Index:Horse shoes and horse shoeing.djvu

From Wikisource
Jump to: navigation, search

Horse shoes and horse shoeing.djvu

Pages   (key to Page Status)   

- - - - - - - plate  i  ii  iii  iv  v  vi  vii  viii  ix  x  xi  xii  xiii  xiv  xv  xvi 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009 010 011 012 013 014 015 016 017 018 019 020 021 022 023 024 025 026 027 028 029 030 031 032 033 034 035 036 037 038 039 040 041 042 043 044 045 046 047 048 049 050 051 052 053 054 055 056 057 058 059 060 061 062 063 064 065 066 067 068 069 070 071 072 073 074 075 076 077 078 079 080 081 082 083 084 085 086 087 088 089 090 091 092 093 094 095 096 097 098 099 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 plate - 151 152 - plate 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 380 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 400 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419 420 421 422 423 424 425 426 427 428 429 430 431 432 433 434 435 436 437 438 439 440 441 442 443 444 445 446 447 448 449 450 451 452 453 454 455 456 457 458 459 460 461 462 463 464 465 466 467 468 469 470 471 472 473 474 475 476 477 478 479 480 481 482 483 484 485 486 487 488 489 490 491 492 493 494 495 496 497 498 499 500 501 502 503 504 505 506 507 508 509 510 511 512 513 514 515 516 517 518 519 520 521 522 523 524 525 526 527 528 529 530 531 532 533 534 535 536 537 538 539 540 541 542 543 544 545 546 547 548 549 550 551 552 553 554 555 556 557 558 559 560 561 562 563 564 565 566 567 568 569 570 571 572 573 574 575 576 577 578 579 580 581 582 583 584 585 586 587 588 589 590 591 592 593 594 595 596 597 598 599 600 601 602 603 604 605 606 607 608 609 610 611 612 613 614 615 616 617 618 619 620 621 622 623 624 625 - - 626 627 628 629 630 631 632 633 634 635 636 637 638 639 640 641 642 643 644 645 646 647 648 649 650 651 652 653 654 655 656 657 658 659 660 661 662 663 664 665 666 667 668 669 670 671 672 673 674 675 676 677 678 679 680 681 682 683 684 685 686 687 688 689 690 - - - - - -

Validated index page

CONTENTS.




page

CHAPTER I.
  1

The value of the Horse as a living Machine depends to a great extent upon his Feet. The care taken of them by Ancient People. Xenophon and his Advice. The necessity for Sound Feet. History of the Art of Shoeing. The Hoof in a Natural State. Effects of Domestication and Climate. The Persians, Ethiopians, Abyssinians, Tartars, Mongols, and other Nations. The Greeks. Difficulty in tracing the Origin of Shoeing. Scriptural Times. Homer, and ‘Brazen-Footed.’ Tryphiodorus. Bronze Shoes, and Shoeless Hoofs. Xenophon on the Management of Horses' Feet. Aristotle. Polydore Vergil. The Greek Marbles. Climate of Greece. Effects of Marching. Translators' and Commentators' Mistakes. Arrian and Artemidorus. The Coin of Tarentum.

CHAPTER II.
  38

The Horse with the Romans. Their Cavalry. Pliny. Camelshoeing. Silence of Roman Hippiatrists in regard to Shoeing. Cato, Varro, Horace, Virgil, Lucan, Claudianus, Fitz-Stephen. Roman Roads, and Couriers. Columella, Julius Pollux. Diocletian's Edict. Hoof Instruments. Apsyrtus, Palladius, Vegetius, Renatus, Renatus Flavins. Polybius. Carbatinai and Embattai. Soleæ Ferreæ. Catullus, Scaliger, Suetonius. Gold and Silver Soleæ. Extravagance of the Romans. Caligula, Nero, Poppæa, and Commodus. Theomnestus. Solea Spartea, and the Glante Ferreo. Hippopodes. Chariot-racing. Opinions as to the existence of Shoeing with the Ancients. Montfauçon, Winckelmann, Fabretti, Camerarius, Pancirolus, Vossius, Pegge, Smith, Heusinger, Rich. Supposed negativeevidence of Written History and Sculpture. Temporary Shoes, and other expedients to preserve the Hoofs in Japan, China, Manilla, Singapore, etc. Straw Shoes. Iceland and Central Asia.

