may proffer a statement admitting for purposes of the court-martial any relevant facts such information would tend to prove or may submit a portion or summary to be used in lieu of the information. The military judge shall order that such statement, portion, summary, or some other form of information which the military judge finds to be consistent with the interests of justice, be used by the accused in place of the government information, unless the military judge finds that use of the government information itself is necessary to afford the accused a fair trial.

(F) Sanctions. Government information may not be disclosed over the Government's objection. If the Government continues to object to disclosure of the information following rulings by the military judge, the military judge shall issue any order that the interests of justice require. Such an order may include:

(i) striking or precluding all or part of the testimony of a witness;

(ii) declaring a mistrial;

(iii) finding against the Government on any issue as to which the evidence is relevant and necessary to the defense;

(iv) dismissing the charges, with or without prejudice; or

(v) dismissing the charges or specifications or both to which the information relates."

e. A new M.R.E. 506(j) is added as follows:

"(j) Appeals of orders and rulings. In a court-martial in which a punitive discharge may be adjudged, the Government may appeal an order or ruling of the military judge that terminates the proceedings with respect to a charge or specification, directs the disclosure of government information, or imposes sanctions for nondisclosure of government information. The Government also may appeal an order or ruling in which the military judge refuses to issue a protective order sought by the United States to prevent the disclosure of government information, or to enforce such an order previously issued by appropriate authority. The Government may not appeal an order or ruling that is, or amounts to, a finding of not guilty with respect to the charge or specification."

f. M.R.E. 506(j) and (k) are redesignated as (k) and (l), respectively.

Sec. 4. Part IV of the Manual for Courts-Martial, United States, 1984, is amended to read as follows:

a. Paragraph 4.c. is amended by adding a new subparagraph (4) as follows:

"(4) Voluntary abandonment. It is a defense to an attempt offense that the person voluntarily and completely abandoned the intended crime, solely because of the person's own sense that it was wrong, prior to the completion of the crime. The voluntary abandonment defense is not allowed if the abandonment results, in whole or in part, from other reasons, such as, the person feared detection or apprehension, decided to await a better opportunity for success, was unable to complete the crime, or encountered unanticipated difficulties or unexpected resistance. A person who is entitled to the defense of voluntary abandonment may nonetheless be guilty of a lesser included, completed offense. For example, a person who voluntarily abandoned an attempted armed robbery may nonetheless be guilty of assault with a dangerous weapon."

b. Paragraph 4.c.(4), (5), and (6) are redesignated as subparagraphs

(5), (6) and (7), respectively.

c. Paragraph 30a.c(1), is amended to read as follows:

"(1) Intent. "Intent or reason to believe" that the information "is to be used to the injury of the United States or to the advantage of a foreign nation" means that the accused acted in bad faith and [delete "or otherwise"] without lawful authority with respect to information that is not lawfully accessible to the public."

d. Paragraph 35 is amended to read as follows:

"35. Article 111-Drunken or reckless operation of a vehicle, aircraft, or vessel

a. Text.

"Any person subject to this chapter who-

(1) operates or physically controls any vehicle, aircraft, or vessel in a reckless or wanton manner or while impaired by a substance described in section 912a(b) of this title (Article 112a(b)), or

(2) operates or is in actual physical control of any vehicle, aircraft, or vessel while drunk or when the alcohol concentration in the person's blood or breath is 0.10 grams of alcohol per 100 milliliters of blood or 0.10 grams of alcohol per 210 liters of breath, as shown by chemical analysis, shall be punished as a court-martial may direct."

b. Elements.

(1) That the accused was operating or in physical control of a vehicle, aircraft, or vessel; and

(2) That while operating or in physical control of a vehicle, aircraft, or vessel, the accused:

(a) did so in a wanton or reckless manner, or

(b) was drunk or impaired, or

(c) the alcohol concentration in the accused's blood or breath was 0.10 grams of alcohol per 100 milliliters of blood or 0.10 grams of alcohol per 210 liters of breath, or greater, as shown by chemical analysis.