CHAPTER III.
  95

Overthrow of the Roman Empire by the Barbarians. The ‘Dark Ages.’ The Emperor Leo, and his ‘Tactica’. Ferrea Lunatico. The Emperor Constantine and ‘Selenaia.’ Archaeology. Ancient Customs of Europe. Chifflet's Description of King Childeric's Tomb. Douglas and the Abbé Cochet. Discovery of Antique Horse-shoes. Burial with Horses. The Ancient Germans and other Races; their Superstitions. The Gauls and Britons. Rarity of Horse-shoes in Graves. The Celts shod their Horses; their History. The Gauls as a Nation: Warriors and Agriculturists. The Druids. Gallic Names. An Equestrian Nation. Horses, Waggons, and Roads. Alesia and its Tombs. Primitive Farriery. The Druid's Workshop and Altar. The Pontiff Blacksmith. The Gaulish Cavalry. Defeat of Vercingetorix. Napoleon III. and his ‘Vie de Cæsar.’ Besançon and its Relics. Small-sized Horse-shoes. Gallo-Roman Shoes; their Peculiarities. Specimens found with Roman remains. Vaison and its Testimony. Creçy. Suppression of Druidism in Gaul. Invasion of the Franks, and Effeminacy of the Gaulish Nobles. The Franks not an Equestrian People. Levies of Cows instead of Horses. Absence of Horse-shoes from Merovingian Graves. The Carlovingian Dynasty. Advantages of Cavalry. Charlemagne and Revival of Equestrianism. Traditions. Shoeing in France in the 9th and subsequent Centuries. The Comte de l'Etable, and Ecuyer. Origin of Chivalry and its Constitution. Duties of the Knights. The Mareschal.

CHAPTER IV.
  167

Horse-shoes found in Switzerland: their Antiquity and Shape. M. Quiquerez's Researches and Obervations. Valuable Indications afforded by the Shoes as to the Breeds of Horses, and the different Races of People. Forges in the Jura Alps. Very ancient Shoe. Prevalence of Shoes with Celtic Remains. Roman Camps. Horse-shoes of different Forms. The gundians and Grooved Shoes. Increase of Sizes. Shoes found in Belgium. Germany. Horse-loving Tribes. Inferior Horses. Ancient Horse-shoes of large and small sizes. Grosz's Description. Roman Camp of Dalheim. The Burgundian Groove. Steinfurt. Monument with Runic Inscription and Figure of a Horse-shoe. The Burgundii. The Farrier as Armourer. The Dwarf Regin. Saint Eloy's Day at the Burgundian Court. The Patron Saint. German History. Wide prevalence of the Grooved Shoe. Scandinavia. The Smith's Art. Golden Shoes. Peat-mosses and their contents.

CHAPTER V.
  210

Shoeing among Eastern Nations. Brand-mark of Circassian Horses. Lycian Triquetra. The Hegira. Tartar Horse-shoes. The Koran. Introduction of Shoeing to Constantinople. Arab Traditions and Customs. Arab Shoes, and Management of the Hoofs. Syrian, Algerian, and Moorish Shoes. Horses on a Journey. Instinct of Arab Horses. Arab Method of Shoeing. Comparison between French and Arab Methods. Cenomanus. Strong Hoofs. Muscat. Portugal, Spain, and Transylvania. Central Asia. John Bell and Tartar Tombs. Marco Polo. Cossacks. Tartar Songs. Peking and its Neighbourhood. Chinese Shoeing. Shoeing Bullocks. North American Indians and Parflêche.

CHAPTER VI.
  233

Britain, its Early Population. Their Manners and Customs. Equestrians. Cæsar's Invasion. Great numbers of Horses. Working in Iron. Chariots. Rarity of Ancient Horse-shoes. British Barrows. Silbury Hill and its Antiquities. The Great King. Old Horse-shoes. Clark's Specimens. Beckhampton Relics. Springhead and its Remains. York Specimens. Colney, London, and Gloucester. Excellent Illustrations. Cotswold Hills. Roman Villa at Chedworth. Cirencester. Pevensey Castle. Hod Hill and his Story. Spurs. Hoofpick. Uriconium and Conderum. Liverpool Examples. Repulse of the Britons. Laws of Howel the Good. Division of Wales. Trinal System. Welsh King's Court. The Judge of the Court and Groom of the Rein. Duties, Privileges, and Protection of the Smith. The Three Arts. Value of theHorse's Foot. List and Valuation of Smiths' Tools. Triads. Sons of the Bond. The Smith's Seat at Court. Sir Walter Scott and the ‘Norman Horse-shoe.’ King Arthur's Stone. Traditions of Hoof-prints. Renaud and the Black Rocks of Ardennes. The Chevalier Mason. Scythe-stone Pits of Devonshire. Strange Imprint. The Seat of a Zoophyte. The Anglo-Saxons. Their Horse-shoes. Equestrian Habits. Monks and Mares. Sporting Priests. Anglo-Saxon Laws. Value of Horses. Saxon Cavalry. Harold and the Danes and Normans. Saxon Weapons. Graves. Fairford, Caenby, Brighton Downs, Gillingham, Berkshire. Battle Flats. Anglo-Saxon Illuminations. Matthew of Paris. Shoeing Front Feet. Frost. Shoeing in Scotland. Norman Invasion. A Noble Saxon Farrier. Bayeux Tapestry. Shoeing with the Normans. Armorial Bearings. Simon St Liz. Earl Ferrers and Okeham. Curious Custom. Death of William the Conqueror.

CHAPTER VII.
  298

Discovery of so-called ‘Hipposandals.’ Diverse Opinions. Various Models. Prevalence on the Continent and in England: their Characteristics. Three Types. Different Hypotheses. Discoveries at Dalheim. Pathological Shoes. Erroneous Conclusions. Hill of Sacrifices. M. Bieler. Chateau Beauregard, Vieil-Evreux, and Remencourt. M. Defays. Hipposandals on Hoofs. Mule and Ox-sandals. Third Type. English Specimens. Stuttgart. Are they Foot Defences? Arguments adverse to this Supposition. Quiquerez and Delacroix. Busandals. Cato the Censor. Liquid Pitch. Shoes or Skids for Wheels. Ancient References.

CHAPTER VIII.
  333

Probable Date of the Invention of Shoeing. Employment of Metals by Early Peoples. The 'Iron Age'. Ancient Iron Mines. Antiquity of Iron Weapons. Value of Legends. Wayland Smith and his Craft. Traditions. Cromlechs. Wayland Smith's Cave. The Armourer and Farrier of the Celts and Gauls. Wayland's Renown. Morte D' Arthur. Smiths, their Position and Traditions. Druid Smiths. St Columbus and Celtic Priests. Smith-craft among the Saxons. Domes-day Hook. Monkish Smith. St Dunstan and the Evil One. St Eloy and High worth Church. Zurich. Abyssinia. Arabia. Persia. Java. Acadie. Mysteries of Samothrace and Druidism. First of November. Reasons for Roman Ignorance of Shoeing. The Caledonian Wall. ‘Horse-shoe’ Medal. Change in Designation of the Farrier. Early Marechals and their Rank. Age of Chivalry. Apprenticeship of a Chevalier. Archbishop Hughes of Besançon. Rights of the Marechal. Normans in France. Origin of Marshall and Farrier. Fleta. The London Marescallis. Seal of Ralph. The Marshall Ferrer. Superstitions concerning Horse-shoes in various Countries. German Legends. Moonwort.

CHAPTER IX.
  390

Shoeing in England after the Norman Conquest. Eustathius. Revival of Veterinary Science. Jordanus Ruffus. Petrus de Crescentius. Laurentius Rusius. Shod Oxen. Shoeing Forges. Counting the Horse-shoes and Hob-nails. Liber Quotidianus. The Dextrarias and Hobby. Hawking. Stratagem of Reversing Shoes. Robert Bruce and Duke Christopher of Wurtemberg. Value of Shoes and Nails for Horses in England in the 13th and 14th Centuries. Coal. The Revolt of the Duke of Lancaster. Tutbury Castle and the River Dove. Curious Discovery of Treasure and Horse-shoes. Froissart. Wars of Kings Edward II. and III. Gloucester Corporation Seal. Status of the Farrier. Different Breeds of Horses. Grooved imported Shoes. The Days of Chivalry. Family Coats of Arms. Lombardy and Flemish Horses. The Chatelaine of Warrenne. Hamericourt. Farriery in Scotland. An unjust Law. Statutes of Edward VI. Henry VIII, and Shoeing with Felt. Curious Customs and Extravagance. Gold and Silver Shoes. Farriers. Cæsar Fiaschi. Diversity of Shoes. German Writers. Carlo Ruini.