[Note: If injury resulted add the following element]

(3) That the accused thereby caused the vehicle, aircraft, or vessel to injure a person.

c. Explanation.

(1) Vehicle. See 1 U.S.C. Sec. 4.

(2) Vessel. See 1 U.S.C. Sec. 3.

(3) Aircraft. Any contrivance used or designed for transportation in the air.

(4) Operates. Operating a vehicle, aircraft, or vessel includes not only driving or guiding a vehicle, aircraft, or vessel while it is in motion, either in person or through the agency of another, but also setting of its motive power in action or the manipulation of its controls so as to cause the particular vehicle, aircraft, or vessel to move.

(5) Physical control and actual physical control. These terms as used in the statute are synonymous. They describe the present capability and power to dominate, direct, or regulate the vehicle, vessel, or aircraft, either in person or through the agency of another, regardless of whether such vehicle, aircraft, or vessel is operated. For example, the intoxicated person seated behind the steering wheel of a vehicle with the keys of the vehicle in or near the ignition but with the engine not turned on could be deemed in actual physical control of that vehicle. However, the person asleep in the back seat with the keys in his or her pocket would not be deemed in actual physical control. Physical control necessarily encompasses operation.

(6) Drunk or impaired. "Drunk" and "impaired" mean any intoxication which is sufficient to impair the rational and full exercise of the mental or physical faculties. The term "drunk" is used in relation to intoxication by alcohol. The term "impaired" is used in relation to intoxication by a substance described in Article 112(a), Uniform Code of Military Justice.

(7) Reckless. The operation or physical control of a vehicle, vessel, or aircraft is "reckless" when it exhibits a culpable disregard of foreseeable consequences to others from the act or omission involved. Recklessness is not determined solely by reason of the happening of an injury, or the invasion of the rights of another, nor by proof alone of excessive speed or erratic operation, but all these factors may be admissible and relevant as bearing upon the ultimate question: whether, under all the circumstances, the accused's manner of operation or physical control of the vehicle, vessel, or aircraft was of that heedless nature which made it actually or imminently dangerous to the occupants, or to the rights or safety of others. It is operating or physically controlling a vehicle, vessel, or aircraft with such a high degree of negligence that if death were caused, the accused would have committed involuntary manslaughter, at least. The nature of the conditions in which the vehicle, vessel, or aircraft is operated or controlled, the time of day or night, the proximity and number of other vehicles, vessels, or aircraft, and the condition of the vehicle, vessel, or aircraft, are often matters of importance in the proof of an offense charged under this article and, where they are of importance, may properly be alleged.

(8) Wanton. "Wanton" includes "reckless", but in describing the operation or physical control of a vehicle, vessel, or aircraft, "wanton" may, in a proper case, connote willfulness, or a disregard of probable consequences, and thus describe a more aggravated offense.

(9) Causation. The accused's drunken or reckless driving must be a proximate cause of injury for the accused to be guilty of drunken or reckless driving resulting in personal injury. To be proximate, the accused's actions need not be the sole cause of the injury, nor must they be the immediate cause of the injury; that is, the latest in time and space preceding the injury. A contributing cause is deemed proximate only if it plays a material role in the victim's injury.

(10) Separate offenses. While the same course of conduct may constitute violations of both subsections (1) and (2) of the Article,

(e.g., both drunken and reckless operation or physical control), this article proscribes the conduct described in both subsections as separate offenses, which may be charged separately. However, as recklessness is a relative matter, evidence of all the surrounding circumstances that made the operation dangerous, whether alleged or not, may be admissible. Thus, on a charge of reckless driving, for example, evidence of drunkenness might be admissible as establishing one aspect of the recklessness, and evidence that the vehicle exceeded a safe speed, at a relevant prior point and time, might be admissible as corroborating other evidence of the specific recklessness charged. Similarly, on a charge of drunken driving, relevant evidence of recklessness might have probative value as corroborating other proof of drunkenness.

d. Lesser included offense.

(1) Reckless or wanton or impaired operation or physical control of a vessel. Article 110-improper hazarding of a vessel.

(2) Drunken operation of a vehicle, vessel, or aircraft while drunk or with a blood or breath alcohol concentration in violation of the described per se standard.

(a) Article 110 - improper hazarding of a vessel

(b) Article 112 - drunk on duty

(c) Article 134 - drunk on station

e. Maximum punishment.

(1) Resulting in personal injury. Dishonorable discharge, forfeiture of all pay and allowances, and confinement for 18 months.

(2) No personal injury involved. Bad-conduct discharge, forfeiture of all pay and allowances, and confinement for 6 months.

f. Sample specification.

In that __________ (personal jurisdiction data), did (at/onboard-location)(subject-matter jurisdiction data, if required), on or about __________ 19____, (in the motor pool area)(near the Officer's Club)(at the intersection of __________ and __________ )(while in the Gulf of Mexico) (while in flight over North America) physically control [a vehicle, to wit: (a truck)(a passenger car) ( __________ )] [an aircraft, to wit: (an AH-64 helicopter)(an F-14A fighter)(a KC-135 tanker)( __________ )] [a vessel, to wit: (the aircraft carrier USS __________ )(the Coast Guard Cutter __________ ) ( __________ )], [while drunk] [while impaired by __________ ] [while the alcohol concentration in his (blood was 0.10 grams of alcohol per 100 milliliters of blood or greater)(breath was 0.10 grams of alcohol per 210 liters of breath or greater) as shown by chemical analysis] [in a (reckless)(wanton) manner by (attempting to pass another vehicle on a sharp curve)(by ordering that the aircraft be flown below the authorized altitude)] [and did thereby cause said (vehicle)(aircraft)(vessel) to (strike and) (injure __________ )]."

e. Paragraph 43.a.(3) is amended to read as follows:

"(3) is engaged in an act that is inherently dangerous to another and evinces a wanton disregard of human life; or"

f. Paragraph 43.b.(3)(c) is amended to read as follows:

"(c) That this act was inherently dangerous to another and showed a wanton disregard for human life;"

g. Paragraph 43.c.(4)(a) is amended to read as follows:

"(a) Wanton disregard for human life. Intentionally engaging in an act inherently dangerous to another-although without an intent to cause the death of or great bodily harm to any particular person, or even with a wish that death will not be caused-may also constitute murder if the act shows wanton disregard of human life. Such disregard is characterized by heedlessness of the probable consequences of the act or omission, or indifference to the likelihood of death or great bodily harm. Examples include throwing a live grenade toward another or others in jest or flying an aircraft very low over one or more persons to cause alarm."

h. Paragraph 45.a.(a) is amended to read as follows:

"(a) Any person subject to this chapter who commits an act of sexual intercourse by force and without consent, is guilty of rape and shall be punished by death or such other punishment as a court-martial may direct."

i. Paragraph 45.b.(1) is amended to read as follows:

"(a) That the accused committed an act of sexual intercourse; and

(b) That the act of sexual intercourse was done by force and without consent."

j. Paragraph 45.c.(1)(a) and (b) are amended as follows:

"(a) Nature of offense. Rape is sexual intercourse by a person, executed by force and without consent of the victim. It may be committed on a victim of any age. Any penetration, however slight, is sufficient to complete the offense.