CHAPTER X.
  452

Horse-shoeing in the 16th and 17th Centuries. Influence of the Italian Hippiatrists. Different Forms of Shoes in England. Escape of Charles II. An Observant Farrier. The Farriers' Company. The Edinburgh Hammermens' Corporation.Marston Moor Shoe. Thomas Blundevil. Italian Technical Terms. Blundevil's Art of Shoeing. The ‘Butter.’ Its Derivation. Manner of Making and Putting-on Shoes. Unprofitable Devices. The German and Italian Anti-slipping Shoes. Shoes without Nails. Jointed Shoes. Every Gentleman could Shoe his Horse in Germany. The ‘Planche’ Shoe. Injurious Results of Blundevil's Teaching. Baret and Markham. Snape. France. The Marechaux Ferrants. Solleysel. Royal Farriers. Home's Translation of Solleysel. Shoeing in France.

CHAPTER XI.
  471

The Establishment of Veterinary Schools in France. Treatises on Shoeing. Clumsy Specimens of Shoes. Lafosse, sen., the greatest Authority on Modern Farriery. The Evils of Shoeing. Destructive Paring. Improved Shoeing. The Short Shoe and the Incrusted Shoe. Opposition of the Parisian Farriers. Lafosse, junior. Bourgelat, the Founder of the Veterinary Schools in France. The Adjusted Shoe. Burning the Hoofs when fitting the Shoes. Jeremiah Bridges. The Influence of Locality on the Hoofs. The ‘Screw’ Shoe. Numerous Diseases of the Foot. Osmer. Complaint against Farriers. English Shoeing. Contracted Hoofs. Navicular Disease. The Evils of Paring. The Seated Shoe. Just Remarks. The Use of the Rasp. The Flat Shoe. Expansion of the Horse's Foot. Clark's Treatise. Prejudice against Improvements. The Earl of Pembroke. Unshod Horses. Management of the Hoofs. Defective Shoes. Clark's Shoe.

CHAPTER XII.
  515

Establishment of the London Veterinary School. M. St Bel. Moorcroft. The Qualities of a good Shoe. Coleman. Errors in Physiology. Conclusions of Coleman as to Shoeing. Impracticable Shoeing. Bracy Clark. Exaggerated Notions and Re-discoveries. Futile Experiments. Various Writers. Mr Goodwin's Method. Its Recommendations and Appropriateness. Its Composite Character. Preparation of the Hoof and Application of the Shoe. Errors in this Method. The Bar and Jointed Shoe. Discouragement of Veterinary Science in Britain. The Unilateral Shoe. Youatt and his Teaching. Miles' Method of Shoeing. Its Fallaciousness. Hot-fitting. Hallen and Fitzwygram's Method. Its Disadvantages. Mayor's Patent Shoe.

CHAPTER XIII.
  558

Modern Farriery in France. Podometric Shoeing. The ‘Ferrure à Froid’ and ‘Ferrure à Chaud.’ Conflicting Evidence. Evils of Cold-fitting. Interesting Experiments. Conclusions. New Inventions. Sanfarouche. Anti-slipping Shoes. The ‘Ferrure Watrin.’ Naudin and Benjamin's Methods. Machine-made Shoes in France. The ‘Periplantaire’ or ‘Charlier’ Method of Shoeing. Its Description. M. Charlier's Account. Practice of Shoeing. Tools, and Fabrication of the Shoe. Its Application. Discussions. Modifications and Results. Shoeing in England. The latest Novelty. The Transatlantic ‘Invention.’ Its Admirers and Success. Steel-faced Shoes.

CHAPTER XIV.
  608

Importance of Shoeing to Civilization. The Greeks and Romans. Inconveniences attending the Employment of Unshod Animals. Roads and Cities. Manual Labour. Introduction of Shoeing and its Effects. Various Breeds of Horses. Changes in the Art of War. Increase in Cavalry. Armour. Riding Double. Heavy Equipment. Increasing Importance of Shoeing. Examples. Napoleon's Retreat from Moscow. Danish Retreat from Schleswig. Farriers' Strike in Paris.

CHAPTER XV.
  625

Progress of the Art of Farriery. Futile Attempts to Improve it. Disadvantages of Shoeing. Functions of the Foot to be Studied. Advantages of the Ancient System. German Shoeing and Hoof-paring. Its Evil Results. Traditional Shoeing. Routine. Erroneous Theories. Maltreatment of the Horse's Foot. Lafosse's Teaching. Requirements of Good Shoeing. Structure and Functions of the Hoof. Bad Shoeing. Rules to be Observed. Best Form of Shoe, and Method of Application. Hereditary Diseases. Shoeing in America and Arabia. Effects of European Shoeing. Dangers of Improper Shoeing. Scientific Application of the Farrier's Art. An Appeal to Horsemen.