(b) Force and lack of consent. Force and lack of consent are necessary to the offense. Thus, if the victim consents to the act, it is not rape. The lack of consent required, however, is more than mere lack of acquiescence. If a victim in possession of his or her mental faculties fails to make lack of consent reasonably manifest by taking such measures of resistance as are called for by the circumstances, the inference may be drawn that the victim did consent. Consent, however, may not be inferred if resistance would have been futile, where resistance is overcome by threats of death or great bodily harm, or where the victim is unable to resist because of the lack of mental or physical faculties. In such a case there is no consent and the force involved in penetration will suffice. All the surrounding circumstances are to be considered in determining whether a victim gave consent, or whether he or she failed or ceased to resist only because of a reasonable fear of death or grievous bodily harm. If there is actual consent, although obtained by fraud, the act is not rape, but if to the accused's knowledge the victim is of unsound mind or unconscious to an extent rendering him or her incapable of giving consent, the act is rape. Likewise, the acquiescence of a child of such tender years that he or she is incapable of understanding the nature of the act is not consent."

k. Paragraph 89.c. is amended to read as follows:

"(c) Explanation. "Indecent" language is that which is grossly offensive to modesty, decency, or propriety, or shocks the moral sense, because of its vulgar, filthy, or disgusting nature, or its tendency to incite lustful thought. Language is indecent if it tends reasonably to corrupt morals or incite libidinous thoughts. The language must violate community standards. See paragraph 87 if the communication was made in the physical presence of a child."

l. The following new paragraph is added after paragraph 103:

"103a. Article 134 (Self-injury without intent to avoid service)

a. Text. See paragraph 60.

b. Elements.

(1) That the accused intentionally inflicted injury upon himself or herself;

(2) That, under the circumstances, the conduct of the accused was to the prejudice of good order and discipline in the armed forces or was of a nature to bring discredit upon the armed forces.

[Note: If the offense was committed in time of war or in a hostile fire pay zone, add the following element]

(3) That the offense was committed (in time of war) (in a hostile fire pay zone).

c. Explanation.

(1) Nature of offense. This offense differs from malingering

(see paragraph 40) in that for this offense, the accused need not have harbored a design to avoid performance of any work, duty, or service which may properly or normally be expected of one in the military service. This offense is characterized by intentional self-injury under such circumstances as prejudice good order and discipline or discredit the armed forces. It is not required that the accused be unable to perform duties, or that the accused actually be absent from his or her place of duty as a result of the injury. For example, the accused may inflict the injury while on leave or pass. The circumstances and extent of injury, however, are relevant to a determination that the accused's conduct was prejudicial to good order and discipline, or service-discrediting.

(2) How injury inflicted. The injury may be inflicted by nonviolent as well as by violent means and may be accomplished by any act or omission that produces, prolongs, or aggravates a sickness or disability. Thus, voluntary starvation that results in a debility is a self-inflicted injury. Similarly, the injury may be inflicted by another at the accused's request.

d. Lesser included offense. Article 80-attempts

e. Maximum punishment.

(1) Intentional self-inflicted injury. Dishonorable discharge, forfeiture of all pay and allowances, and confinement for 2 years.

(2) Intentional self-inflicted injury in time of war or in a hostile fire pay zone. Dishonorable discharge, forfeiture of all pay and allowances, and confinement for 5 years.

f. Sample specification.

In that __________ (personal jurisdiction data), did, (at/on board-location) (in a hostile fire pay zone) on or about __________ 19____, (a time of war,) intentionally injure himself/herself by __________ (nature and circumstances of injury)."

Sec. 5. These amendments shall take effect on June 10, 1995, subject to the following:

a. Nothing in these amendments shall be construed to make punishable any act done or omitted prior to June 10, 1995.

b. The maximum punishment for an offense committed prior to June 10, 1995, shall not exceed the applicable maximum in effect at the time of the commission of such offense.

c. Nothing in these amendments shall be construed to invalidate any nonjudicial punishment proceeding, restraint, investigation, referral of charges, trial in which arraignment occurred, or other action begun prior to June 10, 1995, and any such nonjudicial punishment, restraint, investigation, referral of charges, trial, or other action may proceed in the same manner and with the same effect as if these amendments had not been prescribed.


Signature of William J. Clinton
William J. Clinton 
The White House,
May 12, 1995.

Notes[edit]

  Amends       
Manual for Courts-Martial, United States, 1984
Amendments

  


This work is in the public domain in the United States because it is a work of the United States federal government (see 17 U.S.C. 105).